Experimental hydronephrosis induced by partial ureteral obstruction at 3 wk of age causes hypertension and renal impairment in adult rats and mice. Signaling by Ephrin receptors (Eph) and their ligands (ephrins) importantly regulates embryonic development. Genetically modified mice, where the cytoplasmic domain of the EphA4 receptor has been substituted by enhanced green fluorescent protein (EphA4gf/gf), develop spontaneous hydronephrosis and provide a model for further studies of the disorder. The present study aimed to determine if animals with congenital hydronephrosis develop hypertension and renal injuries, similar to that of experimental hydronephrosis. Ultrasound and Doppler techniques were used to visualize renal impairment in the adult mice. Telemetric blood pressure measurements were performed in EphA4gf/gf mice and littermate controls (EphA4+/+) during normal (0.7% NaCl)- and high (4% NaCl)-sodium conditions. Renal excretion, renal plasma flow, and glomerular filtration were studied, and histology and morphology of the kidneys and ureters were performed. EphA4gf/gf mice developed variable degrees of hydronephrosis that correlated with their blood pressure level. In contrast to EphA4+/+, the EphA4gf/gf mice displayed salt-sensitive hypertension, reduced urine concentrating ability, reduced renal plasma flow, and lower glomerular filtration rate. Kidneys from EphA4gf/gf mice showed increased renal injuries, as evidenced by fibrosis, inflammation, and glomerular and tubular changes. In conclusion, congenital hydronephrosis causes hypertension and renal damage, similar to that observed in experimentally induced hydronephrosis. This study further reinforces the supposed causal link between hydronephrosis and later development of hypertension in humans.
Tumor islands-large collections of tumor cells isolated within alveolar spaces-can be seen in lung adenocarcinomas. Recently we observed by 3-dimensional reconstruction that these structures were connected with each other and with the main tumor in different tissue planes, raising the possibility of tumor islands being a means of extension. However, the clinical and prognostic significance of tumor islands remains unknown. In this study, we compared clinicopathologic and molecular characteristics and prognosis of stages I to II lung adenocarcinomas with tumor islands (n=58) and those without (n=203). Lung adenocarcinomas with tumor islands were more likely to occur in smokers, exhibit higher nuclear grade and a solid or micropapillary pattern of growth, and harbor KRAS mutations. In contrast, lung adenocarcinomas without tumor islands were more likely to present as minimally invasive adenocarcinoma, show a lepidic pattern of growth, and harbor EGFR mutations. Although there was no difference in stage, the prognosis of lung adenocarcinomas with tumor islands was significantly worse than those without. The 5-year recurrence-free survival for patients with tumor islands and those without was 44.6% and 74.4%, respectively (log rank P=0.010). The survival difference remained significant (P <0.020) by multivariate analysis, and the presence of tumor islands was associated with almost 2-fold increase in the risk of recurrence. Even in the stage IA cohort, more than half of the patients with tumor islands experienced recurrence within 5 years. Thus, aggressive surveillance and/or further intervention may be indicated for patients whose tumors exhibit tumor islands.
Tissue-sectioning automation can be a resourceful tool in processing anatomical pathology specimens. The advantages of an automated system compared with traditional manual sectioning are the invariable thickness, uniform orientation and fewer tissue-sectioning artefacts. This short report presents the design of an automated tissue-sectioning device and compares the sectioned specimens with normal manual tissue sectioning performed by an experienced histology technician. The automated system was easy to use, safe and the sectioned material showed acceptable quality with well-preserved morphology and tissue antigenicity. It is expected that the turnaround time will be improved in the near future.
Doppler optical coherence tomography (DOCT) is a functional extension of optical coherence tomography (OCT) and is currently being employed in several clinical arenas to quantify blood flow in vivo. In this study, the objective was to investigate the feasibility of DOCT to image kidney microcirculation, specifically, glomerular blood flow. DOCT is able to capture three-dimensional (3D) data sets consisting of a series of cross-sectional images in real time, which enables label-free and non-destructive quantification of glomerular blood flow. The kidneys of adult, male Munich-Wistar rats were exposed through laparotomy procedure after being anesthetized. Following exposure of the kidney beneath the DOCT microscope, glomerular blood flow was observed. The effects of acute mannitol and angiotensin II infusion were also observed. Glomerular blood flow was quantified for the induced physiological states and compared with baseline measurements. Glomerular volume, cumulative Doppler volume, and Doppler flow range parameters were computed from 3D OCT/DOCT data sets. Glomerular size was determined from OCT, and DOCT readily revealed glomerular blood flow. After infusion of mannitol, a significant increase in blood flow was observed and quantified, and following infusion of angiontensin II, a significant decrease in blood flow was observed and quantified. Also, blood flow histograms were produced to illustrate differences in blood flow rate and blood volume among the induced physiological states. We demonstrated 3D DOCT imaging of rat kidney microcirculation in the glomerulus in vivo. Dynamic changes in blood flow were detected under altered physiological conditions demonstrating the real-time imaging capability of DOCT. This method holds promise to allow non-invasive imaging of kidney blood flow for transplant graft evaluation or monitoring of altered-renal hemodynamics related to disease progression.
