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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Differential impact of glucose levels and advanced glycation end-products on tubular cell viability and pro-inflammatory/profibrotic functions.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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High glucose (HG) or synthetic advanced glycation end-products (AGE) conditions are generally used to mimic diabetes in cellular models. Both models have shown an increase of apoptosis, oxidative stress and pro-inflammatory cytokine production in tubular cells. However, the impact of the two conditions combined has rarely been studied. In addition, the impact of glucose level variation due to cellular consumption is not clearly characterized in such experiments. Therefore, the aim of this study was to compare the effect of HG and AGE separately and of both on tubular cell phenotype changes in the HK2 cell line. Moreover, glucose consumption was monitored every hour to maintain the glucose level by supplementation throughout the experiments. We thus observed a significant decrease of apoptosis and H2O2 production in the HK2 cell. HG or AGE treatment induced an increase of total and mitochondrial apoptosis as well as TGF-? release compared to control conditions; however, AGE or HG led to apoptosis preferentially involving the mitochondria pathway. No cumulative effect of HG and AGE treatment was observed on apoptosis. However, a pretreatment with RAGE antibodies partially abolished the apoptotic effect of HG and completely abolished the apoptotic effect of AGE. In conclusion, tubular cells are sensitive to the lack of glucose as well as to the HG and AGE treatments, the AGE effect being more deleterious than the HG effect. Absence of a potential synergistic effect of HG and AGE could indicate that they act through a common pathway, possibly via the activation of the RAGE receptors.
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Identification of NOX2 regions for normal biosynthesis of cytochrome b558 in phagocytes - Highlighting essential residues for p22phox binding.
Biochem. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Cytochrome b558, the redox core of the NADPH-oxidase complex in phagocytes, is composed of NOX2 and p22phox whose synthesis are intimately connected but not fully understood. We reproduced ten rare Xminus chronic granulomatous disease mutations of highly conserved residues in NOX1-4, in the X0CGD PLB-985 cells in order to analyse their impacts on the synthesis process of cytochrome b558. According to the impact of these mutations on the level of NOX2 expression and activity, mutants were categorized in group A (W18C, E309K, K315del, I325F) characterized by a linear relationship between NOX2 expression and the NADPH oxidase activity and group B (H338Y, P339H, G389A and F656-F570del) showing an absence of NADPH oxidase activity associated with variable levels of NOX2 expression. These last residues belong to the FAD-binding pocket of NOX2, suggesting this functional domain plays a role also in the structural integrity of NOX2. Finally, we observed an abnormal accumulation of p65-kDa, the NOX2 precursor and a p65-kDa/p22phox dissociation in the W18C, E309K, I325F and G389A mutants, pointing out a possible role of the first transmembrane domain (W18) and the region between the membrane and the dehydrogenase domain of NOX2 (E309, I325, G389), in the binding with p22phox.
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Scavenging of reactive oxygen species by tryptophan metabolites helps Pseudomonas aeruginosa escape neutrophil killing.
Free Radic. Biol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Pseudomonas aeruginosa is responsible for persistent infections in cystic fibrosis patients, suggesting an ability to circumvent innate immune defenses. This bacterium uses the kynurenine pathway to catabolize tryptophan. Interestingly, many host cells also produce kynurenine, which is known to control immune system homeostasis. We showed that most strains of P. aeruginosa isolated from cystic fibrosis patients produce a high level of kynurenine. Moreover, a strong transcriptional activation of kynA (the first gene involved in the kynurenine pathway) was observed upon contact with immune cells and particularly with neutrophils. In addition, using coculture of human neutrophils with various strains of P. aeruginosa producing no (?kynA) or a high level of kynurenine (?kynU or ?kynA pkynA), we demonstrated that kynurenine promotes bacterial survival. In addition, increasing the amount kynurenine inhibits reactive oxygen species production by activated neutrophils, as evaluated by chemiluminescence with luminol or isoluminol or SOD-sensitive cytochrome c reduction assay. This inhibition is due neither to a phagocytosis defect nor to direct NADPH oxidase inhibition. Indeed, kynurenine has no effect on oxygen consumption by neutrophils activated by PMA or opsonized zymosan. Using in vitro reactive oxygen species-producing systems, we showed that kynurenine scavenges hydrogen peroxide and, to a lesser extent, superoxide. Kynurenine?s scavenging effect occurs mainly intracellularly after bacterial stimulation, probably in the phagosome. In conclusion, the kynurenine pathway allows P. aeruginosa to circumvent the innate immune response by scavenging neutrophil reactive oxygen species production.
