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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
[Minas Gerais Radium Institute: at the forefront of radiotherapy in Brazil, 1923-1935.]
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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This article proposes to study the first 12 years of the Minas Gerais Radium Institute, founded in 1922. Its work in the fight against cancer in Brazil, albeit still little known, is coming to light as its institutional documents are studied. A database has been prepared using information from its patient register, based on which statistical analyses have been done to identify the types of cancer and treatments available there between 1923 and 1935. This register is one of five recently unearthed at the Medicine Memory Center of the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais. Through them, the earliest experiments in radiotherapy in Brazil can be reconstituted, and its development and the influence of this model hospital can be mapped out.
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An augmented reality system for upper-limb post-stroke motor rehabilitation: a feasibility study.
Disabil Rehabil Assist Technol
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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Abstract Purpose: To determine the clinical feasibility of a system based on augmented reality for upper-limb (UL) motor rehabilitation of stroke participants. Method: A physiotherapist instructed the participants to accomplish tasks in augmented reality environment, where they could see themselves and their surroundings, as in a mirror. Two case studies were conducted. Participants were evaluated pre- and post-intervention. The first study evaluated the UL motor function using Fugl-Meyer scale. Data were compared using non-parametric sign tests and effect size. The second study used the gain of motion range of shoulder flexion and abduction assessed by computerized biophotogrammetry. Results: At a significance level of 5%, Fugl-Meyer scores suggested a trend for greater UL motor improvement in the augmented reality group than in the other. Moreover, effect size value 0.86 suggested high practical significance for UL motor rehabilitation using the augmented reality system. Conclusion: System provided promising results for UL motor rehabilitation, since enhancements have been observed in the shoulder range of motion and speed. Implications for Rehabilitation Gain of range of motion of flexion and abduction of the shoulder of post-stroke patients can be achieved through an augmented reality system containing exercises to promote the mental practice. NeuroR system provides a mental practice method combined with visual feedback for motor rehabilitation of chronic stroke patients, giving the illusion of injured upper-limb (UL) movements while the affected UL is resting. Its application is feasible and safe. This system can be used to improve UL rehabilitation, an additional treatment past the traditional period of the stroke patient hospitalization and rehabilitation.
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HYPOALBUMINEMIA AND OXIDATIVE STRESS IN PATIENTS ON RENAL HEMODIALYSIS PROGRAM.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Introduction: Albumin is considered an important extracellular antioxidant molecule. hypoalbuminemia is a strong and independent predictor of mortality in patients on hemodialysis. The present study evaluated the relation between hypoalbuminemia and oxidative stress by comparing superoxide dismutase activity, lipid peroxidation and antioxidant micronutrient consumption in chronic renal failure patients. Methods: A case-control study was carried out with 64 patients of both sexes aged 18 to 59 years. The patients with hypoalbuminemia (ALB.
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Effectiveness of a Dental Care Intervention in the Prevention of Lower Respiratory Tract Nosocomial Infections among Intensive Care Patients: A Randomized Clinical Trial.
Infect Control Hosp Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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Objective.?To evaluate whether dental treatment may enhance oral antisepsis, thus preventing more effectively lower respiratory tract infections (LRTIs) among critically ill patients. Design.?Observer-blind randomized clinical trial. Setting.?General intensive care unit (ICU) for adult patients. Patients.?We analyzed data from 254 adult patients who stayed for at least 48 hours in the ICU. Intervention.?Patients were randomized by means of rolling dice. The experimental group (n = 127) had access to dental care provided by a dental surgeon, 4-5 times a week. Besides routine oral hygiene, care also included teeth brushing, tongue scraping, removal of calculus, atraumatic restorative treatment of caries, and tooth extraction. The control group (n = 127) had access to routine oral hygiene only, which included the use of chlorhexidine as a mouth rinse, which was performed by the ICU nurse staff. Results.?The primary study outcome was the LRTI incidence, which was 8.7% in the experimental group and 18.1% in the control group (adjusted relative risk [RR], 0.44 [95% confidence interval (CI), 0.20-0.96]; P = .04). Ventilator-associated pneumonia rates per 1,000 ventilator-days were 16.5 (95% CI, 9.8-29.5) in the control group and 7.6 (95% CI, 3.3-15.0) in the experimental group (P < .05). Mortality rates were similar between both study groups: 31.5% in the control group versus 29.1% in the experimental group (adjusted RR, 0.93 [95% CI, 0.52-1.65]; P = .796). No severe adverse events related to oral care were observed during the study. Conclusion.?Dental treatment was safe and effective in the prevention of LRTI among critically ill patients who were expected to stay at least 48 hours in the ICU. Trial registration.?Brazilian Clinical Trials Registry, affiliated with the World Health Organization's International Clinical Trial Registry Platform: U1111-1152-2671.
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[The use of dental services among preschool children: a population-based study].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The prevalence and factors associated with the use of dental services in a representative, probabilistic, complex sample with two-stage clusters of preschoolers aged 18 to 36 months was estimated. Structured questionnaires were answered by parents/guardians and the preschoolers were assessed by trained and qualified dental surgeons. In the analysis the corrections for the design effect were considered and the magnitudes of the associations based on logistic regression (OR/IC 95%) were estimated. 809 preschool children were evaluated, 15.5% of which had used dental services. Being older (3.27/1.71-6.24), having higher per capita income (2.65/1.50-4.65), having their own house (1.83/104 -3.23), having access to preventive oral health information (5.44/3.00-9.86), flossing (2.75/1.50-5.02) established higher odds of the use of these service. Not having the experience of caries (0.22/0.13- 0.38) and not having basic lesions in soft tissues (0.10/0.01-0.77) reduced these odds. The prevalence of the use of dental services was low, indicating the need for greater provision of such services and the broadening of preventive actions and health promotion and the greater the odds of use among those with better socio-economic conditions suggests inequality.
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Emotional abuse in childhood is a differential factor for the development of depression in adults.
J. Nerv. Ment. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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We evaluate the association between subtypes of early life stress (ELS; sexual abuse, physical abuse, emotional abuse, physical neglect, and emotional neglect) and psychiatric disorders in adults. The sample was composed of 81 adult psychiatric patients treated at the Day Hospital Unit in Brazil. The patients were assessed using the Mini International Neuropsychiatric Interview according to diagnostic criteria of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition. The presence of ELS was confirmed by the Childhood Trauma Questionnaire, which investigates abuse and neglect subtypes. The patients were also evaluated for the severity of psychiatric symptoms through self-report questionnaires. A total of 71.6% of the patients experienced some type of severe ELS compared with 28.4% of the patients without ELS. Of these, 55.5% reported having experienced emotional abuse; 48.1%, physical neglect; 45.7%, emotional neglect; 39.5%, physical abuse; and 27.2%, sexual abuse. Our data showed that, among the ELS subtypes, emotional abuse was positively associated with psychopathology in adults, particularly with mood disorders (p < 0.05). The patients with a history of emotional abuse had higher severity scores in all symptoms, such as depression, hopelessness, suicidal ideation, anxiety, and impulsivity. These data demonstrate the impact of ELS, especially in cases of emotional abuse, as a trigger for psychiatric disorders and indicate that the severity of ELS is associated with severity of psychiatric symptoms. Therefore, further studies are needed to assess the importance of emotional abuse as a risk factor of severe psychopathology in adults.
