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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Passive transfer of modest titers of potent and broadly neutralizing anti-HIV monoclonal antibodies block SHIV infection in macaques.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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It is widely appreciated that effective human vaccines directed against viral pathogens elicit neutralizing antibodies (NAbs). The passive transfer of anti-HIV-1 NAbs conferring sterilizing immunity to macaques has been used to determine the plasma neutralization titers, which must be present at the time of exposure, to prevent acquisition of SIV/HIV chimeric virus (SHIV) infections. We administered five recently isolated potent and broadly acting anti-HIV neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to rhesus macaques and challenged them intrarectally 24 h later with either of two different R5-tropic SHIVs. By combining the results obtained from 60 challenged animals, we determined that the protective neutralization titer in plasma preventing virus infection in 50% of the exposed monkeys was relatively modest (?1:100) and potentially achievable by vaccination.
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Enhanced Potency of a Broadly Neutralizing HIV-1 Antibody In Vitro Improves Protection against Lentiviral Infection In Vivo.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Over the past 5 years, a new generation of highly potent and broadly neutralizing HIV-1 antibodies has been identified. These antibodies can protect against lentiviral infection in nonhuman primates (NHPs), suggesting that passive antibody transfer would prevent HIV-1 transmission in humans. To increase the protective efficacy of such monoclonal antibodies, we employed next-generation sequencing, computational bioinformatics, and structure-guided design to enhance the neutralization potency and breadth of VRC01, an antibody that targets the CD4 binding site of the HIV-1 envelope. One variant, VRC07-523, was 5- to 8-fold more potent than VRC01, neutralized 96% of viruses tested, and displayed minimal autoreactivity. To compare its protective efficacy to that of VRC01 in vivo, we performed a series of simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV) challenge experiments in nonhuman primates and calculated the doses of VRC07-523 and VRC01 that provide 50% protection (EC50). VRC07-523 prevented infection in NHPs at a 5-fold lower concentration than VRC01. These results suggest that increased neutralization potency in vitro correlates with improved protection against infection in vivo, documenting the improved functional efficacy of VRC07-523 and its potential clinical relevance for protecting against HIV-1 infection in humans.
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Enhanced neonatal Fc receptor function improves protection against primate SHIV infection.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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To protect against human immunodeficiency virus (HIV-1) infection, broadly neutralizing antibodies (bnAbs) must be active at the portals of viral entry in the gastrointestinal or cervicovaginal tracts. The localization and persistence of antibodies at these sites is influenced by the neonatal Fc receptor (FcRn), whose role in protecting against infection in vivo has not been defined. Here, we show that a bnAb with enhanced FcRn binding has increased gut mucosal tissue localization, which improves protection against lentiviral infection in non-human primates. A bnAb directed to the CD4-binding site of the HIV-1 envelope (Env) protein (denoted VRC01) was modified by site-directed mutagenesis to increase its binding affinity for FcRn. This enhanced FcRn-binding mutant bnAb, denoted VRC01-LS, displayed increased transcytosis across human FcRn-expressing cellular monolayers in vitro while retaining Fc?RIIIa binding and function, including antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity (ADCC) activity, at levels similar to VRC01 (the wild type). VRC01-LS had a threefold longer serum half-life than VRC01 in non-human primates and persisted in the rectal mucosa even when it was no longer detectable in the serum. Notably, VRC01-LS mediated protection superior to that afforded by VRC01 against intrarectal infection with simian-human immunodeficiency virus (SHIV). These findings suggest that modification of FcRn binding provides a mechanism not only to increase serum half-life but also to enhance mucosal localization that confers immune protection. Mutations that enhance FcRn function could therefore increase the potency and durability of passive immunization strategies to prevent HIV-1 infection.
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Neutralizing antibodies to HIV-1 envelope protect more effectively in vivo than those to the CD4 receptor.
