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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
IL-7 receptor recovery on CD8 T-cells isolated from HIV+ patients is inhibited by the HIV Tat protein.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Expression of the IL-7 receptor ?-chain (CD127) is decreased on CD8 T-cells in HIV infected patients and partially recovers in those receiving antiretroviral therapy with sustained viral suppression. We have shown that soluble HIV Tat protein down regulates CD127 expression on CD8 T-cells isolated from healthy HIV-negative individuals. Tat is taken up by CD8 T-cells via endocytosis, exits the endosome and then translocates to the inner leaflet of the cell membrane where it binds to the cytoplasmic tail of CD127 inducing receptor internalization and degradation by the proteasome. This down regulation of CD127 by Tat results in impaired CD8 T-cell function. Interestingly, suppression of CD127 by Tat is reversible and requires the continual presence of Tat in the culture media. We thus questioned whether the low IL-7 receptor expression evident on CD8 T-cells in HIV+ patients was similarly reversible and if suppression of the receptor could be maintained ex vivo by Tat protein alone. We show here that when CD8 T-cells isolated from HIV+ patients are incubated alone in fresh medium, low CD127 expression on the cell surface recovers to normal levels. This recovery of CD127, however, is completely inhibited by the addition of HIV Tat protein to the culture media. This study then provides evidence that soluble factor(s) are responsible for low CD127 expression on circulating CD8 T-cells in HIV+ individuals and further implicates Tat in suppressing this receptor essential to CD8 T-cell proliferation and function.
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Soluble HIV Tat protein removes the IL-7 receptor alpha-chain from the surface of resting CD8 T cells and targets it for degradation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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IL-7 signaling is essential to CD8 T cell development, activation, and homeostasis. We have previously shown decreased expression of the IL-7R alpha-chain (CD127) on CD8 T cells in HIV(+) patients and that this downregulation is mediated at least in part by the HIV Tat protein. We show in this study that CD127 has a prolonged t(1/2) in resting CD8 T cells and continuously recycles on and off the cell membrane. We also demonstrate soluble Tat protein significantly decreases the t(1/2) of CD127. Soluble Tat is taken up from the medium and accumulates in CD8 T cells with a peak of 6 h. Once inside the cell, Tat exits the endosomes during their normal acidification and enters the cytosol. Tat then translocates to the inner leaflet of the cell membrane, where it binds directly to the cytoplasmic tail of CD127, inducing receptor aggregation and internalization through a process dependent on microtubules. Tat appears to then target CD127 for degradation via the proteasome. By removing CD127 from the cell surface, the HIV Tat protein is thus able to reduce IL-7 signaling and impair CD8 T cell proliferation and function.
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When infections collide--gummatous syphilis in an HIV-infected individual.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2010
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Syphilis and HIV are both transmitted sexually and have emerged as important co-pathogens with reciprocal augmentation in transmission and disease progression. HIV-positive patients tend to experience more aggressive symptomatology due to syphilis and are at greater risk of developing neurological disease. Similarly, standard therapy for syphilis may be inadequate in HIV-positive individual suggesting intensified treatment regimens may be required along with close follow-up. We report here the case of a 50-year-old HIV-positive male presenting with an unusual constellation of neurological findings. Although he had been treated appropriately 10 years previously for primary syphilis, investigations revealed multiple current intracranial gummas. Treatment with high-dose intravenous penicillin G resulted in clinical and radiographic resolution. Given the broad differential for HIV-positive patients presenting with neurological symptoms, the clinician must maintain a high index of suspicion for syphilis known for its varied and at times unusual manifestations. Further, prior treatment of syphilis does not ensure cure and so syphilis must be considered irrespective of treatment history.
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Intravenous immunoglobulin prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil reactive oxygen species (ROS) production.
PLoS ONE
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Transfusion-related acute lung injury (TRALI) is a leading cause of transfusion-associated mortality that can occur with any type of transfusion and is thought to be primarily due to donor antibodies activating pulmonary neutrophils in recipients. Recently, a large prospective case controlled clinical study of cardiac surgery patients demonstrated that despite implementation of male donors, a high incidence of TRALI still occurred and suggested a need for additional interventions in susceptible patient populations. To examine if intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIg) may be effective, a murine model of antibody-mediated acute lung injury that approximates human TRALI was examined. When BALB/c mice were injected with the anti-major histocompatibility complex class I antibody 34-1-2s, mild shock (reduced rectal temperature) and respiratory distress (dyspnea) were observed and pre-treatment of the mice with 2 g/kg IVIg completely prevented these symptoms. To determine IVIgs usefulness to affect severe lung damage, SCID mice, previously shown to be hypersensitive to 34-1-2s were used. SCID mice treated with 34-1-2s underwent severe shock, lung damage (increased wet/dry ratios) and 40% mortality within 2 hours. Treatment with 2 g/kg IVIg 18 hours before 34-1-2s administration completely protected the mice from all adverse events. Treatment with IVIg after symptoms began also reduced lung damage and mortality. While the prophylactic IVIg administration did not affect 34-1-2s-induced pulmonary neutrophil accumulation, bone marrow-derived neutrophils from the IVIg-treated mice displayed no spontaneous ROS production nor could they be stimulated in vitro with fMLP or 34-1-2s. These results suggest that IVIg prevents murine antibody-mediated acute lung injury at the level of neutrophil ROS production and thus, alleviating tissue damage.
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Microparticles and acute lung injury.
Am. J. Physiol. Lung Cell Mol. Physiol.
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The pathophysiology of acute lung injury (ALI) and its most severe form, acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), is characterized by increased vascular and epithelial permeability, hypercoagulation and hypofibrinolysis, inflammation, and immune modulation. These detrimental changes are orchestrated by cross talk between a complex network of cells, mediators, and signaling pathways. A rapidly growing number of studies have reported the appearance of distinct populations of microparticles (MPs) in both the vascular and alveolar compartments in animal models of ALI/ARDS or respective patient populations, where they may serve as diagnostic and prognostic biomarkers. MPs are small cytosolic vesicles with an intact lipid bilayer that can be released by a variety of vascular, parenchymal, or blood cells and that contain membrane and cytosolic proteins, organelles, lipids, and RNA supplied from and characteristic for their respective parental cells. Owing to this endowment, MPs can effectively interact with other cell types via fusion, receptor-mediated interaction, uptake, or mediator release, thereby acting as intrinsic stimulators, modulators, or even attenuators in a variety of disease processes. This review summarizes current knowledge on the formation and potential functional role of different MPs in inflammatory diseases with a specific focus on ALI/ARDS. ALI has been associated with the formation of MPs from such diverse cellular origins as platelets, neutrophils, monocytes, lymphocytes, red blood cells, and endothelial and epithelial cells. Because of their considerable heterogeneity in terms of origin and functional properties, MPs may contribute via both harmful and beneficial effects to the characteristic pathological features of ALI/ARDS. A better understanding of the formation, function, and relevance of MPs may give rise to new promising therapeutic strategies to modulate coagulation, inflammation, endothelial function, and permeability either through removal or inhibition of "detrimental" MPs or through administration or stimulation of "favorable" MPs.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.