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Foraminiferal biotopes and their distribution control in Ria de Aveiro (Portugal): a multiproxy approach.
Environ Monit Assess
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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Ria de Aveiro, which is located in the centre of Portugal (40° 38' N, 8° 45' W), is a well-mixed and complex coastal lagoon that is separated from the sea by a sandy barrier and connects with the Atlantic through an artificial inlet. Tidal currents are the main factor controlling the lagoon's hydrodynamics and, to a great extent, the sedimentary dynamic. The inner lagoonal zones receive input from several rivers and experience the pressure caused by the accumulation of organic matter and pollutants (namely, trace metals) from diverse anthropic activities. This paper is the first piece of work aiming to recognize, characterize and explain the main benthic foraminiferal biotopes in Ria de Aveiro. To provide a broad overview of this kind of setting, our results are compared to those of previous published studies conducted in similar transitional environments. The research is based on an investigation of 225 sites spread throughout this ecosystem. Utilizing a statistical approach, this study analyses the details of dead benthic foraminiferal assemblages composed of 260 taxa, the texture and composition (mineralogical and geochemical) of the sediment and physicochemical data. On the basis of the results of R-mode and Q-mode cluster analyses, several different biotopes can be defined as marsh biotope/near-marsh biotope; marginal urban/marginal urban mixing biotope; inner-outer lagoon biotope or enclosed lagoon; outer lagoon biotope, mixed sub-biotope; and outer lagoon, marine sub-biotope. These biotopes are related to foraminifera assemblages and substrate type and are influenced by local currents, water depth, chemical and physicochemical conditions, river or oceanic proximity, and anthropogenic impact, as evidenced by the mapping of the six factor loadings of the principal component analysis conducted herein. Based on a similar methodology of analysis as that applied in previous studies in the Lagoon of Venice, comparable biotypes were identified in Lagoon of Aveiro.
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Cytogenetic biomonitoring in mucopolyssacharosis I, II and IV patients treated with enzyme replacement therapy.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Abstract Background and objectives: The aim of this study was to evaluate genotoxicity and mutagenicity in peripheral blood and buccal mucosal cells in mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) I, II or VI patients.
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Long-lasting recognition memory impairment and alterations in brain levels of cytokines and BDNF induced by maternal deprivation: effects of valproic acid and topiramate.
J Neural Transm
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Exposure to stressful events early in life may have permanent deleterious consequences on nervous system function and increase the susceptibility to psychiatric conditions later in life. Maternal deprivation, commonly used as a source of neonatal stress, impairs memory in adult rats and reduces hippocampal brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels. Inflammatory cytokines, such as interleukins (IL) and tumor necrosis factor-? (TNF-?) have been shown to be increased in the peripheral blood of patients with psychiatric disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of maternal separation on the levels of IL-10 and TNF-?, and BDNF in the hippocampus and prefrontal cortex of adult rats. We also evaluated the potential ameliorating properties of topiramate and valproic acid on memory deficits and cytokine and BDNF changes associated with maternal deprivation. The results indicated that, in addition to inducing memory deficits, maternal deprivation increased the levels of IL-10 in the hippocampus, and TNF-? in the hippocampus and in the cortex, and decreased hippocampal levels of BDNF, in adult life. Neither valproic acid nor topiramate were able to ameliorate memory deficits or the reduction in BDNF induced by maternal separation. The highest dose of topiramate was able to reduce IL-10 in the hippocampus and TNF-? in the prefrontal cortex, while valproate only reduced IL-10 levels in the hippocampus. These findings may have implications for a better understanding of the mechanisms associated with alterations observed in adult life induced by early stressful events, and for the proposal of novel therapeutic strategies.
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Decoupling physical from biological processes to assess the impact of viruses on a mesoscale algal bloom.
Curr. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Phytoplankton blooms are ephemeral events of exceptionally high primary productivity that regulate the flux of carbon across marine food webs [1-3]. Quantification of bloom turnover [4] is limited by a fundamental difficulty to decouple between physical and biological processes as observed by ocean color satellite data. This limitation hinders the quantification of bloom demise and its regulation by biological processes [5, 6], which has important consequences on the efficiency of the biological pump of carbon to the deep ocean [7-9]. Here, we address this challenge and quantify algal blooms' turnover using a combination of satellite and in situ data, which allows identification of a relatively stable oceanic patch that is subject to little mixing with its surroundings. Using a newly developed multisatellite Lagrangian diagnostic, we decouple the contributions of physical and biological processes, allowing quantification of a complete life cycle of a mesoscale (?10-100 km) bloom of coccolithophores in the North Atlantic, from exponential growth to its rapid demise. We estimate the amount of organic carbon produced during the bloom to be in the order of 24,000 tons, of which two-thirds were turned over within 1 week. Complimentary in situ measurements of the same patch area revealed high levels of specific viruses infecting coccolithophore cells, therefore pointing at the importance of viral infection as a possible mortality agent. Application of the newly developed satellite-based approaches opens the way for large-scale quantification of the impact of diverse environmental stresses on the fate of phytoplankton blooms and derived carbon in the ocean.
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Urinary monocyte chemotactic protein-1 (MCP-1) in leprosy patients: increased risk for kidney damage.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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We aimed to evaluate urinary MCP-1 and oxidative stress through urinary malondialdehyde (MDA) in leprosy and correlate them with traditional, but less sensitive markers of renal disease.
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HIV risky sexual behaviors and HIV infection among immigrants: a cross-sectional study in Lisbon, Portugal.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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This study aimed to examine risky sexual behavior, its associated factors and HIV infection among immigrants. A participatory cross-sectional survey was conducted with 1187 immigrants at the National Immigrant Support Centre, in Lisbon (52.2% female; 34.0% Africans, 33.8% Brazilians, 32.2% Eastern Europeans). About 38% of participants reported ? 2 sexual partners in the previous year, 16.2% both regular and occasional sexual partners (last 12 months), 33.1% inconsistent condom use with occasional partners, and 64% no condom use in the last sexual intercourse. Unprotected sex in the last sexual intercourse was more likely among women, Africans, those older, with elementary education, those married and those who didn't receive free condoms in the previous year. No condom use was less likely among those having only occasional sexual partners and both regular and occasional sexual partners. One third of participants had never been tested for HIV. Those never tested reported more frequently inconsistent condom use than those ever tested. Overall, 2.0% reported being HIV positive (2.5% of men; 4.4% of Africans); 4.3% admitted having a STI in previous year. HIV-positive immigrants reported high-risk sexual behaviors. Tailored interventions to promote awareness of HIV serostatus among immigrants as well as culturally adapted risk reduction strategies should be strengthened.
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Tools used for evaluation of Brazilian children's quality of life.
Rev Paul Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To review the available tools to evaluate children's quality of life validated for Brazilian language and culture.