Sci Transl Med
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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HIV-1 infection depends on effective viral entry mediated by the interaction of its envelope (Env) glycoprotein with specific cell surface receptors. Protective antiviral antibodies generated by passive or active immunization must prevent these interactions. Because the HIV-1 Env is highly variable, attention has also focused on blocking the HIV-1 primary cell receptor CD4. We therefore analyzed the in vivo protective efficacy of three potent neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) to HIV-1 Env compared to an antibody against the CD4 receptor. Protection was assessed after mucosal challenge of rhesus macaques with simian/HIV (SHIV). Despite its comparable or greater neutralization potency in vitro, the anti-CD4 antibody did not provide effective protection in vivo, whereas the HIV-1-specific mAbs VRC01, 10E8, and PG9, targeting the CD4 binding site, membrane-proximal, and V1V2 glycan Env regions, respectively, conferred complete protection, albeit at different relative potencies. These findings demonstrate the protective efficacy of broadly neutralizing antibodies directed to the HIV-1 Env and suggest that targeting the HIV-1 Env is preferable to the cell surface receptor CD4 for the prevention of HIV-1 transmission.
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Type I interferon responses in rhesus macaques prevent SIV infection and slow disease progression.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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Inflammation in HIV infection is predictive of non-AIDS morbidity and death, higher set point plasma virus load and virus acquisition; thus, therapeutic agents are in development to reduce its causes and consequences. However, inflammation may simultaneously confer both detrimental and beneficial effects. This dichotomy is particularly applicable to type I interferons (IFN-I) which, while contributing to innate control of infection, also provide target cells for the virus during acute infection, impair CD4 T-cell recovery, and are associated with disease progression. Here we manipulated IFN-I signalling in rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) during simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) transmission and acute infection with two complementary in vivo interventions. We show that blockade of the IFN-I receptor caused reduced antiviral gene expression, increased SIV reservoir size and accelerated CD4 T-cell depletion with progression to AIDS despite decreased T-cell activation. In contrast, IFN-?2a administration initially upregulated expression of antiviral genes and prevented systemic infection. However, continued IFN-?2a treatment induced IFN-I desensitization and decreased antiviral gene expression, enabling infection with increased SIV reservoir size and accelerated CD4 T-cell loss. Thus, the timing of IFN-induced innate responses in acute SIV infection profoundly affects overall disease course and outweighs the detrimental consequences of increased immune activation. Yet, the clinical consequences of manipulation of IFN signalling are difficult to predict in vivo and therapeutic interventions in human studies should be approached with caution.
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Homologous boosting with adenoviral serotype 5 HIV vaccine (rAd5) vector can boost antibody responses despite preexisting vector-specific immunity in a randomized phase I clinical trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Needle-free delivery improves the immunogenicity of DNA vaccines but is also associated with more local reactogenicity. Here we report the first comparison of Biojector and needle administration of a candidate rAd5 HIV vaccine.
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Phase I randomized clinical trial of VRC DNA and rAd5 HIV-1 vaccine delivery by intramuscular (i.m.), subcutaneous (s.c.) and intradermal (i.d.) administration (VRC 011).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Phase 1 evaluation of the VRC HIV DNA and rAd5 vaccines delivered intramuscularly (i.m.) supported proceeding to a Phase 2 b efficacy study. Here we report comparison of the i.m., subcutaneous (s.c.) and intradermal (i.d.) routes of administration.
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No Evidence for Synergy Between Human Papillomavirus Genotypes for the Risk of High-Grade Squamous Intraepithelial Lesions in a Large Population-Based Study.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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Background.?Multiple human papillomavirus (HPV) genotypes may be independently or synergistically associated with risk of high-grade squamous intraepithelial lesions (HSILs). We evaluated the risk of HSIL in women concomitantly infected with multiple HPV genotypes.Methods.?A population-based stratified sample of 59 664 cervical cytology specimens from women residing in New Mexico were evaluated for cytologic abnormalities and HPV genotypes. We calculated the risk of HSIL in women infected with a single HPV genotype and the risk in those infected with multiple HPV genotypes.Results.?The highest risk of HSIL was observed for HPV-16 (0.036), followed by HPV-33 (0.028), HPV-58 (0.024), and HPV-18 (0.022). For most types, we observed a greater risk of HSIL in women infected with multiple carcinogenic HPV types. In contrast, the risk of HSIL was similar in women infected with HPV-16 and other types, compared with women infected with HPV-16 only. We observed an increased but plateauing risk of HSIL in women infected with multiple types, compared with those infected with a single type, with risk ratios of 1.5 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.2-1.8), 1.7 (95% CI, 1.3-2.4), and 1.4 (95% CI, 0.83-2.5) for women infected with 2, 3, and ?4 genotypes, respectively.Conclusions.?In the largest population-based study of HPV genotypes and cytologic outcomes so far, we did not see more than additive effects of HPV types on the risk of HSIL in women infected with multiple types.