Hypersensitivity pneumonitis is an inflammatory lung disease that develops in response to exposure to antigen. Cases can be stratified by the duration of exposure and speed of symptom progression into acute, subacute, and chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Although the pathologic features of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis are well established and those of chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis have been reported, little is known about the histopathology of acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis. We evaluated the pathologic features of 5 patients with clinically confirmed hypersensitivity pneumonitis and rapid onset of symptoms and 3 patients with subacute or chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis with symptom exacerbation. Histopathologic features assessed in each case included those characteristic of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (bronchiolocentric chronic inflammation, histiocytic aggregates, and bronchiolitis obliterans), those associated with acute inflammation (fibrin deposition and neutrophilic infiltrate), and fibrosis. The classic features of hypersensitivity pneumonitis were identified in all 8 cases, with 1 also exhibiting fixed fibrosis confirming underlying chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Fibrin deposition was present in 8 (100%) of 8 cases, and its extent was significant (28% surface area fibrin deposition/total disease area on average). Two had intra-alveolar fibrin so marked that it resembled acute fibrinous and organizing pneumonia. In addition, prominent interstitial neutrophilic infiltrate (?5 cells/high-power field) was seen in all cases. These features have not been reported as characteristics of subacute or chronic hypersensitivity pneumonitis. Increased fibrin deposition and neutrophilic infiltrate may characterize acute hypersensitivity pneumonitis or abrupt exacerbation of hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and these along with characteristic features of subacute hypersensitivity pneumonitis (granulomatous inflammation and bronchiolocentricity) are sufficient to establish a morphologic diagnosis, particularly in conjunction with clinicoradiologic features.
Anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis is usually classified as a pauci-immune type. However, it sometimes shows immune complex deposition of unknown origin. We examined the glomerular localization of myeloperoxidase by double immunofluorescence and immunoelectron microscopy in cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis with membranous nephropathy-like immunoglobulin G deposition to investigate the immune complex antigens in these cases. Six (35%) of the biopsy samples from 17 cases with anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis showed granular deposition of immunoglobulin G along the glomerular capillary walls. Light microscopy revealed necrotizing crescentic glomerulonephritis with segmental thickening of the glomerular basement membrane. Electron microscopy showed electron-dense deposits in intramembranous and mesangial areas. However, the size and distribution of the deposits were irregular and segmental in the examined cases, unlike typical global and subepithelial lesions of membranous nephropathy. Double immunofluorescence using Alexa Fluor 594-labeled anti-myeloperoxidase antibody and fluorescein isothiocyanate-labeled anti-immunoglobulin G antibody, as well as immunoelectron microscopy using anti-myeloperoxidase antibody labeled with 25-nm gold particles revealed partial colocalization of myeloperoxidase and immunoglobulin G within the glomerular basement membrane and mesangium. In some cases of anti-neutrophil cytoplasmic antibody-associated glomerulonephritis, myeloperoxidase may form immune complexes and develop membranous nephropathy-like lesions.
To determine histopathological status of living human kidneys in real time and a noninvasive fashion would be a significant advancement in renal disease diagnosis. Recently we reported that optical coherence tomography has the requisite high spatial resolution to noninvasively determine histopathological changes in rodent kidneys with microm scale resolution. We established whether optical coherence tomography could 1) effectively penetrate the connective tissue capsule surrounding human kidneys, 2) provide a global survey of the human renal surface and 3) determine histopathological changes in human renal microstructure.
