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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
ANTI-CANCER ACTIVITY OF A NOVEL SELECTIVE CYP17A1 INHIBITOR IN PRE-CLINICAL MODELS OF CASTRATE RESISTANT PROSTATE CANCER.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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VT-464 is a novel, non-steroidal, small molecule CYP17A1 inhibitor with 17,20-lyase selectivity. This study evaluates the anti-cancer activity of VT-464 compared to abiraterone (ABI) in castrate resistant prostate cancer cell lines and xenograft models that are ENZ-responsive (C4-2) or ENZ-resistant (MR49C, MR49F). In vitro, androgen receptor (AR) transactivation was assessed by probasin luciferase reporter, while AR and AR-regulated genes and steroidogenic pathway enzymes were assessed by western blot and/or qRT-PCR. The MR49F xenograft model was used to compare effects of oral VT-464 treatment to vehicle and abiraterone acetate (AA). Steroid concentrations were measured using LC-MS chromatography. VT-464 demonstrated a greater decrease in AR transactivation compared to ABI in C4-2 and both ENZ-resistant cell lines. At the gene and protein level, VT-464 suppressed the AR axis to a greater extent compared to ABI. Gene transcripts StAR, CYP17A1, HSD17B3 and SRD5A1 increased following treatment with ABI and to a greater extent with VT-464. In vivo, intratumoral androgen levels were significantly lower after VT-464 or AA treatment compared to vehicle, with the greatest decrease seen with VT-464. Similarly, tumor growth inhibition and PSA decrease trends were greater with VT-464 than with AA. Finally, an AR-antagonist effect of VT-464 independent of CYP17A1 inhibition was observed using luciferase reporter assays and a direct interaction was confirmed using an AR ligand binding domain bio-layer interferometry. These pre-clinical results suggest greater suppression of the AR axis with VT-464 than ABI that is likely due to both superior selective suppression of androgen synthesis and AR antagonism.
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The tyrphostin, NT157, suppresses insulin receptor substrates and augments therapeutic response of prostate cancer.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Insulin-like growth factor (IGF) signaling is associated with castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) progression. Insulin receptor substrates 1 and 2 (IRS1/2) mediate mitogenic and anti-apoptotic signaling from IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R), insulin receptor and other oncoproteins. This study demonstrates that IRS1/2 expression is increased in PCa and, persists in CRPC. Furthermore, this study assesses the anti-cancer activity of NT157, a small-molecule tyrphostin targeting IRS proteins, using androgen-responsive (LNCaP) and -independent (PC3) prostate cancer cells in vitro and in vivo. NT157 treatment resulted in dose-dependent inhibition of IGF1R activation, suppression of IRS protein expression, inhibition of IGF-1-induced AKT activation, but increased ERK activation in NT157-treated cells in vitro. These effects were correlated with decreased proliferation and increasing apoptosis of LNCaP cells and increasing G2M arrest in PC3 cells. NT157 also suppressed androgen-responsive growth, delayed CRPC progression of LNCaP xenografts and suppressed PC3 tumor growth alone and in combination with docetaxel. This study reports the first preclinical proof-of-principle data that this novel small-molecule tyrosine kinase inhibitor suppresses IRS1/2 expression, delays CRPC progression, and suppresses growth of CRPC tumors in vitro and in vivo. Demonstration that IRS expression can be increased in response to a variety of stressors that may lead to resistance or reduced effect of the therapies indicate that NT157-mediated IRS1/2 down-regulation is a novel therapeutic approach for management of advanced prostate cancer.
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Heterogeneity in the inter-tumor transcriptome of high risk prostate cancer.