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Early immunologic and virologic predictors of clinical HIV-1 disease progression.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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To identify early determinants of HIV-1 disease progression, which could potentially enable individualized patient treatment, and provide correlates of progression applicable as reference phenotypes to evaluate breakthrough infections in vaccine development.
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Immunological and virological mechanisms of vaccine-mediated protection against SIV and HIV.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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A major challenge for the development of a highly effective AIDS vaccine is the identification of mechanisms of protective immunity. To address this question, we used a nonhuman primate challenge model with simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV). We show that antibodies to the SIV envelope are necessary and sufficient to prevent infection. Moreover, sequencing of viruses from breakthrough infections revealed selective pressure against neutralization-sensitive viruses; we identified a two-amino-acid signature that alters antigenicity and confers neutralization resistance. A similar signature confers resistance of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-1 to neutralization by monoclonal antibodies against variable regions 1 and 2 (V1V2), suggesting that SIV and HIV share a fundamental mechanism of immune escape from vaccine-elicited or naturally elicited antibodies. These analyses provide insight into the limited efficacy seen in HIV vaccine trials.
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Protection against malaria by intravenous immunization with a nonreplicating sporozoite vaccine.
Science
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
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Consistent, high-level, vaccine-induced protection against human malaria has only been achieved by inoculation of Plasmodium falciparum (Pf) sporozoites (SPZ) by mosquito bites. We report that the PfSPZ Vaccine--composed of attenuated, aseptic, purified, cryopreserved PfSPZ--was safe and well tolerated when administered four to six times intravenously (IV) to 40 adults. Zero of six subjects receiving five doses and three of nine subjects receiving four doses of 1.35 × 10(5) PfSPZ Vaccine and five of six nonvaccinated controls developed malaria after controlled human malaria infection (P = 0.015 in the five-dose group and P = 0.028 for overall, both versus controls). PfSPZ-specific antibody and T cell responses were dose-dependent. These data indicate that there is a dose-dependent immunological threshold for establishing high-level protection against malaria that can be achieved with IV administration of a vaccine that is safe and meets regulatory standards.
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Delineating antibody recognition in polyclonal sera from patterns of HIV-1 isolate neutralization.
Science
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2013
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Serum characterization and antibody isolation are transforming our understanding of the humoral immune response to viral infection. Here, we show that epitope specificities of HIV-1-neutralizing antibodies in serum can be elucidated from the serum pattern of neutralization against a diverse panel of HIV-1 isolates. We determined "neutralization fingerprints" for 30 neutralizing antibodies on a panel of 34 diverse HIV-1 strains and showed that similarity in neutralization fingerprint correlated with similarity in epitope. We used these fingerprints to delineate specificities of polyclonal sera from 24 HIV-1-infected donors and a chimeric siman-human immunodeficiency virus-infected macaque. Delineated specificities matched published specificities and were further confirmed by antibody isolation for two sera. Patterns of virus-isolate neutralization can thus afford a detailed epitope-specific understanding of neutralizing-antibody responses to viral infection.
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Therapeutic vaccination expands and improves the function of the HIV-specific memory T-cell repertoire.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2013
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The licensing of herpes zoster vaccine has demonstrated that therapeutic vaccination can help control chronic viral infection. Unfortunately, human trials of immunodeficiency virus (HIV) vaccine have shown only marginal efficacy.
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DNA vaccine delivered by a needle-free injection device improves potency of priming for antibody and CD8+ T-cell responses after rAd5 boost in a randomized clinical trial.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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DNA vaccine immunogenicity has been limited by inefficient delivery. Needle-free delivery of DNA using a CO2-powered Biojector® device was compared to delivery by needle and syringe and evaluated for safety and immunogenicity.
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Surface expression patterns of negative regulatory molecules identify determinants of virus-specific CD8+ T-cell exhaustion in HIV infection.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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A highly complex network of coinhibitory and costimulatory receptors regulates the outcome of virus-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses. Here, we report on the expression patterns of multiple inhibitory receptors on HIV-specific, cytomegalovirus-specific, and bulk CD8(+) T-cell memory populations. In contrast to cytomegalovirus-specific CD8(+) T cells, the majority of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells exhibited an immature phenotype and expressed Programmed Death-1, CD160 and 2B4 but not lymphocyte activation gene-3. Notably, before antiretroviral therapy, simultaneous expression of these negative regulators correlated strongly with both HIV load and impaired cytokine production. Suppression of HIV replication by antiretroviral therapy was associated with reduced surface expression of inhibitory molecules on HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Furthermore, in vitro manipulation of Programmed Death-1 and 2B4 inhibitory pathways increased the proliferative capacity of HIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Thus, multiple coinhibitory receptors can affect the development of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses and, by extension, represent potential targets for new immune-based interventions in HIV-infected persons.