Because defects in renal autoregulation may contribute to renal barotrauma in chronic kidney disease, we tested the hypothesis that the myogenic response is diminished by reduced renal mass. Kidneys from 5/6 nephrectomized mice had only a minor increase in the glomerular sclerosis index. The telemetric mean arterial pressure (108+/-10 mm Hg) was unaffected after 3 months of high-salt intake (6% salt in chow) or reduced renal mass. Afferent arterioles from 5/6 nephrectomized mice and sham-operated controls were perfused ex vivo during step changes in pressure from 40 to 134 mm Hg. Afferent arterioles developed a constriction and a linear increase in active wall tension above a perfusion pressure of 36+/-6 mm Hg, without a plateau. The slope of active wall tension versus perfusion pressure defined the myogenic response, which was similar in sham mice fed normal or high-salt diets for 3 months (2.90+/-0.22 versus 3.22+/-0.40 dynes x cm(-1)/mm Hg; P value not significant). The myogenic response was unaffected after 3 days of reduced renal mass on either salt diet (3.39+/-0.61 versus 4.04+/-0.47 dynes x cm(-1)/mm Hg) but was reduced (P<0.05) in afferent arterioles from reduced renal mass groups fed normal and high salt at 3 months (2.10+/-0.28 and 1.35+/-0.21 dynes x cm(-1)/mm Hg). In conclusion, mouse renal afferent arterioles develop a linear increase in myogenic tone around the range of ambient perfusion pressures. This myogenic response is impaired substantially in the mouse model of prolonged reduced renal mass, especially during high salt intake.
Angiotensin II maintains renal cortical blood flow and renal oxygenation in the clipped kidney of early 2-kidney, 1-clip Goldblatt hypertensive (2K,1C) rats. The involvement of Ang II is believed to decline, whereas oxidative stress increases during the progression of 2K,1C hypertension. We investigated the hypothesis that the acute administration of drugs to inhibit reactive oxygen species (Tempol), angiotensin II type 1 receptors (candesartan), or angiotensin-converting enzyme (enalaprilat) lowers mean arterial pressure and increases kidney blood flow and oxygenation in the clipped kidney of chronic 2K,1C rats in contrast to sham controls. Twelve months after left renal artery clipping or sham, mean arterial pressure, renal cortical blood flow, and renal cortical and medullary oxygen tension were measured after acute administration of Tempol followed by enalaprilat or candesartan followed by enalaprilat. The mean arterial pressure of the 2K,1C rat was reduced by candesartan (-9%) and, more effectively, by Tempol (-35%). All of the applied treatments had similar blood pressure-lowering effects in sham rats (average: -21%). Only Tempol increased cortical blood flow (+35%) and cortical and medullary oxygen tensions (+17% and +94%, respectively) in clipped kidneys of 2K,1C rats. Administration of enalaprilat had no additional effect, except for a modest reduction in cortical blood flow in the clipped kidney of 2K,1C rats when coadministered with candesartan (-10%). In conclusion, acute administration of Tempol is more effective than candesartan in reducing the mean arterial blood pressure and improving renal blood perfusion and oxygenation in the clipped kidney of chronic 2K,1C rats.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can non-invasively provide cross-sectional, high-resolution images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. Previous studies have demonstrated that OCT is capable of accurately visualizing the pathological changes in the living kidney in vivo using the Munich-Wistar rat model. In this work, we establish, for the first time, the capability of OCT to image the intact human kidney ex vivo. Characteristic kidney anatomic structures including the blood vessels, uriniferous tubules, glomeruli, and kidney capsules can be readily discerned. The diameter and volume parameters of these structures can also be automatically quantified. These two parameters may be critical in clinical applications such as the assessment of the donor kidneys viability prior to transplantation, or image the kidney responses to ischemic insult.
Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a rapidly emerging imaging modality that can non-invasively provide cross-sectional, high-resolution images of tissue morphology in situ and in real-time. We previously demonstrated that OCT is capable of visualizing characteristic kidney anatomic structures, including blood vessels, uriniferous tubules, glomeruli, and renal capsules on a Munich-Wistar rat model. Because the viability of a donor kidney is closely correlated with its tubular morphology, and a large amount of image datasets are expected when using OCT to scan the entire kidney to provide a global assessment of its viability, it is necessary to develop automatic image analysis methods to quantify the spatially-resolved morphometric parameters such as tubular diameter to provide potential diagnostic information. In this study, we imaged the human kidney in vitro and quantified the diameters of hollow structures such as blood vessels and uriniferous tubules automatically. The microstructures were first segmented from cross-sectional OCT images. Then the spatially-isolated region-of-interest (ROI) was automatically selected to quantify its dimension. This method enables the automatic selection and quantification of spatially-resolved morphometric parameters. The quantification accuracy was validated, and measured features are in agreement with known kidney morphology. This work can enable studies to determine the clinical utility of OCT for kidney imaging, as well as studies to evaluate kidney morphology as a biomarker for assessing kidneys viability prior to transplantation.