Genome Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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BackgroundGenomic analyses of hundreds of prostate tumors have defined a diverse landscape of mutations and genome rearrangements, but the transcriptomic effect of this complexity is less well understood, particularly at the individual tumor level. We selected a cohort of 25 high-risk prostate tumors, representing the lethal phenotype, and applied deep RNA-sequencing and matched whole genome sequencing, followed by detailed molecular characterization.ResultsTen tumors were exposed to neo-adjuvant hormone therapy and expressed marked evidence of therapy response in all except one extreme case, which demonstrated early resistance via apparent neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. We observe high inter-tumor heterogeneity, including unique sets of outlier transcripts in each tumor. Interestingly, outlier expression converged on druggable cellular pathways associated with cell cycle progression, translational control or immune regulation, suggesting distinct contemporary pathway affinity and a mechanism of tumor stratification. We characterize hundreds of novel fusion transcripts, including a high frequency of ETS fusions associated with complex genome rearrangements and the disruption of tumor suppressors. Remarkably, several tumors express unique but potentially-oncogenic non-ETS fusions, which may contribute to the phenotype of individual tumors, and have significance for disease progression. Finally, one ETS-negative tumor has a striking tandem duplication genotype which appears to be highly aggressive and present at low recurrence in ETS-negative prostate cancer, suggestive of a novel molecular subtype.ConclusionsThe multitude of rare genomic and transcriptomic events detected in a high-risk tumor cohort offer novel opportunities for personalized oncology and their convergence on key pathways and functions has broad implications for precision medicine.
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Clusterin inhibition using OGX-011 synergistically enhances zoledronic acid activity in osteosarcoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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Despite recent improvements in therapeutic management of osteosarcoma, ongoing challenges in improving the response to chemotherapy warrants new strategies still needed to improve overall patient survival. Among new therapeutic approaches, zoledronic acid (ZOL) represents a promising adjuvant molecule to chemotherapy to limit the osteolytic component of bone tumors. However, ZOL triggers the elevation of heat shock proteins (Hsp), including Hsp27 and clusterin (CLU), which could enhance tumor cell survival and treatment resistance. We hypothesized that targeting CLU using siRNA or the antisense drug, OGX-011, will suppress treatment-induced CLU induction and enhance ZOL-induced cell death in osteosarcoma (OS) cells.
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Combination AZD5363 with Enzalutamide Significantly Delays Enzalutamide-resistant Prostate Cancer in Preclinical Models.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase/Akt (PI3K/Akt) pathway is a key pathway activated in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). This preclinical study evaluates targeting of Akt with AZD5363 alone and in combination with enzalutamide (ENZ) to prevent and delay resistance. Our results demonstrate AZD5363 has significant proapoptotic, antiproliferative activity as monotherapy in ENZ-resistant cell lines in vitro and significantly decreased tumour growth in ENZ-resistant xenograft. The combination of AZD5363 and ENZ showed synergistic decreases in cell proliferation and induced cell-cycle arrest and apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines LNCaP and C4-2. Notably, the combination of AZD5363 and ENZ resulted in an impressive regression of castrate-resistant LNCaP xenograft tumours without any recurrence demonstrated, whereas progression occurred with both monotherapies. Serum prostate-specific antigen (PSA) levels were also continuously suppressed, and nadir PSA levels were lower in the combination arm compared to ENZ alone. Combination AZD5363 and ENZ at time of castration similarly resulted in significant regression of tumours, with greater relative suppression of PSA compared to when administered to castrate-resistant xenografts. In summary, combination AZD5363 and ENZ significantly delays the development of ENZ resistance in preclinical models through synergistic increases in apoptosis and cell cycle arrest. Our results also suggest greater efficacy may be seen with earlier combination treatment. This study provides preclinical data to support evaluation of combination targeting of the PI3K/Akt pathway and the androgen-receptor axis in the clinic using AZD5363 and ENZ, respectively.
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The expression of glucocorticoid receptor is negatively regulated by active androgen receptor signaling in prostate tumors.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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The glucocorticoid and androgen receptors (GR and AR) can commonly regulate up to 50% of their target genes in prostate cancer (PCa) cells. GR expression is stimulated by castration therapy, which has been proposed to be one mechanism that compensates for AR signaling blockade and promotes castration-resistant PCa (CRPC) progression. However, whether GR functions as a driver for CRPC or a marker reflecting AR activity remains unclear. Here, we applied PCa tissue microarrays to show that GR protein levels were elevated by castration therapy, but reduced to pre-castration levels when tumors were at the CRPC stage. Using subrenal capsule xenograft models, we showed that GR expression was inversely correlated with AR and PSA expressions. GR expression levels are not associated with tumor invasion and metastasis phenotypes. In castration-resistant C4-2 xenografts expressing AR shRNA, regressing tumors induced by AR knockdown expressed higher levels of GR and lower levels of PSA than non-regressing tumors. Immunoblotting and real-time PCR assays further showed that AR knockdown or AR antagonists increased GR expression at both mRNA and protein levels. ChIP combined with DNA sequencing techniques identified a negative androgen responsive element (nARE) 160K base pairs upstream of the GR gene. Gel shift assays confirmed that AR directly interacted with the nARE and luciferase assays demonstrated that the nARE could mediate transcription repression by ligand-activated AR. In conclusion, GR expression is negatively regulated by AR signaling and may serve as a marker for AR signaling in prostate tumors.