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Functional and genetic characterization of two extremely rare cases of Williams-Beuren syndrome associated with chronic granulomatous disease.
Eur. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2013
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Williams-Beuren syndrome (WBS) is a neurodevelopmental disorder with multi-systemic manifestations, caused by a heterozygous segmental deletion of 1.55-1.83?Mb at chromosomal band 7q11.23. The deletion can include the NCF1 gene that encodes the p47(phox) protein, a component of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase enzyme, which is essential for the defense against microbial pathogens. It has been postulated that WBS patients with two functional NCF1 genes are more susceptible to occurrence of hypertension than WBS patients with only one functional NCF1 gene. We now describe two extremely rare WBS patients without any functional NCF1 gene, because of a mutation in NCF1 on the allele not carrying the NCF1-removing WBS deletion. These two patients suffer from chronic granulomatous disease with increased microbial infections in addition to WBS. Interestingly, one of these patients did suffer from hypertension, indicating that other factors than NADPH oxidase in vascular tissue may be involved in causing hypertension.
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Role of putative second transmembrane region of Nox2 protein in the structural stability and electron transfer of the phagocytic NADPH oxidase.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2011
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Flavocytochrome b(558) (cytb) of phagocytes is a heterodimeric integral membrane protein composed of two subunits, p22(phox) and gp91(phox). The latter subunit, also known as Nox2, has a cytosolic C-terminal "dehydrogenase domain" containing FAD/NADPH-binding sites. The N-terminal half of Nox2 contains six predicted transmembrane ?-helices coordinating two hemes. We studied the role of the second transmembrane ?-helix, which contains a "hot spot" for mutations found in rare X(+) and X(-) chronic granulomatous disease. By site-directed mutagenesis and transfection in X-CGD PLB-985 cells, we examined the functional and structural impact of seven missense mutations affecting five residues. P56L and C59F mutations drastically influence the level of Nox2 expression indicating that these residues are important for the structural stability of Nox2. A53D, R54G, R54M, and R54S mutations do not affect spectral properties of oxidized/reduced cytb, oxidase complex assembly, FAD binding, nor iodonitrotetrazolium (INT) reductase (diaphorase) activity but inhibit superoxide production. This suggests that Ala-53 and Arg-54 are essential in control of electron transfer from FAD. Surprisingly, the A57E mutation partially inhibits FAD binding, diaphorase activity, and oxidase assembly and affects the affinity of immunopurified A57E cytochrome b(558) for p67(phox). By competition experiments, we demonstrated that the second transmembrane helix impacts on the function of the first intracytosolic B-loop in the control of diaphorase activity of Nox2. Finally, by comparing INT reductase activity of immunopurified mutated and wild type cytb under aerobiosis versus anaerobiosis, we showed that INT reduction reflects the electron transfer from NADPH to FAD only in the absence of superoxide production.