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A West Nile virus DNA vaccine utilizing a modified promoter induces neutralizing antibody in younger and older healthy adults in a phase I clinical trial.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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West Nile virus (WNV) is a flavivirus that causes meningitis and encephalitis. There are no licensed vaccines to prevent WNV in humans. The safety and immunogenicity of a first-generation WNV DNA vaccine was demonstrated in a clinical trial and a similar DNA vaccine has been licensed for use in horses.
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Plasma levels of soluble CD14 independently predict mortality in HIV infection.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2011
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Chronic human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection is associated with intestinal permeability and microbial translocation that contributes to systemic immune activation, which is an independent predictor of HIV disease progression. The association of microbial translocation with clinical outcome remains unknown.
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SPICE: exploration and analysis of post-cytometric complex multivariate datasets.
Cytometry A
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2011
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Polychromatic flow cytometry results in complex, multivariate datasets. To date, tools for the aggregate analysis of these datasets across multiple specimens grouped by different categorical variables, such as demographic information, have not been optimized. Often, the exploration of such datasets is accomplished by visualization of patterns with pie charts or bar charts, without easy access to statistical comparisons of measurements that comprise multiple components. Here we report on algorithms and a graphical interface we developed for these purposes. In particular, we discuss thresholding necessary for accurate representation of data in pie charts, the implications for display and comparison of normalized versus unnormalized data, and the effects of averaging when samples with significant background noise are present. Finally, we define a statistic for the nonparametric comparison of complex distributions to test for difference between groups of samples based on multi-component measurements. While originally developed to support the analysis of T cell functional profiles, these techniques are amenable to a broad range of datatypes.
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An augmented probit model for missing predictable covariates in quantal bioassay with small sample size.
Biometrics
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2011
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Quantal bioassay experiments relate the amount or potency of some compound; for example, poison, antibody, or drug to a binary outcome such as death or infection in animals. For infectious diseases, probit regression is commonly used for inference and a key measure of potency is given by the ID(P) , the amount that results in?P% of the animals being infected. In some experiments, a validation set may be used where both direct and proxy measures of the dose are available on a subset of animals with the proxy being available on all. The proxy variable can be viewed as a messy reflection of the direct variable, leading to an errors-in-variables problem. We develop a model for the validation set and use a constrained seemingly unrelated regression (SUR) model to obtain the distribution of the direct measure conditional on the proxy. We use the conditional distribution to derive a pseudo-likelihood based on probit regression and use the parametric bootstrap for statistical inference. We re-evaluate an old experiment in 21 monkeys where neutralizing antibodies (nABs) to HIV were measured using an old (proxy) assay in all monkeys and with a new (direct) assay in a validation set of 11 who had sufficient stored plasma. Using our methods, we obtain an estimate of the ID(1) for the new assay, an important target for HIV vaccine candidates. In simulations, we compare the pseudo-likelihood estimates with regression calibration and a full joint likelihood approach.
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Rational design of envelope identifies broadly neutralizing human monoclonal antibodies to HIV-1.
Science
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2010
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Cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) are found in the sera of many HIV-1-infected individuals, but the virologic basis of their neutralization remains poorly understood. We used knowledge of HIV-1 envelope structure to develop antigenically resurfaced glycoproteins specific for the structurally conserved site of initial CD4 receptor binding. These probes were used to identify sera with NAbs to the CD4-binding site (CD4bs) and to isolate individual B cells from such an HIV-1-infected donor. By expressing immunoglobulin genes from individual cells, we identified three monoclonal antibodies, including a pair of somatic variants that neutralized over 90% of circulating HIV-1 isolates. Exceptionally broad HIV-1 neutralization can be achieved with individual antibodies targeted to the functionally conserved CD4bs of glycoprotein 120, an important insight for future HIV-1 vaccine design.