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The role of homeostatic regulation between tumor suppressor DAB2IP and oncogenic Skp2 in prostate cancer growth.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Altered DAB2IP gene expression often detected in prostate cancer (PCa) is due to epigenetic silencing. In this study, we unveil a new mechanism leading to the loss of DAB2IP protein; an oncogenic S-phase kinase-associated protein-2 (Skp2) as E3 ubiquitin ligase plays a key regulator in DAB2IP degradation. In order to unveil the role of Skp2 in the turnover of DAB2IP protein, both prostate cell lines and prostate cancer specimens with a variety of molecular and cell biologic techniques were employed. We demonstrated that DAB2IP is regulated by Skp2-mediated proteasome degradation in the prostate cell lines. Further analyses identified the N-terminal DAB2IP containing the ubiquitination site. Immunohistochemical study exhibited an inverse correlation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein expression in the prostate cancer tissue microarray. In contrast, DAB2IP can suppressSkp2 protein expression is mediated through Akt signaling. The reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 can impact on the growth of PCa cells. This reciprocal regulation between DAB2IP and Skp2 protein represents a unique homeostatic balance between tumor suppressor and oncoprotein in normal prostate epithelia, which is apparently altered in cancer cells. The outcome of this study has identified new potential targets for developing new therapeutic strategy for PCa.
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Crosstalk between nuclear MET and SOX9/?-catenin correlates with castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Castration-resistant prostate cancer (PCa) (CRPC) is relapse after various forms of androgen ablation therapy and causes a major mortality in PCa patients, yet the mechanism remains poorly understood. Here, we report the nuclear form of mesenchymal epithelial transition factor (nMET) is essential for CRPC. Specifically, nMET is remarkably increased in human CRPC samples compared with naïve samples. Androgen deprivation induces endogenous nMET and promotes cell proliferation and stem-like cell self-renewal in androgen-nonresponsive PCa cells. Mechanistically, nMET activates SRY (sex determining region Y)-box9, ?-catenin, and Nanog homeobox and promotes sphere formation in the absence of androgen stimulus. Combined treatment of MET and ?-catenin enhances the inhibition of PCa cell growth. Importantly, MET accumulation is detected in nucleus of recurrent prostate tumors of castrated Pten/Trp53 null mice, whereas MET elevation is predominantly found in membrane of naïve tumors. Our findings reveal for the first time an essential role of nMET association with SOX9/?-catenin in CRPC in vitro and in vivo, highlighting that nuclear RTK activate cell reprogramming to drive recurrence, and targeting nMET would be a new avenue to treat recurrent cancers.