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Regulation of NADPH oxidase activity in phagocytes: relationship between FAD/NADPH binding and oxidase complex assembly.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2010
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The X(+)-linked chronic granulomatous disease (X(+)-CGD) variants are natural mutants characterized by defective NADPH oxidase activity but with normal Nox2 expression. According to the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain, most of the X(+)-CGD mutations are located in/or close to the FAD/NADPH binding regions. A structure/function study of this domain was conducted in X(+)-CGD PLB-985 cells exactly mimicking 10 human variants: T341K, C369R, G408E, G408R, P415H, P415L, ?507QKT509-HIWAinsert, C537R, L546P, and E568K. Diaphorase activity is defective in all these mutants. NADPH oxidase assembly is normal for P415H/P415L and T341K mutants where mutation occurs in the consensus sequences of NADPH- and FAD-binding sites, respectively. This is in accordance with their buried position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic Nox2 domain. FAD incorporation is abolished only in the T341K mutant explaining its absence of diaphorase activity. This demonstrates that NADPH oxidase assembly can occur without FAD incorporation. In addition, a defect of NADPH binding is a plausible explanation for the diaphorase activity inhibition in the P415H, P415L, and C537R mutants. In contrast, Cys-369, Gly-408, Leu-546, and Glu-568 are essential for NADPH oxidase complex assembly. However, according to their position in the three-dimensional model of the cytosolic domain of Nox2, only Cys-369 could be in direct contact with cytosolic factors during oxidase assembly. In addition, the defect in oxidase assembly observed in the C369R, G408E, G408R, and E568K mutants correlates with the lack of FAD incorporation. Thus, the NADPH oxidase assembly process and FAD incorporation are closely related events essential for the diaphorase activity of Nox2.
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Hematologically important mutations: X-linked chronic granulomatous disease (third update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2010
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by a lack of superoxide production by the leukocyte enzyme NADPH oxidase. Superoxide is used to kill phagocytosed micro-organisms in neutrophils, eosinophils, monocytes and macrophages. The leukocyte NADPH oxidase is composed of five subunits, of which the enzymatic component is gp91-phox, also called Nox2. This protein is encoded by the CYBB gene on the X chromosome. Mutations in this gene are found in about 70% of all CGD patients. This article lists all mutations identified in CYBB in the X-linked form of CGD. Moreover, apparently benign polymorphisms in CYBB are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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Characterization of superoxide overproduction by the D-Loop(Nox4)-Nox2 cytochrome b(558) in phagocytes-Differential sensitivity to calcium and phosphorylation events.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2010
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NADPH oxidase is a crucial element of phagocytes involved in microbicidal mechanisms. It becomes active when membrane-bound cytochrome b(558), the redox core, is assembled with cytosolic p47(phox), p67(phox), p40(phox), and rac proteins to produce superoxide, the precursor for generation of toxic reactive oxygen species. In a previous study, we demonstrated that the potential second intracellular loop of Nox2 was essential to maintaining NADPH oxidase activity by controlling electron transfer from FAD to O(2). Moreover, replacement of this loop by the Nox4-D-loop (D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2) in PLB-985 cells induced superoxide overproduction. In the present investigation, we demonstrated that both soluble and particulate stimuli were able to induce this superoxide overproduction. Superoxide overproduction was also observed after phosphatidic acid activation in a purified cell-free-system assay. The highest oxidase activity was obtained after ionomycin and fMLF stimulation. In addition, enhanced sensitivity to Ca(2+) influx was shown by thapsigargin, EDTA, or BTP2 treatment before fMLF activation. Mutated cytochrome b(558) was less dependent on phosphorylation triggered by ERK1/2 during fMLF or PMA stimulation and by PI3K during OpZ stimulation. The superoxide overproduction of the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2 mutant may come from a change of responsiveness to intracellular Ca(2+) level and to phosphorylation events during oxidase activation. Finally the D-loop(Nox4)-Nox2-PLB-985 cells were more effective against an attenuated strain of Pseudomonas aeruginosa compared to WT-Nox2 cells. The killing mechanism was biphasic, an early step of ROS production that was directly bactericidal, and a second oxidase-independent step related to the amount of ROS produced in the first step.
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Hematologically important mutations: the autosomal recessive forms of chronic granulomatous disease (second update).
Blood Cells Mol. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Chronic granulomatous Disease (CGD) is an immunodeficiency disorder affecting about 1 in 250,000 individuals. The disease is caused by mutations in the genes encoding the components of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase. This enzyme produces superoxide, which is essential in the process of intracellular pathogen killing by phagocytic leukocytes. Four of the five genes involved in CGD are autosomal; these are CYBA, encoding p22-phox, NCF2, encoding p67-phox, NCF1, encoding p47-phox, and NCF4, encoding p40-phox. This article lists all mutations identified in these genes in the autosomal forms of CGD. Moreover, polymorphisms in these genes are also given, which should facilitate the recognition of future disease-causing mutations.