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[Association between physical and psychosocial impacts of oral disorders and quality of life among the elderly].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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This study sought to evaluate the association between the impact of oral disorders in terms of physical/psychosocial dimensions and quality of life among the elderly. It involved a cross-sectional study conducted among the elderly (65-74 years) in 2008/2009. The social impact was assessed using the Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP 14) and the quality of life using the SF 12 Short-Form Health Survey. Descriptive, univariate and multivariate (logistic regression) analysis was conducted with correction for the design effect, using SPSS(r)18.0 software. Of the 800 individuals approached, 736 elderly individuals participated (TR = 92%), with a mean age of 67.77 years, the majority of whom showed no impact based on the measurement of the prevalence of OHIP. The functional limitation dimension of the OHIP was associated with the physical domain of the SF12, irrespective of the other variables investigated. However, the seriousness of OHIP and its psychological discomfort and disability dimensions was associated with the mental domain of the SF12. The conclusion reached is that some impacts of oral disorders were associated with unsatisfactory quality of life in the physical and mental domains.
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[Do elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap have worse oral health?].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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A comparison of the oral health of elderly people with and without a cognitive handicap was assessed. The cognitive condition, the indices of decayed, missing, filled teeth (DMFT), decayed, filled roots (DFR), the need for dental treatment, the presence of plaque (P), calculus (C), the community periodontal index (CPI), the rate of periodontal attachment loss (PAL), edentulism, prosthetic use and the need for prosthetics were evaluated in a complex probabilistic sample by conglomerates of the elderly (65-74 years). PASW(r) 17.0 was used for the statistical analyses with correction for the design effect, applying the Mann Whitney and chi-square test with 95% reliability. A total of 736 elderly individuals were interviewed and examined. Those with cognitive impairment had higher average DMFT, DFR and lower average healthy sextant CPI, a lower prevalence of sextants without plaque/calculus, use of prosthetics and higher prevalence of edentulism and need for prosthetics. Elderly individuals with a cognitive handicap had poorer oral health.
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Functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders and quality of life of people living with HIV/AIDS.
Qual Life Res
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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This study compared the Quality of Life (QOL) according to the presence of functional and psychosocial impact of oral disorders and evaluated the convergent validity between the dimensions of the WHOQOL and the OHIP-14 scores among people living with HIV.
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Neuropsychological Assessment of Children With Reading Disabilities From 8 to 10 Years Old: An Exploratory Portuguese Study.
Appl Neuropsychol Child
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Abstract Reading disabilities are one of the most significant causes of school failure and may result from different causes and cognitive processes. A comprehensive battery of neuropsychological tests was applied to a control group of 102 children (46 girls, 56 boys) with no history of learning disabilities and 32 children (13 girls, 19 boys) with poor reading achievement (PRA) to characterize their cognitive profile. A principal component analysis of the cognitive measures was undertaken to identify cognitive domains. Age-adjusted normative data were computed from controls for verbal and visuospatial abilities, psychomotor skills, executive functions, and a total score. Significant differences were found between the 2 groups. Although single tests could not identify children with PRA, measures of oral and written language, immediate and working memory, calculation, and verbal learning discriminated the 2 groups. A logistic regression model using these factors allowed us to identify 91.2% of healthy children and 96.9% of children with PRA. PRA may result from different patterns of cognitive difficulties, and it is more common in children with oral language and working-memory deficits. Wide-range cognitive testing is necessary to identify strong and weak areas to plan personalized intervention programs.
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Impact of oral health on physical and psychosocial dimensions: an analysis using structural equation modeling.
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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This study aimed to estimate the prevalence of impact of oral health conditions on physical and psychosocial dimensions among adolescents and to identify factors associated with severity of impact. The impact of oral health status was assessed by the instrument Oral Health Impact Profile (OHIP-14). The covariates were: socioeconomic status, habits and health care, use of dental services, and normative conditions of oral health. Structural equation modeling was performed, and 15.6% of adolescents reported impact in at least one dimension of the OHIP-14. The dimensions that showed the highest prevalence of impact were psychological distress (11.8%) and physical pain (6.6%). The number of teeth needing dental treatment, number of filled teeth, and CPI significantly affected severity of impact. In this adolescent population, unfavorable socioeconomic conditions were associated with reduced use of dental services, associated in turn with precarious oral health conditions and increased severity of impact.
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Self-perception of the hearing-impaired elderly before and after hearing-aid fittings.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2014
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To evaluate the impact of hearing aid (HA) fittings among elderly patients through the Hearing Handicap Inventory for the Elderly (HHIE).
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Spontaneous rupture of renal angiomyolipoma during pregnancy.
Rev Bras Ginecol Obstet
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Renal angiomyolipoma is a benign tumor, composed of adipocytes, smooth muscle cells and blood vessels. The association with pregnancy is rare and related with an increased risk of complications, including rupture with massive retroperitoneal hemorrhage. The follow-up is controversial because of the lack of known cases, but the priorities are: timely diagnosis in urgent cases and a conservative treatment when possible. The mode of delivery is not consensual and should be individualized to each case. We report a case of a pregnant woman with 18 weeks of gestation admitted in the emergency room with an acute right low back pain with no other symptoms. The diagnosis of rupture of renal angiomyolipoma was established by ultrasound and, due to hemodynamically stability, conservative treatment with imaging and clinical monitoring was chosen. At 35 weeks of gestation, it was performed elective cesarean section without complications for both mother and fetus.
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Resveratrol attenuates hepatic steatosis in high-fat fed mice by decreasing lipogenesis and inflammation.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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Resveratrol (RSV) is the most studied natural compound that activates sirtuins, which produce beneficial metabolic effects on lipid and glucose metabolism. The aim of the present study was to investigate the role of resveratrol in preventing nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) and expression of liver inflammatory markers in mice treated with a high-fat diet.
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Wear of two pit and fissure sealants in contact with primary teeth.
Eur J Dent
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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Wear simulations may provide an indication of the clinical performance of pit-and-fissure sealants when associated with primary teeth as counterbody, restricting the involved variables. The aim of this study was to evaluate wear of dental materials used as pit-and-fissure sealants in contact with primary teeth.
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The sialotranscriptome of Amblyomma triste, Amblyomma parvum and Amblyomma cajennense ticks, uncovered by 454-based RNA-seq.
Parasit Vectors
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2014
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Tick salivary constituents antagonize inflammatory, immune and hemostatic host responses, favoring tick blood feeding and the establishment of tick-borne pathogens in hosts during hematophagy. Amblyomma triste, A. cajennense and A. parvum ticks are very important in veterinary and human health because they are vectors of the etiological agents for several diseases. Insights into the tick salivary components involved in blood feeding are essential to understanding vector-pathogen-host interactions, and transcriptional profiling of salivary glands is a powerful tool to do so. Here, we functionally annotated the sialotranscriptomes of these three Amblyomma species, which allowed comparisons between these and other hematophagous arthropod species.
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Is the negative evaluation of dental services among the Brazilian elderly population associated with the type of service?