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Hsp27 regulates EGF/?-catenin mediated epithelial to mesenchymal transition in prostate cancer.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2014
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Increased expression of the molecular chaperone Hsp27 is associated with the progression of prostate cancer (PCa) to castration-resistant disease, which is lethal due to metastatic spread of the prostate tumor. Metastasis requires epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which endows cancer cells with the ability to disseminate from the primary tumor and colonize new tissue sites. A wide variety of secreted factors promote EMT, and while overexpression and constitutive activation of epidermal growth factor (EGF) signaling is associated with poor prognosis of PCa, a precise role of EGF in PCa progression to metastasis remains unclear. Here, we show that Hsp27 is required for EGF-induced cell migration, invasion and MMPs activity as well as the expression of EMT markers including Fibronectin, Vimentin and Slug with concomitant decrease of E-cadherin. Mechanistically, we found that Hsp27 is required for EGF-induced AKT and GSK3? phosphorylation and ?-catenin nuclear translocation. Moreover, silencing Hsp27 decreases EGF dependent phosphorylation of ?-catenin on tyrosine 142 and 654, enhances ?-catenin ubiquitination and degradation, prevents ?-catenin nuclear translocation and binding to the Slug promoter. These data suggest that Hsp27 is required for EGF-mediated EMT via modulation of the ?-catenin/Slug signaling pathway. Together, our findings underscore the importance of Hsp27 in EGF induced EMT in PCa and highlight the use of Hsp27 knockdown as a useful strategy for patients with advanced disease. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The BIRC6 gene as a novel target for therapy of prostate cancer: dual targeting of inhibitors of apoptosis.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2014
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Treatment resistance, the major challenge in the management of advanced prostate cancer, is in part based on resistance to apoptosis. The Inhibitor of Apoptosis (IAP) family is thought to play key roles in survival and drug resistance of cancer via inhibition of apoptosis. Of the IAP family members, cIAP1, cIAP2, XIAP and survivin are known to be up-regulated in prostate cancer. BIRC6, a much less studied IAP member, was recently shown to be elevated in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In the present study, we showed a correlation between elevated BIRC6 expression in clinical prostate cancer specimens and poor patient prognostic factors, as well as co-upregulation of certain IAP members. In view of this, we designed antisense oligonucleotides that simultaneously target BIRC6 and another co-upregulated IAP member (dASOs). Two dASOs, targeting BIRC6+cIAP1 and BIRC6+survivin, showed substantial inhibition of CRPC cells proliferation, exceeding that obtained with single BIRC6 targeting. The growth inhibition was associated with increased apoptosis, cell cycle arrest and suppression of NFkB activation. Moreover, treatment with both dASOs led to significantly lower viable tumor volume in vivo, without major host toxicity. This study shows that BIRC6-based dual IAP-targeting ASOs represent potential novel therapeutic agents against advanced prostate cancer.
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The Melbourne Consensus Statement on the early detection of prostate cancer.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2014
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Various conflicting guidelines and recommendations about prostate cancer screening and early detection have left both clinicians and their patients quite confused. At the Prostate Cancer World Congress held in Melbourne in August 2013, a multidisciplinary group of the world's leading experts in this area gathered together and generated this set of consensus statements to bring some clarity to this confusion. The five consensus statements provide clear guidance for clinicians counselling their patients about the early detection of prostate cancer.
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Comparison of open and robotic-assisted prostatectomy: The University of British Columbia experience.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
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We assessed outcomes and costs of open prostatectomy (OP) versus robotic-assisted prostatectomy (RAP) at a single tertiary care university hospital.
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Aggressive variants of castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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A subset of patients with advanced castration-resistant prostate cancer may eventually evolve into an androgen receptor (AR)-independent phenotype, with a clinical picture associated with the development of rapidly progressive disease involving visceral sites and hormone refractoriness, often in the setting of a low or modestly rising serum prostate-specific antigen level. Biopsies performed in such patients may vary, ranging from poorly differentiated carcinomas to mixed adenocarcinoma-small cell carcinomas to pure small cell carcinomas. These aggressive tumors often demonstrate low or absent AR protein expression and, in some cases, express markers of neuroendocrine differentiation. Because tumor morphology is not always predicted by clinical behavior, the terms "anaplastic prostate cancer" or "neuroendocrine prostate cancer" have been used descriptively to describe these rapidly growing clinical features. Patients meeting clinical criteria of anaplastic prostate cancer have been shown to predict for poor prognosis, and these patients may be considered for platinum-based chemotherapy treatment regimens. Therefore, understanding variants within the spectrum of advanced prostate cancer has important diagnostic and treatment implications.
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Reproducibility and efficiency of serum-derived exosome extraction methods.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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Exosomes are emerging as a source of biomarkers with putative prognostic and diagnostic value. However, little is known about the efficiency, reproducibility and reliability of the protocols routinely used to quantify exosomes in the human serum.
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Ablation of the oncogenic transcription factor ERG by deubiquitinase inhibition in prostate cancer.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2014
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The transcription factor E-twenty-six related gene (ERG), which is overexpressed through gene fusion with the androgen-responsive gene transmembrane protease, serine 2 (TMPRSS2) in ?40% of prostate tumors, is a key driver of prostate carcinogenesis. Ablation of ERG would disrupt a key oncogenic transcriptional circuit and could be a promising therapeutic strategy for prostate cancer treatment. Here, we show that ubiquitin-specific peptidase 9, X-linked (USP9X), a deubiquitinase enzyme, binds ERG in VCaP prostate cancer cells expressing TMPRSS2-ERG and deubiquitinates ERG in vitro. USP9X knockdown resulted in increased levels of ubiquitinated ERG and was coupled with depletion of ERG. Treatment with the USP9X inhibitor WP1130 resulted in ERG degradation both in vivo and in vitro, impaired the expression of genes enriched in ERG and prostate cancer relevant gene signatures in microarray analyses, and inhibited growth of ERG-positive tumors in three mouse xenograft models. Thus, we identified USP9X as a potential therapeutic target in prostate cancer cells and established WP1130 as a lead compound for the development of ERG-depleting drugs.