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A novel point mutation in the CYBB gene promoter leading to a rare X minus chronic granulomatous disease variant--impact on the microbicidal activity of neutrophils.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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This article reports an atypical and extremely rare case of X-linked CGD in an Italian family characterized by a low expression of gp91phox (X91- CGD). A novel point mutation in the CYBB genes promoter (insertion of a T at position -54T to -56T) appeared to prevent the full expression of this gene in the patients neutrophils and correlated with a residual oxidase activity in the whole cells population. The expression and functional activity of the oxidase in eosinophils appeared to be almost normal. Gel shift assays indicated that the mutation led to decreased interactions with DNA-binding proteins. The total O2- production in the patients granulocytes (5-7% of normal) supported no microbicidal power after 45 min and 60 min of contact with S. aureus and C. albicans, respectively. Despite this residual oxidase activity, the patients suffered from severe and life-threatening infections. It was concluded that in these X91- CGD neutrophils, the O2- production per se was not sufficient to protect the patient against severe infections.
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First report of clinical, functional, and molecular investigation of chronic granulomatous disease in nine Jordanian families.
J. Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2009
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Chronic granulomatous disease is a rare inherited immunodeficiency syndrome caused by mutations in four genes encoding essential nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH) oxidase complex components.
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Three common polymorphisms in the CYBA gene form a haplotype associated with decreased ROS generation.
Hum. Mutat.
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2009
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NOX enzymes are reactive oxygen species (ROS)-generating NADPH oxidases. Several members of the NOX family depend on the p22(phox) subunit, encoded by the CYBA gene. CYBA is highly polymorphic, and has been widely studied as a potential risk factor for various diseases, with conflicting results. In the present study, we used Epstein-Barr (EBV)-transformed B-lymphocytes from 50 healthy unrelated individuals to analyze their CYBA mRNA sequence and NOX2-dependent ROS generation. Seven single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) were identified (five previously described, two novel). The combination of these SNPs yielded 11 distinct haplotypes, which could be grouped into seven haplogroups (A-G). Haplogroup C (c.214T>C, c.521T>C, and c.(*)24G>A) showed a significantly lower ROS generation, as compared to the most frequent haplogroup, A. CYBA variants from the seven haplogroups were transduced into p22(phox)-deficient B-lymphocytes. The haplogroup C variant showed significantly lower ROS production. c.214T>C and c.521T>C lead to nonsynonymous codon changes, while c.(*)24G>A lies within the 3UTR. Using a luciferase/3UTR construct, we showed that the (*)24A allele led to decreased reporter gene activity. These results help to unravel the complex nature of how genetic variations in CYBA influence NOX2 activity, and indicate that haplotypes, rather than individual SNPs, define the effect on ROS generation.
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Chronic granulomatous disease: the European experience.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2009
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CGD is an immunodeficiency caused by deletions or mutations in genes that encode subunits of the leukocyte NADPH oxidase complex. Normally, assembly of the NADPH oxidase complex in phagosomes of certain phagocytic cells leads to a "respiratory burst", essential for the clearance of phagocytosed micro-organisms. CGD patients lack this mechanism, which leads to life-threatening infections and granuloma formation. However, a clear picture of the clinical course of CGD is hampered by its low prevalence (approximately 1:250,000). Therefore, extensive clinical data from 429 European patients were collected and analyzed. Of these patients 351 were males and 78 were females. X-linked (XL) CGD (gp91(phox) deficient) accounted for 67% of the cases, autosomal recessive (AR) inheritance for 33%. AR-CGD was diagnosed later in life, and the mean survival time was significantly better in AR patients (49.6 years) than in XL CGD (37.8 years), suggesting a milder disease course in AR patients. The disease manifested itself most frequently in the lungs (66% of patients), skin (53%), lymph nodes (50%), gastrointestinal tract (48%) and liver (32%). The most frequently cultured micro-organisms per episode were Staphylococcus aureus (30%), Aspergillus spp. (26%), and Salmonella spp. (16%). Surprisingly, Pseudomonas spp. (2%) and Burkholderia cepacia (<1%) were found only sporadically. Lesions induced by inoculation with BCG occurred in 8% of the patients. Only 71% of the patients received antibiotic maintenance therapy, and 53% antifungal prophylaxis. 33% were treated with gamma-interferon. 24 patients (6%) had received a stem cell transplantation. The most prominent reason of death was pneumonia and pulmonary abscess (18/84 cases), septicemia (16/84) and brain abscess (4/84). These data provide further insight in the clinical course of CGD in Europe and hopefully can help to increase awareness and optimize the treatment of these patients.
