Neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) display inherent pathotropic properties that can be exploited for targeted delivery of therapeutic genes to invasive malignancies in the central nervous system. Optimizing transplantation efficiency will be essential for developing relevant NSPC-based brain tumor therapies. To date, the real-world issue of handling and affixing NSPCs in the context of the neurosurgical resection cavity has not been addressed. Stem cell transplantation using biocompatible devices is a promising approach to counteract poor NSPC graft survival and integration in various types of neurological disorders. Here, we report the development of a 3-dimensional substrate that is based on extracellular matrix purified from tissue-engineered skin cultures (3DECM). 3DECM enables the expansion of embedded NSPCs in vitro while retaining their uncommitted differentiation status. When implanted in intracerebral glioma models, NSPCs were able to migrate out of the 3DECM to targeted glioma growing in the contralateral hemisphere, and this was more efficient than the delivery of NSPC by intracerebral injection of cell suspensions. Direct application of a 3DECM implant into a tumor resection cavity led to a marked NSPC infiltration of recurrent glioma. The semisolid consistency of the 3DECM implants allowed simple handling during the surgical procedure of intracerebral and intracavitary application and ensured continuous contact with the surrounding brain parenchyma. Here, we demonstrate proof-of-concept of a matrix-supported transplantation of tumor-targeting NSPC. The semisolid 3DECM as a delivery system for NSPC has the potential to increase transplantation efficiency by reducing metabolic stress and providing mechanical support, especially when administered to the surgical resection cavity after brain tumor removal.
Endogenous and transplanted neural stem cells (NSC) are highly migratory and display a unique tropism for areas of neuro-pathology. However, signals controlling NSC motility in health and disease are still ill-defined. NSC appear to be intimately associated with the cerebral vasculature and angiogenesis is a hallmark of many neurological disorders. This has led us to investigate the influence of quiescent and angiogenically active human endothelial cells on human NSC migration. In vivo we observed frequent perivascular accumulation of human NSC in the proximity of cerebral microvessels upon induction of angiogenesis by cerebral infusion of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) into the murine brain. We analyzed the in vitro effects of conditioned media from human endothelial cells before and after angiogenic stimulation with VEGF on the migration of human NSC in vitro. Non-stimulated endothelial cells induced a moderate chemotactic migration that was significantly enhanced after angiogenic activation by VEGF. In order to identify cytokines that may function as stimulators of NSC chemotaxis, we screened endothelial cell-conditioned media for the expression of 120 different cytokines. We identified PDGF-BB, RANTES, I-TAC, NAP-2, GROalpha, Ang-2, and M-CSF as endothelial cell-released chemoattractants for human NSC in vitro. VEGF-stimulated cerebral microvascular endothelial cells secreted higher levels of Ang-2 and GROalpha, which in part were responsible for the enhanced chemoattraction of NSC. Our findings support the hypothesis that the angiogenically active microvasculature modulates the local guidance of NSC through endothelial cell-derived chemoattractants.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.