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Growth kinetics of small renal masses: A prospective analysis from the Renal Cell Carcinoma Consortium of Canada.
Can Urol Assoc J
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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Most small renal masses (SRMs) are diagnosed incidentally and have a low malignant potential. As more elderly patients and infirm patients are diagnosed with SRMs, there is an increased interest in active surveillance (AS) with delayed intervention. Patient and tumour characteristics relating to aggressive disease have not been well-studied. The objective was to determine predictors of growth of SRMs treated with AS.
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Next-generation steroidogenesis inhibitors, dutasteride and abiraterone, attenuate but still do not eliminate androgen biosynthesis in 22RV1 cells in vitro.
J. Steroid Biochem. Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2014
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Castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is often lethal and inevitably develops after androgen ablation therapy. However, in the majority of cases it remains androgen dependent. CRPC tumors have the ability to synthesize their own androgens from cholesterol by engaging in de novo steroidogenesis. We investigated the potential of 22RV1 prostate cancer cells to convert the supplemented steroid precursors within this pathway under the effects of current clinical steroidogenesis inhibitors such as abiraterone and dutasteride, either alone or in combination. Under steroid starved conditions, enzymes responsible for de novo steroidogenesis were upregulated. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) were formed by using both dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) and progesterone as substrates. Formation of testosterone and DHT was higher following incubation with DHEA compared to progesterone. Progesterone decreased the mRNA expression of enzymes responsible for steroidogenesis. Abiraterone treatment decreased testosterone production but increased several precursor steroids in both classical and backdoor pathways in the presence of progesterone. In contrast, the DHT levels were elevated following treatment with abiraterone when progesterone was absent. Dutasteride decreased the formation of testosterone, DHT and precursor steroids in the backdoor pathway but increased steroid precursors in the classical steroidogenesis pathway. The combination of abiraterone and dutasteride decreased testosterone and DHT in the presence of progesterone but increased DHT in the absence of progesterone. Abiraterone inhibited androgen receptor (AR) activation but not to the same extent as MDV3100. However, abiraterone and dutasteride treatment, either alone or in combination, were more effective in decreasing prostate specific antigen secretion into the media than MDV3100. Thus, while interventions with these drugs alone or in combination fail to completely inhibit steroidogenesis in the 22RV1 cells, the combined inhibition of androgen production and blockade of AR can exceed the effect of MDV3100. Further characterization of bypass mechanisms that may develop as a response to these inhibitors is necessary to achieve optimal suppression of testosterone and DHT synthesis as a part of therapeutic regimens for the treatment of CRPC.
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Promotion of cell proliferation by clusterin in the renal tissue repair phase after ischemia-reperfusion injury.
Am. J. Physiol. Renal Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
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Renal repair begins soon after the kidney suffers ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI); however, its molecular pathways are not fully understood. Clusterin (Clu) is a chaperone protein with cytoprotective functions in renal IRI. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of Clu in renal repair after IRI. IRI was induced in the left kidneys of wild-type (WT) C57BL/6J (B6) vs. Clu knockout (KO) B6 mice by clamping the renal pedicles for 28-45 min at the body temperature of 32°C. The renal repair was assessed by histology and confirmed by renal function. Gene expression was examined using PCR array. Here, we show that following IRI, renal tubular damage and Clu expression in WT kidneys were induced at day 1, reached the maximum at day 3, and significantly diminished at day 7 along with normal function, whereas the tubular damage in Clu KO kidneys steadily increased from initiation of insult to the end of the experiment, when renal failure occurred. Renal repair in WT kidneys was positively correlated with an increase in Ki67(+) proliferative tubular cells and survival from IRI. The functions of Clu in renal repair and renal tubular cell proliferation in cultures were associated with upregulation of a panel of genes that could positively regulate cell cycle progression and DNA damage repair, which might promote cell proliferation but not involve cell migration. In conclusion, these data suggest that Clu is required for renal tissue regeneration in the kidney repair phase after IRI, which is associated with promotion of tubular cell proliferation.