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Perforin expression directly ex vivo by HIV-specific CD8 T-cells is a correlate of HIV elite control.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 04-22-2010
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Many immune correlates of CD8(+) T-cell-mediated control of HIV replication, including polyfunctionality, proliferative ability, and inhibitory receptor expression, have been discovered. However, no functional correlates using ex vivo cells have been identified with the known ability to cause the direct elimination of HIV-infected cells. We have recently discovered the ability of human CD8(+) T-cells to rapidly upregulate perforin--an essential molecule for cell-mediated cytotoxicity--following antigen-specific stimulation. Here, we examined perforin expression capability in a large cross-sectional cohort of chronically HIV-infected individuals with varying levels of viral load: elite controllers (n = 35), viremic controllers (n = 29), chronic progressors (n = 27), and viremic nonprogressors (n = 6). Using polychromatic flow cytometry and standard intracellular cytokine staining assays, we measured perforin upregulation, cytokine production, and degranulation following stimulation with overlapping peptide pools encompassing all proteins of HIV. We observed that HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells from elite controllers consistently display an enhanced ability to express perforin directly ex vivo compared to all other groups. This ability is not restricted to protective HLA-B haplotypes, does not require proliferation or the addition of exogenous factors, is not restored by HAART, and primarily originates from effector CD8(+) T-cells with otherwise limited functional capability. Notably, we found an inverse relationship between HIV-specific perforin expression and viral load. Thus, the capability of HIV-specific CD8(+) T-cells to rapidly express perforin defines a novel correlate of control in HIV infection.
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Comparative efficacy of hemagglutinin, nucleoprotein, and matrix 2 protein gene-based vaccination against H5N1 influenza in mouse and ferret.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Efforts to develop a broadly protective vaccine against the highly pathogenic avian influenza A (HPAI) H5N1 virus have focused on highly conserved influenza gene products. The viral nucleoprotein (NP) and ion channel matrix protein (M2) are highly conserved among different strains and various influenza A subtypes. Here, we investigate the relative efficacy of NP and M2 compared to HA in protecting against HPAI H5N1 virus. In mice, previous studies have shown that vaccination with NP and M2 in recombinant DNA and/or adenovirus vectors or with adjuvants confers protection against lethal challenge in the absence of HA. However, we find that the protective efficacy of NP and M2 diminishes as the virulence and dose of the challenge virus are increased. To explore this question in a model relevant to human disease, ferrets were immunized with DNA/rAd5 vaccines encoding NP, M2, HA, NP+M2 or HA+NP+M2. Only HA or HA+NP+M2 vaccination conferred protection against a stringent virus challenge. Therefore, while gene-based vaccination with NP and M2 may provide moderate levels of protection against low challenge doses, it is insufficient to confer protective immunity against high challenge doses of H5N1 in ferrets. These immunogens may require combinatorial vaccination with HA, which confers protection even against very high doses of lethal viral challenge.
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Neutralizing antibody titers conferring protection to macaques from a simian/human immunodeficiency virus challenge using the TZM-bl assay.
AIDS Res. Hum. Retroviruses
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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We previously reported that passive transfer of polyclonal neutralizing antibodies (NAbs) sufficient to generate a titer of 1:38 in the plasma would confer sterilizing protection to 99% of macaques challenged intravenously with 75 TCID(50) of SHIV(DH12). Neutralizing activity in that study was measured in an MT4 cell assay in which infection was completely blocked (EC(100)). In the current study, the TZM-bl system was used to measure EC(50) neutralizing titers in several of the same macaque plasma samples and the relationship between these titers and in vivo protection was determined. The antiviral EC(50) NAb titers measured in individual plasma samples were higher than those previously obtained in the MT4 system. Furthermore, the geometric mean EC(50) NAb titers against pseudotyped SHIV(DH12) were 33-fold greater than the EC(100) titers measured in the MT4 cell assay against the replication-competent SHIV(DH12) inoculated into animals. An augmented probit regression model was used to generate curves relating TZM-bl EC(50) NAb titers and protection from a virus challenge; estimated titers conferring various levels of protection were then determined. In TZM-bl assays using pseudotyped SHIV(DH12), representative percent in vivo protection/estimated EC(50) titers were 99%/1:4467, 90%/1:1175, 80%/1:676, 50%/1:234, and 33%/1:141. Because it is likely that contributions from other arms of the immune system will contribute to vaccine-induced control, the range of EC(50) NAb titers we have derived may be more informative for evaluating the protective value of NAb activity from TZM-bl assays.