Rev Bras Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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This study aimed at identifying the prevalence of the negative evaluation of dental services among elderly Brazilians and at investigating whether the prevalence was higher among those using public or philanthropic provider services than among those paying privately or using private health plans. Additionally, factors associated with this negative assessment were identified. Interview and survey data were collected in the residences of participants by trained and calibrated examiners as part of a national epidemiological survey of oral health conditions of the Brazilian population in 2002/2003. The dependent variable was obtained in response to questions regarding whether the participant had ever used dental services, the frequency of use, and the quality of this service. Potential responses to the questions regarding the quality of service were very poor or poor, fair, and good or very good. The main independent variable was the system of health care used with potential responses being health plan or private, public, and philanthropic services. We conducted univariate (linear tendency ?2 test) and multiple descriptive analyses, and the partial proportional Odds model for ordinal logistic regression. Among the elderly, 196 (3.7%) evaluated the provided services negatively (very poor or poor). Participants with the following responses were more likely to evaluate the services negatively: those who had used public or philanthropic services, men, those with higher education, the ones who had not received information about preventing dental problems, those who perceived pain in their teeth and gums in the last six months, and those who self-reported their oral health and speech was poor. In conclusion, elderly Brazilian users of public and philanthropic services were more likely than users of private or insurance-based plans to evaluate their dental services negatively, regardless of the other investigated variables.
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Sensory, hormonal, and neural basis of maternal aggression in rodents.
Curr Top Behav Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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We review existing knowledge of the neural, hormonal, and sensory basis of maternal aggression in the female rat. Although females may express different kinds of aggression, such as defense or dominance, the most frequent and conspicuous form of aggressive behavior among females is the one associated with motherhood. Maternal aggression occurs in various vertebrate and invertebrate species; however, our emphasis will be on maternal aggression in rats because most of the physiological investigations have been performed in this species. Firstly, we address those factors that predispose the female to attack, such as the endocrine profile, the maternal state, and the stimulation provided by the pups, as well as those that trigger the aggressive response, as the intruder's characteristics and the context. As the postpartum aggression is a fundamental component of the maternal repertoire, we emphasize its association with maternal motivation and the reduction of fear and anxiety in dams. Finally, we outline the neurocircuitry involved in the control of maternal aggression, stressing the role of the ventro-orbital region of prefrontal cortex and the serotoninergic system.
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Physical examination of arteriovenous fistula: The influence of professional experience in the detection of complications.
Hemodial Int
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Vascular access is one of the leading causes of mobilization of financial resources in health systems for people with chronic kidney disease on hemodialysis. Physical examination of the arteriovenous fistula (AVF) has demonstrated its effectiveness in identifying complications. We decided to evaluate the influence of nurses' professional experience in the detection of complications of the AVF (venous stenosis and steal syndrome). The study took place in eight hemodialysis centers between May and September of 2011 in the north of Portugal. Sample was constituted by registered nurses. The nurses involved in the experiment were divided in two groups: those who had more than 5 years of experience and those who had less than 5 years of experience. Ninety-two nurses participated in the study: 34 nurses had less than 5 years of professional experience and 58 had more than 5 years of professional experience. In the practices considered by nurses in the detection of venous stenosis, there were no differences observed between the groups (P?>?0.05). In steal syndrome, there were no differences observed between the groups in the practices of the nurses in the detection of this complication of the AVF (P?>?0.05). We concluded that professional experience does not influence the detection of venous stenosis and steal syndrome.
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Genetic diversity of hepatitis C virus quasispecies in chronic renal failure patients in Midwest Brazil.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) quasispecies constitute a dynamic population in a continuous process of variation and selection. To investigate effect of the immune system on the genetic variability of HCV, we compared the hypervariable region 1 (HVR1) of immunosuppressed patients with chronic renal failure (CRF group) to immunocompetent patients with HCV chronic infection (control group). The HVR1 from ten samples of each group was amplified, cloned and sequenced. The HCV quasispecies from the control group had a higher frequency of variable sites in HVR1 (83.9 % vs 59.3 %, p < 0.05), as well as a greater diversity within (intra-patient) and between samples, compared to the CRF group. The clustering of the majority of the quasispecies of the CRF group in the phylogenetic tree also showed the limited diversity of the quasispecies in immunosuppressed patients. Moreover, a higher variability of amino acids at positions 384, 386, 391, 394, 397, 398, 400, 405 and 410 was observed in the control group than in the CRF group, which showed a greater variability only at position 388 (p < 0.05). These data corroborates the hypothesis that the major selective pressure factor is the immune system, which promotes a high degree of diversity in the viral progeny and contributes to a constant evolution of HCV.
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Trichophyton erinacei skin infection after recreational exposure to an elephant in Southeast Asia.
Pathog Glob Health
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Zoophilic fungal infections are a prevalent disease in tropical countries and clinicians must consider them in the differential diagnosis of pruritic skin lesions. We report a clinical case of Trichophyton erinacei skin infection after recreational exposure to an Asian Elephant. As far as we were able to search the literature, it is the first case described after contact with elephants.
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Enzyme Replacement Therapy in Mucopolysaccharidosis II Patients Under 1 Year of Age.
JIMD Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) II, or Hunter syndrome, is a lysosomal storage disease characterized by multi-systemic involvement and a progressive clinical course. Enzyme replacement therapy with idursulfase has been approved in more than 50 countries worldwide; however, safety and efficacy data from clinical studies are currently only available for patients 1.4 years of age and older. Sibling case studies of infants with MPS I, II, and VI who initiated ERT in the first weeks or months of life have reported no new safety concerns and a more favorable clinical course for the sibling treated in infancy than for the later-treated sibling. Here we describe our experiences with a case series of eight MPS II patients for whom idursulfase treatment was initiated at under 1 year of age. The majority of the patients were diagnosed because of a family history of disease. All of the infants displayed abnormalities consistent with MPS II at diagnosis. The youngest age at treatment start was 10 days and the oldest was 6.5 months, with duration of treatment varying between 6 weeks and 5.5 years. No new safety concerns were observed, and none of the patients experienced an infusion-related reaction. All of the patients treated for more than 6 weeks showed improvements and/or stabilization of some somatic manifestations while on treatment. In some cases, caregivers made comparisons with other affected family members and reported that the early-treated patients experienced a less severe clinical course, although a lack of medical records for many family members precluded a rigorous comparison.
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Guidelines for diagnosis and treatment of Hunter Syndrome for clinicians in Latin America.
Genet. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2014
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This review aims to provide clinicians in Latin America with the most current information on the clinical aspects, diagnosis, and management of Hunter syndrome, a serious and progressive disease for which specific treatment is available. Hunter syndrome is a genetic disorder where iduronate-2-sulfatase (I2S), an enzyme that degrades glycosaminoglycans, is absent or deficient. Clinical manifestations vary widely in severity and involve multiple organs and tissues. An attenuated and a severe phenotype are recognized depending on the degree of cognitive impairment. Early diagnosis is vital for disease management. Clinical signs common to children with Hunter syndrome include inguinal hernia, frequent ear and respiratory infections, facial dysmorphisms, macrocephaly, bone dysplasia, short stature, sleep apnea, and behavior problems. Diagnosis is based on screening urinary glycosaminoglycans and confirmation by measuring I2S activity and analyzing I2S gene mutations. Idursulfase (recombinant I2S) (Elaprase(®), Shire) enzyme replacement therapy (ERT), designed to address the underlying enzyme deficiency, is approved treatment and improves walking capacity and respiratory function, and reduces spleen and liver size and urinary glycosaminoglycan levels. Additional measures, responding to the multi-organ manifestations, such as abdominal/inguinal hernia repair, carpal tunnel surgery, and cardiac valve replacement, should also be considered. Investigational treatment options such as intrathecal ERT are active areas of research, and bone marrow transplantation is in clinical practice. Communication among care providers, social workers, patients and families is essential to inform and guide their decisions, establish realistic expectations, and assess patients' responses.