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GATA2 as a potential metastasis-driving gene in prostate cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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Effective treatment for metastatic prostate cancer is critically needed. The present study was aimed at identifying metastasis-driving genes as potential targets for therapy (oncotargets). A differential gene expression profile of metastatic LTL-313H and non-metastatic LTL-313B prostate cancer tissue xenografts, derived from one patient's specimen, was subjected to integrative analysis using the Ingenuity Upstream Regulator Analysis tool. Six candidate master regulatory genes were identified, including GATA2, a gene encoding a pioneer factor, a special transcription factor facilitating the recruitment of additional transcription factors. Elevated GATA2 expression in metastatic prostate cancer tissues correlated with poor patient prognosis. Furthermore, GATA2 gene silencing in human prostate cancer LNCaP cells led to a marked reduction in cell migration, tissue invasion, focal adhesion disassembly and to a dramatic change in cell transcriptomes, indicating that GATA2 plays a critical role in prostate cancer metastasis. As such, GATA2 could represent a prostate cancer metastasis-driving gene and a potential target for therapy of metastatic prostate cancer.
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Cabazitaxel Remains Active in Patients Progressing After Docetaxel Followed by Novel Androgen Receptor Pathway Targeted Therapies.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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Cabazitaxel, abiraterone acetate (AA), and enzalutamide have been approved for the treatment of patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) following docetaxel chemotherapy. Whether taxanes and next-generation androgen receptor (AR) axis inhibitors are cross-resistant or not is a subject of debate.
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Insulin-like growth factor-I induces CLU expression through Twist1 to promote prostate cancer growth.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Clusterin (CLU) is cytoprotective molecular chaperone that is highly expressed in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). CRPC is also characterized by increased insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I responsiveness which induces prostate cancer survival and CLU expression. However, how IGF-I induces CLU expression and whether CLU is required for IGF-mediated growth signaling remain unknown. Here we show that IGF-I induced CLU via STAT3-Twist1 signaling pathway. In response to IGF-I, STAT3 was phosphorylated, translocated to the nucleus and bound to the Twist1 promoter to activate Twist1 transcription. In turn, Twist1 bound to E-boxes on the CLU promoter and activated CLU transcription. Inversely, we demonstrated that knocking down Twist1 abrogated IGF-I induced CLU expression, indicating that Twist1 mediated IGF-I-induced CLU expression. When PTEN knockout mice were crossed with lit/lit mice, the resultant IGF-I deficiency suppressed Twist1 as well as CLU gene expression in mouse prostate glands. Moreover, both Twist1 and CLU knockdown suppressed prostate cancer growth accelerated by IGF-I, suggesting the relevance of this signaling not only in an in vitro, but also in an in vivo. Collectively, this study indicates that IGF-I induces CLU expression through sequential activation of STAT3 and Twist1, and suggests that this signaling cascade plays a critical role in prostate cancer pathogenesis.
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Suppression of heat shock protein 27 using OGX-427 induces endoplasmic reticulum stress and potentiates heat shock protein 90 inhibitors to delay castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Although prostate cancer responds initially to androgen ablation therapies, progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) frequently occurs. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 90 inhibition is a rational therapeutic strategy for CRPC that targets key proteins such as androgen receptor (AR) and protein kinase B (Akt); however, most Hsp90 inhibitors trigger elevation of stress proteins like Hsp27 that confer tumor cell survival and treatment resistance.