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Resistant invasive aspergillosis in an autosomal recessive chronic granulomatous disease.
Fetal Pediatr Pathol
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is an inherited immunodeficiency characterized by severe bacterial and fungal infections. Invasive aspergillosis and other rare mold diseases are the leading causes of mortality. We report one case of CGD revealed by retropharyngeal abscess. On evolution, the patient developed an invasive aspergillosis resistant to treatment.
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Clinical, functional and genetic analysis of twenty-four patients with chronic granulomatous disease - identification of eight novel mutations in CYBB and NCF2 genes.
J. Clin. Immunol.
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Chronic granulomatous disease is an inherited disorder in which phagocytes lack a functional NADPH oxidase and cannot produce superoxide anions. The most common form is caused by mutations in CYBB encoding gp91phox. We investigated 24 CGD patients and their families. Twenty-one mutations in CYBB were classified as X91(0), X91(+) or X91(-) variants according to cytochrome b (558) expression. Point mutations in encoding regions represented 50 % of the mutations found in CYBB, splice site mutations 27 %, deletions and insertions 23 %. Eight mutations in CYBB were novel leading to X91(0)CGD cases. Two of these were point mutations: c493G>T and a double mutation c625C>G in exon 6 and c1510C>T in exon 12 leading to a premature stop codon at Gly165 in gp91phox and missense mutations His209Arg/Thr503Ile respectively. Two novel splice mutations in 5intronic regions of introns 1 and 6 were found. A novel deletion/insertion c1024_1026delCTG/insT results in a frameshift introducing a stop codon at position 346 in gp91phox. The last novel mutation was the insertion of a T at c1373 leading to a frameshift and a premature stop codon at position 484 in gp91phox. For the first time the precise size of two large mutations in CYBB was determined by array-comparative genomic hybridization and carriers status were evaluated by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification assay. No clear correlation between clinical severity and CYBB mutations could be established. Of three mutations in CYBA, NCF1 and NCF2 leading to rare autosomal recessive CGD, one nonsense mutation c29G>A in exon 1 of NCF2 was new.
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Rare duplication or deletion of exons 6, 7 and 8 in CYBB leading to X-linked chronic granulomatous disease in two patients from different families.
J. Clin. Immunol.
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Chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) is a rare congenital disorder in which phagocytes cannot generate superoxide (O(2)(-)) and other microbicidal oxidants due to mutations in one of the five components of the O(2)(-)-generating NADPH oxidase complex. The most common form is caused by mutations in CYBB on the X chromosome, encoding gp91phox, the enzymatic subunit of the phagocyte NADPH oxidase. Here, we report two rare cases of male X-linked CGD patients, one caused by a 5.7-kb duplication of a region containing CYBB exons 6 to 8 and the other caused by a deletion of this same region. We found both the duplication in patient 1 and the deletion in patient 2 to be bordered by a GT repeat. Indeed, in control DNA, the 3 part of CYBB intron 5 contains a GT repeat and the 5 part of intron 8 also contains such a repeat. Duplication of exons 6, 7 and 8 in patient 1 was probably caused by a non-homologous crossing over between the two GT repeats. The deletion found in patient 2 probably arose from a similar misalignment. The results found in these patients were confirmed by multiplex ligation-dependent probe amplification. The clinical profile of XCGD is severe in both patients.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.