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The effects of liraglutide on male fertility: a case report.
Reprod. Biomed. Online
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Liraglutide is an agonist of the glucagon-like peptide I receptor, and is commonly recommended as a treatment for obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Adverse effects related to liraglutide include acute pancreatitis and polyarthritis. No studies, however, have reported an adverse effect of liraglutide on male reproduction. This case report shows a deleterious effect of liraglutide on male reproductive function.
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Epidemiology of hepatitis B virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The collection of recyclable waste materials is a widespread activity among the urban poor. Today, this occupation attracts an increasingly large number of individuals. Despite its economic and environmental importance, this activity is associated with unsafe and unhealthy working conditions. The aim of this study was to investigate the seroepidemiological profile of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection in a population of recyclable waste collectors in central Brazil.
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[Access to information on oral hygiene and tooth loss due to caries among adults].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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This study sought to establish the association between tooth loss due to dental caries and variables related to access to information on oral health in adults aged 35-44 years (n = 780) who participated in a large epidemiological study. The dependent variable was total tooth loss due to caries. The independent variables were grouped into blocks: demographic and socio-economic characteristics, use of dental service, access to oral health information (about how to prevent oral problems; oral hygiene; and diet), and behaviors. The analysis was conducted using hierarchical multiple linear regression. The mean number of lost teeth due to caries was 7.03. High numbers of lost teeth were higher among females and older adults; low levels of education; adults who rarely/never received oral hygiene information; those who brushed their teeth once a day or less; and those adults who did not use dental floss (p < 0.05). Adults who rarely/never received oral hygiene information from dental services lost 2.15 more teeth due to caries than those who always/often received such information (p = 0,000). Thus, it is suggested that access to information should be encouraged to contribute to greater equity in oral health.
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Evaluation of reaction factors for deposition of silica (SiO?) nanoparticles on cellulose fibers.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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This study aimed to evaluate reaction conditions for deposition of SiO2 nanoparticles on the surface of cellulose fibers and their influence on moisture adsorption of the hybrid organic-inorganic material formed. SiO2 nanoparticle deposition was carried out with the sol-gel process testing four reaction times (2, 12, 18, and 24h) and three contents of the tetraethyl-orthosilicate (TEOS) precursor (1.9, 4.2 and 8.4g g(-1) of cellulose fiber). Modification time and TEOS content directly influence the amount of Si deposited on the fiber surface, nanoparticle diameter distribution, thermal stability, and resistance to moisture adsorption. There is a tendency of slight increase of nanoparticle size and the amount of Si deposited with increasing reaction time. SiO2 nanoparticles were bonded on the surface of the cellulose fibers and are able to improve thermal stability of the material, increasing onset degradation temperature. The moisture adsorption capacity of the modified cellulose fiber was reduced up to 50%.
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Hybridization between multi-objective genetic algorithm and support vector machine for feature selection in walker-assisted gait.
Comput Methods Programs Biomed
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2014
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Walker devices are often prescribed incorrectly to patients, leading to the increase of dissatisfaction and occurrence of several problems, such as, discomfort and pain. Thus, it is necessary to objectively evaluate the effects that assisted gait can have on the gait patterns of walker users, comparatively to a non-assisted gait. A gait analysis, focusing on spatiotemporal and kinematics parameters, will be issued for this purpose. However, gait analysis yields redundant information that often is difficult to interpret. This study addresses the problem of selecting the most relevant gait features required to differentiate between assisted and non-assisted gait. For that purpose, it is presented an efficient approach that combines evolutionary techniques, based on genetic algorithms, and support vector machine algorithms, to discriminate differences between assisted and non-assisted gait with a walker with forearm supports. For comparison purposes, other classification algorithms are verified. Results with healthy subjects show that the main differences are characterized by balance and joints excursion in the sagittal plane. These results, confirmed by clinical evidence, allow concluding that this technique is an efficient feature selection approach.
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Prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea in patients with mucopolysaccharidosis types I, II, and VI in a reference center.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Mucopolysaccharidosis (MPS) encompasses a group of rare lysosomal storage disorders that are associated with the accumulation of glycosaminoglycans in organs and tissues. Respiratory disorders occur in all MPS types. In these patients, the prevalence of obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS), which may confer additional morbidity, remains overlooked, and the results of the few existing studies are controversial. The present study aimed to characterize the prevalence of OSAS in patients with MPS types I, II, and VI in a reference center.
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Psychosocial work conditions and quality of life among primary health care employees: a cross sectional study.
Health Qual Life Outcomes
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2014
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Workers in Primary Health Care are often exposed to stressful conditions at work. This study investigated the association between adverse psychosocial work conditions and poor quality of life among Primary Health Care workers.
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Distinction between MOG antibody-positive and AQP4 antibody-positive NMO spectrum disorders.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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To evaluate clinical features among patients with neuromyelitis optica spectrum disorders (NMOSD) who have myelin oligodendrocyte glycoprotein (MOG) antibodies, aquaporin-4 (AQP4) antibodies, or seronegativity for both antibodies.
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Hypertriglyceridemic waist and metabolic abnormalities in brazilian schoolchildren.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To identify the prevalence of hypertriglyceridemic waist (HTW) phenotype and its association with metabolic abnormalities in schoolchildren.
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Early Life Stress in Depressive Patients: HPA Axis Response to GR and MR Agonist.
Front Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Evidence indicates that early life stress (ELS) can induce persistent changes in the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis to respond to stress in the adult life that leads to depression. These appear to be related to the impairment of HPA hormones through binding to glucocorticoid (GR) and mineralocorticoid receptors (MR). The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of ELS in HPA axis response to challenges with GR and MR agonists in depressed patients.
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Prevalence of hepatitis C virus infection among recyclable waste collectors in Central-West Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 07-06-2013
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The prevalence of hepatitis C virus (HCV) in a population of recyclable waste collectors (n = 431) was assessed using a cross-sectional survey in all 15 cooperatives in the city of Goiânia, Central-West Brazil. The HCV prevalence was 1.6% (95% confidence interval: 0.6-3.6) and a history of sexually transmitted infections was independently associated with this infection. HCV RNA (corresponding to genotype 1; subtypes 1a and 1b) was detected in five/seven anti-HCV-positive samples. Although the study population reported a high rate (47.3%) of sharps and needle accidents, HCV infection was not more frequent in recyclable waste collectors than in the general Brazilian population.