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Priming immunization with DNA augments immunogenicity of recombinant adenoviral vectors for both HIV-1 specific antibody and T-cell responses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2010
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Induction of HIV-1-specific T-cell responses relevant to diverse subtypes is a major goal of HIV vaccine development. Prime-boost regimens using heterologous gene-based vaccine vectors have induced potent, polyfunctional T cell responses in preclinical studies.
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Breadth of human immunodeficiency virus-specific neutralizing activity in sera: clustering analysis and association with clinical variables.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2009
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Induction of antibodies that neutralize a broad range of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) isolates is a major goal of vaccine development. To study natural examples of broad neutralization, we analyzed sera from 103 HIV-1-infected subjects. Among progressor patients, 20% of sera neutralized more than 75% of a panel of 20 diverse viral isolates. Little activity was observed in sera from long-term nonprogressors (elite controllers). Breadth of neutralization was correlated with viral load, but not with CD4 count, history of past antiretroviral use, age, gender, race/ethnicity, or route of exposure. Clustering analysis of sera by a novel method identified a statistically robust subgrouping of sera that demonstrated broad and potent neutralization activity.
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Conditioning in 2 x 2 tables.
Biometrics
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Two-by-two tables arise in a number of diverse settings in biomedical research, including analysis of data from a clinical trial with a binary outcome and gating methods in flow cytometry to separate antigen-specific immune responses from general immune responses. These applications offer interesting challenges concerning what we should really be conditioning on-the total number of events, the number of events in the control condition, etc. We give several biostatistics examples to illustrate the complexities of analyzing what appear to be simple data.
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Public clonotype usage identifies protective Gag-specific CD8+ T cell responses in SIV infection.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2009
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Despite the pressing need for an AIDS vaccine, the determinants of protective immunity to HIV remain concealed within the complexity of adaptive immune responses. We dissected immunodominant virus-specific CD8(+) T cell populations in Mamu-A*01(+) rhesus macaques with primary SIV infection to elucidate the hallmarks of effective immunity at the level of individual constituent clonotypes, which were identified according to the expression of distinct T cell receptors (TCRs). The number of public clonotypes, defined as those that expressed identical TCR beta-chain amino acid sequences and recurred in multiple individuals, contained within the acute phase CD8(+) T cell population specific for the biologically constrained Gag CM9 (CTPYDINQM; residues 181-189) epitope correlated negatively with the virus load set point. This independent molecular signature of protection was confirmed in a prospective vaccine trial, in which clonotype engagement was governed by the nature of the antigen rather than the context of exposure and public clonotype usage was associated with enhanced recognition of epitope variants. Thus, the pattern of antigen-specific clonotype recruitment within a protective CD8(+) T cell population is a prognostic indicator of vaccine efficacy and biological outcome in an AIDS virus infection.
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Regulatory T cells promote early influx of CD8+ T cells in the lungs of respiratory syncytial virus-infected mice and diminish immunodominance disparities.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2009
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In addition to regulating autoimmunity and antitumor immunity, CD4(+) CD25(+) FoxP3(+) natural regulatory T (Treg) cells are global regulators of adaptive immune responses. Depletion of these cells with the anti-CD25 antibody PC61 prior to primary respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) infection was partial but had several effects on the RSV-specific CD8(+) response in a hybrid mouse model. Mediastinal lymph node and spleen epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses were enhanced in Treg-cell-depleted mice at all time points following infection, but responses of Treg-cell-depleted lung show a strikingly different pattern than lymphoid organ responses, with an initial delay in the CD8(+) T-cell response. The delay in the CD8(+) T-cell response correlated with a delay both in the early phase of viral clearance and in illness in Treg-cell-depleted mice compared to isotype-treated controls. The lungs of Treg-cell-depleted mice were shown to have increased lung chemokine and cytokine levels 7 days postinfection despite lower CD8(+) T-cell responses. Following the early delay in the lung response, CD8(+) T-cell responses at later infection time points were enhanced and increased the severity of illness in depleted mice. Finally, decreasing regulatory T-cell control of the CD8(+) T-cell response had a greater effect on response of the dominant K(d)-restricted M2 epitope consisting of amino acids 82 to 90 (K(d)M2(82-90)) than on the subdominant D(b)M(187-195) epitope response, indicating that regulatory T cells modulate immunodominance disparities in epitope-specific CD8(+) T-cell responses following primary RSV infection.