Last year, our pathology informatics fellowship added informatics-based interactive case studies to its existing educational platform of operational and research rotations, clinical conferences, a common core curriculum with an accompanying didactic course, and national meetings.
In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in Pathology Informatics. In 2010 a core didactic course was implemented to supplement the fellowship research and operational rotations. In 2011, the course was enhanced by a formal, structured core curriculum and reading list. We present and discuss our rationale and development process for the Core Curriculum and the role it plays in our Pathology Informatics Fellowship Training Program.
Pathology Informatics is a new field; a field that is still defining itself even as it begins the formalization, accreditation, and board certification process. At the same time, Pathology itself is changing in a variety of ways that impact informatics, including subspecialization and an increased use of data analysis. In this paper, we examine how these changes impact both the structure of Pathology Informatics fellowship programs and the fellows goals within those programs.
Three-dimensional (3D) reconstruction from paraffin embedded sections has been considered laborious and time-consuming. However, the high-resolution images of large object areas and different fields of view obtained by 3D reconstruction make one wonder whether it can add a new insight into lung adenocarcinoma, the most frequent histology type of lung cancer characterized by its morphological heterogeneity.
One of the goals for a Whole Slide Imaging (WSI) system is implementation in the clinical practice of pathology. One of the unresolved problems in accomplishing this goal is the speed of the entire process, i.e., from viewing the slides through making the final diagnosis. Most users are not satisfied with the correct viewing speeds of available systems. We have evaluated a new WSI viewing station and tool that focuses on speed.
Tissue sectioning automation can be a resourceful tool in processing anatomic pathology specimens. The advantages of an automated system compared with the traditional manual sectioning rely on the consistency of the final sectioned material translated into invariable thickness, uniform orientation during serial sectioning and less tissue sectioning artifacts. This technical note presents the design of an automated tissue-sectioning device and compares the sectioned specimens with normal manual tissue sectioning performed by experienced histology technician.
In 2007, our healthcare system established a clinical fellowship program in pathology informatics. In 2011, the program benchmarked its structure and operations against a 2009 white paper "Program requirements for fellowship education in the subspecialty of clinical informatics", endorsed by the Board of the American Medical Informatics Association (AMIA) that described a proposal for a general clinical informatics fellowship program.
We tested the hypothesis that reactive oxygen species (ROS) contributed to renal hypoxia in C57BL/6 mice with ⅚ surgical reduction of renal mass (RRM). ROS can activate the mitochondrial uncoupling protein 2 (UCP-2) and increase O(2) usage. However, UCP-2 can be inactivated by glutathionylation. Mice were fed normal (NS)- or high-salt (HS) diets, and HS mice received the antioxidant drug tempol or vehicle for 3 mo. Since salt intake did not affect the tubular Na(+) transport per O(2) consumed (T(Na/)Q(O2)), further studies were confined to HS mice. RRM mice had increased excretion of 8-isoprostane F(2?) and H(2)O(2), renal expression of UCP-2 and renal O(2) extraction, and reduced T(Na/)Q(O2) (sham: 20 ± 2 vs. RRM: 10 ± 1 ?mol/?mol; P < 0.05) and cortical Po(2) (sham: 43 ± 2, RRM: 29 ± 2 mmHg; P < 0.02). Tempol normalized all these parameters while further increasing compensatory renal growth and glomerular volume. RRM mice had preserved blood pressure, glomeruli, and patchy tubulointerstitial fibrosis. The patterns of protein expression in the renal cortex suggested that RRM kidneys had increased ROS from upregulated p22(phox), NOX-2, and -4 and that ROS-dependent increases in UCP-2 led to hypoxia that activated transforming growth factor-? whereas erythroid-related factor 2 (Nrf-2), glutathione peroxidase-1, and glutathione-S-transferase mu-1 were upregulated independently of ROS. We conclude that RRM activated distinct processes: a ROS-dependent activation of UCP-2 leading to inefficient renal O(2) usage and cortical hypoxia that was offset by Nrf-2-dependent glutathionylation. Thus hypoxia in RRM may be the outcome of NADPH oxidase-initiated ROS generation, leading to mitochondrial uncoupling counteracted by defense pathways coordinated by Nrf-2.
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