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Targeting the mitochondrial respiratory chain of Cryptococcus through antifungal chemosensitization: a model for control of non-fermentative pathogens.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2013
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Enhanced control of species of Cryptococcus, non-fermentative yeast pathogens, was achieved by chemosensitization through co-application of certain compounds with a conventional antimicrobial drug. The species of Cryptococcus tested showed higher sensitivity to mitochondrial respiratory chain (MRC) inhibition compared to species of Candida. This higher sensitivity results from the inability of Cryptococcus to generate cellular energy through fermentation. To heighten disruption of cellular MRC, octyl gallate (OG) or 2,3-dihydroxybenzaldehyde (2,3-DHBA), phenolic compounds inhibiting mitochondrial functions, were selected as chemosensitizers to pyraclostrobin (PCS; an inhibitor of complex III of MRC). The cryptococci were more susceptible to the chemosensitization (i.e., PCS + OG or 2,3-DHBA) than the Candida with all Cryptococcus strains tested being sensitive to this chemosensitization. Alternatively, only few of the Candida strains showed sensitivity. OG possessed higher chemosensitizing potency than 2,3-DHBA, where the concentration of OG required with the drug to achieve chemosensitizing synergism was much lower than that required of 2,3-DHBA. Bioassays with gene deletion mutants of the model yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae showed that OG or 2,3-DHBA affect different cellular targets. These assays revealed mitochondrial superoxide dismutase or glutathione homeostasis plays a relatively greater role in fungal tolerance to 2,3-DHBA or OG, respectively. These findings show that application of chemosensitizing compounds that augment MRC debilitation is a promising strategy to antifungal control against yeast pathogens.
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Occult hepatitis B virus infection among injecting drug users in the Central-West Region of Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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The prevalence of occult hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection was investigated in 149 hepatitis B surface antigen (HBsAg) negative injecting drug users (IDUs) in the Central-West Region of Brazil. Of these individuals, 19 were positive for HBV DNA, resulting in an occult HBV infection prevalence of 12.7% (19/149); six of these 19 individuals had anti-HBV core and/or anti-HBV surface antibodies and 13 were negative for HBV markers. All IDUs with occult hepatitis B reported sexual and/or parenteral risk behaviours. All HBV DNA-positive samples were successfully genotyped. Genotype D was the most common (17/19), followed by genotype A (2/19). These findings reveal a high prevalence of occult HBV infection and the predominance of genotype D among IDUs in Brazils Central-West Region.
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Interventions to promote self-care of people with arteriovenous fistula.
J Clin Nurs
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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The literature shows many self-care behaviours related to people with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Our aim is to identify interventions within the teaching that promote self-care (behaviour) with arteriovenous fistula (AVF).
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A reaction cell for time-resolved in situ XAS studies during wet chemical synthesis: the Cu2(OH)3Cl case.
J Synchrotron Radiat
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2013
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The use of in situ time-resolved dispersive X-ray absorption spectroscopy (DXAS) to monitor the formation of Cu2(OH)3Cl particles in an aqueous solution is reported. The measurements were performed using a dedicated reaction cell, which enabled the evolution of the Cu K-edge X-ray absorption near-edge spectroscopy to be followed during mild chemical synthesis. The formed Cu2(OH)3Cl particles were also characterized by synchrotron-radiation-excited X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The influence of polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) on the electronic and structural properties of the formed particles was investigated. The results indicate clearly the formation of Cu2(OH)3Cl, with or without the use of PVP, which presents very similar crystalline structures in the long-range order. However, depending on the reaction, dramatic differences were observed by in situ DXAS in the vicinities of the Cu atoms.
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Genotypic diversity of environmental Cryptococcus neoformans isolates from Northern Portugal.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2013
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The Cryptococcus neoformans/C. gattii species complex members are the main agents of systemic cryptococcosis. This disease is believed to be acquired from the environment via fungal cell inhalation. Often, isolates recovered from environmental and clinical sources have proven to be genotypically similar. We assessed the occurrence of C. neoformans and C. gattii in environmental substrates collected in a Portuguese region. Twenty-eight isolates were identified as C. neoformans - five from decaying Eucalyptus leaves and 23 from domestic pigeon droppings. The isolates were genotyped using a URA5-RFLP approach. The C. neoformans VNIV (53.6%, n = 15) and VNI (32.1%, n = 9) genotypes were abundantly present among environmental isolates. The hybrid VNIII (14.3%, n = 4) genotype was underrepresented and the VNII was not found. Cryptococcus gattii was also not found although some isolates yielded a positive canavanine-glycine-bromothymol blue test.
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Aggression-reducing effects of F15599, a novel selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist, after microinjection into the ventral orbital prefrontal cortex, but not in infralimbic cortex in male mice.
Psychopharmacology (Berl.)
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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The 5-HT1A receptor subtype has been postulated to modulate aggressive behavior particularly when it is excessive. F15599 is a high affinity and selective 5-HT1A receptor agonist that exhibits biased agonism for postsynaptic receptors that are preferentially coupled to G?i3 protein subunits, with more potent action in the cortex, and with potential for selectively reducing aggression.
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Prevalence and genetic characterisation of HTLV-1 and 2 dual infections in patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in Central-West Brazil.
Mem. Inst. Oswaldo Cruz
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Human T-cell lymphotropic virus (HTLV) may impact the clinical course of tuberculosis (TB). Both infections are highly endemic in Brazil. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence of HTLV-1/2 in TB patients in Central-West Brazil and to perform a genetic characterisation of the respective isolates. Of the 402 patients, six (1.49%) were positive for anti-HTLV and five (1.24%; 95% confidence interval: 0.46-3.05) were infected with HTLV-1/2. Genetic characterisation demonstrated that the four HTLV-1 isolates belonged to the Transcontinental subgroup A of the Cosmopolitan subtype a and that the HTLV-2 isolate belonged to subtype a (HTLV-2a/c). The prevalence of HTLV infection observed in this study is higher than that observed in local blood donors and the HTLV-1 and 2 subtypes identified are consistent with those circulating in Brazil.
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Bond durability of Er:YAG laser-prepared primary tooth enamel.
Braz Dent J
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This study evaluated in vitro the influence of thermocycling and water storage (WS) on the shear bond strength (SBS) of composite resin in cavities prepared in primary tooth enamel with conventional bur or Er:YAG laser. The test surfaces were obtained from 48 primary molars and randomly assigned to 2 groups (n=24), according to cavity preparation: A: bur-preparation and B: Er:YAG laser irradiation. The specimens were restored with an etch-and-rinse adhesive system and composite resin. Each group was divided into 4 subgroups (n=6) according to WS duration and number of thermal cycles (TCs): I: 24 h WS/no thermocycling; II: 7 days WS/500 TCs; III: 1 month WS/2,000 TCs; IV: 6 months WS/12,000 TCs. The specimens were tested to failure in shear strength at a crosshead speed of 0.5 mm/min. Data were analyzed statistically by two-way ANOVA and Tukeys test. SBS means (S.D.) in MPa were: AI: 17.45 (2.03), AII:16.38 (1.49), AIII: 6.88 (0.66), AIV: 7.77 (1.53), BI: 12.32 (0.99), BII: 15.37 (2.24), BIII: 15.05 (2.01) and BIV-5.51 (1.01). WS duration and number of TCs influenced significantly the SBS values only for BIV (p<0.05). AI presented the highest SBS value, which was statistically similar to those of AII, BII and BIII. In conclusion, the adhesion of an etch-and-rinse adhesive to Er:YAG laser-irradiated primary tooth enamel was affected by the methods used to simulate degradation of the adhesive interface only when 6 months WS/12,000 TCs were employed.
