This research aims to analyze the acute effect of incremental inspiratory loads on respiratory pattern and on the predominant activity frequency of inspiratory muscle, taking into account differences in gender responses. Optoelectronic Plethysmography was performed during loads in 39 healthy subjects (20 women), placing 89 markers on the thoracic-abdominal wall to obtain total and regional volumes. Surface electromyography (SEMG) was taken simultaneously on the Sternocleidomastoid and Diaphragm muscles, to calculate the predominant muscle activity frequency through wavelet analysis. Inspiratory loads were performed using Threshold(®)with 2 min of breathing at different levels, ranging from a load of 10 cmH(2)O plus 5 cmH(2)O to 40 cmH(2)O or fatigue.
Aedes aegypti has developed evolution-driven adaptations for surviving in the domestic human habitat. Several trap models have been designed considering these strategies and tested for monitoring this efficient vector of Dengue. Here, we report a real-scale evaluation of a system for monitoring and controlling mosquito populations based on egg sampling coupled with geographic information systems technology. The SMCP-Aedes, a system based on open technology and open data standards, was set up from March/2008 to October/2011 as a pilot trial in two sites of Pernambuco -Brazil: Ipojuca (10,000 residents) and Santa Cruz (83,000), in a joint effort of health authorities and staff, and a network of scientists providing scientific support. A widespread infestation by Aedes was found in both sites in 2008-2009, with 96.8%-100% trap positivity. Egg densities were markedly higher in SCC than in Ipojuca. A 90% decrease in egg density was recorded in SCC after two years of sustained control pressure imposed by suppression of >7,500,000 eggs and >3,200 adults, plus larval control by adding fishes to cisterns. In Ipojuca, 1.1 million mosquito eggs were suppressed and a 77% reduction in egg density was achieved. This study aimed at assessing the applicability of a system using GIS and spatial statistic analysis tools for quantitative assessment of mosquito populations. It also provided useful information on the requirements for reducing well-established mosquito populations. Results from two cities led us to conclude that the success in markedly reducing an Aedes population required the appropriate choice of control measures for sustained mass elimination guided by a user-friendly mosquito surveillance system. The system was able to support interventional decisions and to assess the programs success. Additionally, it created a stimulating environment for health staff and residents, which had a positive impact on their commitment to the dengue control program.
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