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Frequency and phenotype of human immunodeficiency virus envelope-specific B cells from patients with broadly cross-neutralizing antibodies.
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2009
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Induction of broadly cross-reactive neutralizing antibodies (NAb) is an important goal for a prophylactic human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) vaccine. Some HIV-infected patients make a NAb response that reacts with diverse strains of HIV-1, but most candidate vaccines have induced NAb only against a subset of highly sensitive isolates. To better understand the nature of broad NAb responses that arise during natural infection, we screened patients for sera able to neutralize diverse HIV strains and explored the frequency and phenotype of their peripheral Envelope-specific B cells. We screened 113 HIV-infected patients of various clinical statuses for the prevalence of broad NAb. Sera able to neutralize at least four of five viral isolates were found in over one-third of progressors and slow progressors, but much less frequently in aviremic long-term nonprogressors. Most Env-specific antibody-secreting B cells were CD27(hi) CD38(hi) plasmablasts, and the total plasmablast frequency was higher in HIV-infected patients than in uninfected donors. We found that 0.0031% of B cells and 0.047% of plasmablasts secreted Env-specific immunoglobulin G (IgG) in an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay. We developed a novel staining protocol to label HIV-specific B cells with Env gp140 protein. A total of 0.09% of B cells were found to be Env-specific by this method, a frequency far higher than that indicated by ELISPOT assay. gp140-labeled B cells were predominantly CD27(+) and surface IgG(+). These data describe the breadth and titer of serum NAb and the frequency and phenotype of HIV-specific B cells in a cohort of patients with broad cross-neutralizing antibody responses that are potential goals for vaccines for HIV.
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Decreased pre-existing Ad5 capsid and Ad35 neutralizing antibodies increase HIV-1 infection risk in the Step trial independent of vaccination.
PLoS ONE
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The Step trial raised the possibility that uncircumcised men with pre-existing Ad5 neutralizing antibodies carried an increased risk of HIV infection after vaccination. Thus, understanding Ad seropositivity in humans is important to the development of an AIDS vaccine. Here, we analyze the impact of different Ad5-specific neutralizing antibodies on immune function and clinical outcome.
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Virus inhibition activity of effector memory CD8(+) T cells determines simian immunodeficiency virus load in vaccinated monkeys after vaccine breakthrough infection.
J. Virol.
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The goal of an effective AIDS vaccine is to generate immunity that will prevent human immunodeficiency virus 1 (HIV-1) acquisition. Despite limited progress toward this goal, renewed optimism has followed the recent success of the RV144 vaccine trial in Thailand. However, the lack of complete protection in this trial suggests that breakthroughs, where infection occurs despite adequate vaccination, will be a reality for many vaccine candidates. We previously reported that neutralizing antibodies elicited by DNA prime-recombinant adenovirus serotype 5 (rAd5) boost vaccination with simian immunodeficiency virus strain mac239 (SIVmac239) Gag-Pol and Env provided protection against pathogenic SIVsmE660 acquisition after repeated mucosal challenge. Here, we report that SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells elicited by that vaccine lowered both peak and set-point viral loads in macaques that became infected despite vaccination. These SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells showed strong virus-inhibitory activity (VIA) and displayed an effector memory (EM) phenotype. VIA correlated with high levels of CD107a mobilization and perforin expression in SIV-specific CD8(+) T cells. Remarkably, both the frequency and the number of Gag CM9-specific public clonotypes were strongly correlated with VIA mediated by EM CD8(+) T cells. The ability to elicit such virus-specific EM CD8(+) T cells might contribute substantially to an efficacious HIV/AIDS vaccine, even after breakthrough infection.
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HIV-1 neutralization coverage is improved by combining monoclonal antibodies that target independent epitopes.
J. Virol.
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HIV-1 neutralizing monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) define key targets for vaccine development and are being considered for passive prevention of infection. We analyzed the interaction of MAbs to two independent epitopes on the viral envelope glycoprotein. Potently neutralizing MAbs to the CD4 binding site and V1V2 region displayed no in vitro cross-competition and displayed additive, though not synergistic, neutralization activity. Predicted neutralization coverage of a combination of two MAbs reached 97% on a 208-isolate panel.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.