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Is vaccination against hepatitis B a reality among primary health care workers?
Rev Lat Am Enfermagem
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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To verify the prevalence and factors associated with vaccination against hepatitis B among Primary Health Care workers in Montes Claros/MG.
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Ticks on birds in a savanna (Cerrado) reserve on the outskirts of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil.
Rev Bras Parasitol Vet
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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We report tick infestations on birds, in the environment and on domestic animals in a non-forested phytophysiognomy, the savanna-like Cerrado sensu stricto, in a natural reserve on the outskirts of the urban area of Uberlândia, Minas Gerais, Brazil. Overall, 238 birds within 50 species, 15 families and six orders were caught. Passeriformes were the most numerous, with 216 birds (90.75%), among which 22 had ticks (n = 31). Within this order, the prevalence of tick infestation was 10.2%, and the abundance and mean intensity were 0.14 and 1.41, respectively. Only immature ticks of the species Amblyomma nodosum were found on the birds. The tick species found both on animals (Rhipicephalus sanguineus, Rhipicephalus (Boophilus) microplus, Amblyomma cajennense and Dermacentor nitens) and in the environment (Amblyomma dubitatum, Rhipicephalus (B.) microplus and Amblyomma cajennense) were as expected. This difference in tick species between the environment and birds possibly occurred because the sampling of the environment was limited to the ground. This study also highlights the importance of the diverse microenvironments used by ticks and hosts in the same area and the complex ecology of bird-tick relationships. Ecological and epidemiological aspects of the findings are discussed.
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Enzyme replacement therapy with galsulfase in 34 children younger than five years of age with MPS VI.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2013
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Mucopolysaccharidosis type VI (MPS VI) is a progressive, chronic and multisystem lysosomal storage disease with a wide disease spectrum. Clinical and biochemical improvements have been reported for MPS VI patients on enzyme replacement therapy (ERT) with rhASB (recombinant human arylsulfatase B; galsulfase, Naglazyme®, BioMarin Pharmaceutical Inc.), making early diagnosis and intervention imperative for optimal patient outcomes. Few studies have included children younger than five years of age. This report describes 34 MPS VI patients that started treatment with galsulfase before five years of age.
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Association between self-rated oral appearance and the need for dental prostheses among elderly Brazilians.
Braz Oral Res
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We investigated the association between poor self-rated oral appearance and the need for dental prostheses among elderly Brazilians. National data from an epidemiological survey on oral health in Brazil conducted from 2002 to 2003 by the Ministry of Health (SB, Brazil) with a multistage random sample of 4,839 individuals aged 65-74 years in 250 towns were analyzed. The dependent variable was self-rated oral appearance, dichotomized into "poor" (poor/very poor) and "good" (fair/good/very good). The main independent variable was the need for an upper or lower dental prosthesis. Other variables included sociodemographic characteristics, approach to dental care, oral health conditions, and self-reported oral disadvantage. Data were analyzed using the chi-square test and Poisson regression models at a 95% significance level. The prevalence of poor self-rated oral appearance was 20.6% and was higher in the elderly who needed a partial or complete upper or lower prosthesis, independent of other variables. This prevalence was associated with age, the use of dental services, access to information about oral disease prevention, number of decayed teeth, self-perception of the need for treatment, dental pain, chewing ability, and the perception that oral health affects relationships with other people. The elderly who needed dental prostheses had a higher prevalence of poor self-rated oral appearance than those who did not need any.
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Comparing feeding and reproductive parameters of Amblyomma parvum tick populations (Acari: Ixodidae) from Brazil and Argentina on various host species.
Vet. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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Amblyomma parvum is a Neotropical tick that is widely spread and a potential vector of pathogens, including Rickettsiae. Genetic differences are remarkable between A. parvum populations from Brazil and Argentina. In this work, feeding and reproduction parameters of A. parvum ticks from these two populations were compared on some key host species to evaluate possible differences in host suitability between them. On the whole parameters of these tick populations were similar when fed on the same host and varied similarly on different host species. Still, bovines were more suitable host for Argentinian larvae than for Brazilian cohorts. It was observed that guinea pigs were the best host A. parvum immatures from both origins, as depicted from higher recovery rate of larvae and heavier engorged nymph weights. Canids and bovids were host species most suitable to adults of both tick populations as shown by the highest number of larvae produced by adult females that engorged on these hosts. Taken together, results showed that in spite of the genetic divergence, A. parvum from Argentina and Brazil have similar biological performance on various host species.
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Why the surgical patients are so critical in their intensive care unit arrival?
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To assess the ability of the Acute Physiology and Chronic Health Evaluation II (APACHE II) to stratify the severity of illness and the impact of delay transfer to an Intensive Care Unit (ICU) on the mortality of surgical critically ill patients.
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Cyclic parenteral nutrition does not change the intestinal microbiota in patients with short bowel syndrome.
Acta Cir Bras
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2013
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To characterize of the intestinal microbiota of patients with short bowel syndrome (SBS) admitted to the Metabolic Unit of a University Hospital.
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Health status and preventative behaviors of immigrants by gender and origin: a Portuguese cross-sectional study.
Nurs Health Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Migration has been associated with a greater vulnerability in health. Migrants, especially women, go through several experiences during the migration process and in the host countries that ultimately put their health at risk. This study examines self-reported health status and preventive behaviors among female and male immigrants in Portugal, and identifies sociodemographic and behavioral factors underlying gender differences. A sample of 1375 immigrants (51.1% women) was studied. Data were analyzed through logistic regression. Good health status was reported by 66.7% of men and by 56.6% of women (P?
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Efficacy of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng in a Murine Model of Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus Skin Abscesses.
Evid Based Complement Alternat Med
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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The present work aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng against MRSA clinical isolates. The in vitro antimicrobial activity of the hydroalcoholic extract (HE), the ethyl acetate (EA) fraction and its subfractions were determined by broth microdilution and bioautography against MRSA clinical isolates. The microdilution checkerboard method was used to assess in vitro drug combination studies. To induce abscess formation, bacterial suspensions were added to Citodex and inoculated subcutaneously into male Swiss mice. The treatment protocol consisted of 2 doses of HE, the EA fraction or vancomycin introduced intraperitoneally into mice 3 and 12?h after infection. The EA fraction and its subfractions presented the lowest minimal inhibitory concentrations (MIC, 0.25 to 0.5?mg/mL). The plant samples were bacteriostatic at 2x and 4x MIC and bactericidal at 100?mg/mL. The EA fraction presented synergism with vancomycin and an additive effect with ciprofloxacin. A significant reduction of abscess volume, bacterial cell counts in abscess slurries, and inflammatory scores was observed in the HE and EA fraction-treated groups. The samples were effective in treating the animals in a dose-dependent fashion. The present study proved the effectiveness of P. amboinicus fractions against MRSA using in vitro and in vivo assays.
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Epidemiology of the viral hepatitis B and C in female prisoners of Metropolitan Regional Prison Complex in the State of Goiás, Central Brazil.
Rev. Soc. Bras. Med. Trop.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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Little information regarding hepatitis B virus (HBV) and hepatitis C virus (HCV) infections among Brazilian female prisoners exists. This study investigated the prevalence and risk factors associated with HBV and HCV infections and identified viral genotypes among female prisoners in Goiás, Central Brazil.
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Intrauterine protein restriction combined with early postnatal overfeeding was not associated with adult-onset obesity but produced glucose intolerance by pancreatic dysfunction.
Nutr Metab (Lond)
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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We investigated if whether intrauterine protein restriction in combination with overfeeding during lactation would cause adult-onset obesity and metabolic disorders. After birth, litters from dams fed with control (17% protein) and low protein (6% protein) diets were adjusted to a size of four (CO and LO groups, respectively) or eight (CC and LC groups, respectively) pups. All of the offspring were fed a diet containing 12% protein from the time of weaning until they were 90 d old. Compared to the CC and LC groups, the CO and LO groups had higher relative and absolute food intakes, oxygen consumption and carbon dioxide production; lower brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content and greater weight gain and absolute and relative white adipose tissue weight and absolute lipid content. Compared with the CO and CC rats, the LC and LO rats exhibited higher relative food intake, brown adipose tissue weight and lipid content, reduced oxygen consumption, carbon dioxide production and spontaneous activity, increased relative retroperitoneal adipose tissue weight and unaltered absolute white adipose tissue weight and lipid content. The fasting serum glucose was similar among the groups. The area under the glucose curve was higher in the LO and CO rats than in the LC and CC rats. The basal insulinemia and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) were lower in the LO group than in the other groups. The total area under the insulin curve for the LO rats was similar to the CC rats, and both were lower than the CO and LC rats. Kitt was higher in the LO, LC and CO groups than in the CC group. Thus, intrauterine protein restriction followed by overfeeding during lactation did not induce obesity, but produced glucose intolerance by impairing pancreatic function in adulthood.
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Microscopic detection of yeasts using fluorescence in situ hybridization.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH) has been widely used for the detection and identification of microorganisms in their natural environments. In this chapter we describe the use of a simple FISH-based protocol to detect and identify clinically relevant yeast species in culture and biological samples using Cryptococcus neoformans as a model. After fixation of cells with paraformaldehyde, the same are embedded in hybridization buffer containing specific fluorochrome-labeled oligonucleotide probes. After incubation and a subsequent washing step for removing unbound probes, samples are analyzed by epifluorescence microscopy.
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The effects of the Brazilian ant Dinoponera quadriceps venom on chemically induced seizure models.
Neurochem. Int.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2013
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Arthropod venoms are potential sources of neuroactive substances, providing new tools for the design of drugs. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of Dinoponera quadriceps venom (DqV) on seizure models in mice induced by pentylenetetrazole (PTZ), pilocarpine, and strychnine. In the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5mg/kg) increased the time until the first seizure and the percentage of survival (155.4±27.7s/12.5%, p<0.05) compared to the control group (79.75±3.97s/0%), whereas endovenous treatment (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) decreased the time until the first seizure (0.1mg/kg: 77.83±5.3s versus 101.0±3.3s in the control group; 0.5mg/kg: 74.43±3.9s versus 101.0±3.3s for the control group, p<0.05). We did not observe significant changes in the pilocarpine- and strychnine-induced seizure models. In assays that measured oxidative parameters in the PTZ model, intraperitoneal treatment with DqV (0.5 and 2.0mg/kg) only decreased the levels of MDA and nitrite in the cortex. However, endovenous treatment with DqV (0.1 and 0.5mg/kg) increased the levels of MDA in the cortex and hippocampus and at a dose of 0.5mg/kg in the striatum. Moreover, increased in nitrite content was observed in all three of the brain regions analyzed. Taken together, the D. quadriceps venom caused both neuroprotective and neurotoxic effects in a PTZ-induced seizure model, and this effect was dependent on the route of administration used.
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Longitudinal clinical evaluation of undercut areas and rest seats of abutment teeth in removable partial denture treatment.
J Prosthodont
PUBLISHED: 12-21-2011
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Adequate preparation of abutment teeth for removable partial denture (RPD) rest seats allows appropriate masticatory force transmission, retention, and stability of supporting structures. It follows that careful preparation will be important for the longevity of the rehabilitation. The present study aimed to clinically evaluate rest seats and undercut areas of abutment teeth in RPD wearers after 2 years of use.
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[Knowledge, acceptability and use of the Billings natural family planning method].
Rev Gaucha Enferm
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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This is an observational quantitative and analytical study aimed at verifying the knowledge, acceptability and use of natural family planning (NFP) by patients in a university hospital from July to November, 2008. The data were collected using a structured questionnaire and analyzed with the softwares Excel and Statistica 8.0. Of the 113s women interviewed, 70 (62%) accepted the method and 1 (0.9%) used it routinely. Acceptance was higher among those who wished to become pregnant in the future compared to those who did not wish it. Acceptability was statistically significant (p = 0.0147) among the 28 (80%) non-contraceptive users compared to 42 (53.8%) who used some contraceptive method. Factors such as age, education, number of living children and religion were not statiscally associated with the acceptability of NFP. The Billings ovulation method has an adequate acceptability, but has a low actual use because of the lack of information by health professionals of its real effectiveness and applicability.
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A soyabean diet does not modify the activity of brown adipose tissue but alters the rate of lipolysis in the retroperitoneal white adipose tissue of male rats recovering from early-life malnutrition.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2011
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Nutritional recovery with a soyabean diet decreases body and fat weights when compared with a casein diet. We investigated whether the reduced adiposity observed in rats recovering from early-life malnutrition with a soyabean diet results from alterations in lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue (WAT) and/or brown adipose tissue (BAT). Male rats from mothers fed either 17 or 6 % protein during pregnancy and lactation were maintained on 17 % casein (CC and LC groups), 17 % soyabean (CS and LS groups) or 6 % casein (LL group) diets over 60 d. The rats maintained on a soyabean diet had similar relative food intakes, but lower body and retroperitoneal WAT weights and a reduced lipid content in the retroperitoneal WAT. The insulin levels were lower in the recovered rats and were elevated in those fed a soyabean diet. Serum T3 concentration and uncoupling protein 1 content in the BAT were decreased in the recovered rats. The thermogenic capacity of the BAT was not affected by the soyabean diet. The lipogenesis rate in the retroperitoneal WAT was similar in all of the groups except for the LL group, which had exacerbated lipogenesis. The enhancement of the lipolysis rate by isoproterenol was decreased in white adipocytes from the soyabean-recovered rats and was elevated in adipocytes from the soyabean-control rats. Thus, in animals maintained on a soyabean diet, the proportions of fat deposits are determined by the lipolysis rate, which differs depending on the previous nutritional status.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.