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Systematic identification and characterization of RNA editing in prostate tumors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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RNA editing modifies the sequence of primary transcripts, potentially resulting in profound effects to RNA structure and protein-coding sequence. Recent analyses of RNA sequence data are beginning to provide insights into the distribution of RNA editing across the entire transcriptome, but there are few published matched whole genome and transcriptome sequence datasets, and designing accurate bioinformatics methodology has proven highly challenging. To further characterize the RNA editome, we analyzed 16 paired DNA-RNA sequence libraries from prostate tumor specimens, employing a comprehensive strategy to rescue low coverage sites and minimize false positives. We identified over a hundred thousand putative RNA editing events, a third of which were recurrent in two or more samples, and systematically characterized their type and distribution across the genome. Within genes the majority of events affect non-coding regions such as introns and untranslated regions (UTRs), but 546 genes had RNA editing events predicted to result in deleterious amino acid alterations. Finally, we report a potential association between RNA editing of microRNA binding sites within 3' UTRs and increased transcript expression. These results provide a systematic characterization of the landscape of RNA editing in low coverage sequence data from prostate tumor specimens. We demonstrate further evidence for RNA editing as an important regulatory mechanism and suggest that the RNA editome should be further studied in cancer.
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Prostate stromal cells express the progesterone receptor to control cancer cell mobility.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Reciprocal interactions between epithelium and stroma play vital roles for prostate cancer development and progression. Enhanced secretions of cytokines and growth factors by cancer associated fibroblasts in prostate tumors create a favorable microenvironment for cancer cells to grow and metastasize. Our previous work showed that the progesterone receptor (PR) was expressed specifically in prostate stromal fibroblasts and smooth muscle cells. However, the expression levels of PR and its impact to tumor microenvironment in prostate tumors are poorly understood.
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High fidelity patient-derived xenografts for accelerating prostate cancer discovery and drug development.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-19-2013
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Standardized and reproducible pre-clinical models that recapitulate the dynamics of prostate cancer (PCa) are urgently needed. We established a bank of transplantable patient-derived PCa xenografts that capture the biological and molecular heterogeneity currently confounding prognostication and therapy development. Xenografts preserved the histopathology, genome architecture, and global gene expression of donor tumours. Moreover, their aggressiveness matched patient observations, and their response to androgen withdrawal correlated with tumor subtype. The panel includes the first xenografts generated from needle biopsy tissue obtained at diagnosis. This advance was exploited to generate independent xenografts from different sites of a primary site: enabling functional dissection of tumor heterogeneity. Prolonged exposure of adenocarcinoma xenografts to androgen withdrawal led to castration-resistant PCa, including the first-in-field model of complete transdifferentiation into lethal neuroendocrine PCa. Further analysis of this model supports the hypothesis that neuroendocrine PCa can evolve directly from adenocarcinoma via an adaptive response, and yielded a set of genes potentially involved in neuroendocrine transdifferentiation. We predict that these next-generation models will be transformative for advancing mechanistic understanding of disease progression, response to therapy and personalized oncology.
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Targeting amino acid transport in metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer: effects on cell cycle, cell growth, and tumor development.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2013
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L-type amino acid transporters (LATs) uptake neutral amino acids including L-leucine into cells, stimulating mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1 signaling and protein synthesis. LAT1 and LAT3 are overexpressed at different stages of prostate cancer, and they are responsible for increasing nutrients and stimulating cell growth.
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Protein expression of PTEN, insulin-like growth factor I receptor (IGF-IR), and lethal prostate cancer: a prospective study.
Cancer Epidemiol. Biomarkers Prev.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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Loss of PTEN has been shown to be associated with aggressive behavior of prostate cancer. It is less clear that loss of PTEN also increases the risk of cancer mortality. We investigated the association between PTEN expression and prostate cancer mortality and the potential effect modification by IGF-IR, a direct activator of the phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K) pathway.
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Synergistic targeting of PI3K/AKT pathway and androgen receptor axis significantly delays castration-resistant prostate cancer progression in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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The progression to castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) correlates with gain-of-function of the androgen receptor (AR) and activation of AKT. However, as single agents, AR or AKT inhibitors result in a reciprocal feedback loop. Therefore, we hypothesized that combination of an AKT inhibitor with an antiandrogen might result in a more profound, long-lasting remission of CRPC. Here, we report that the AKT inhibitor AZD5363 potently inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis in prostate cancer cell lines expressing the AR and has anticancer activity in vivo in androgen-sensitive and castration-resistant phases of the LNCaP xenograft model. However, we found that the effect of castration-resistant tumor growth inhibition and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) stabilization is transient and resistance occurs with increasing PSA after approximately 30 days of treatment. Mechanistically, we found that single agent AZD5363 induces increase of AR binding to androgen response element, AR transcriptional activity, and AR-dependent genes such as PSA and NKX3.1 expression. These effects were overcome by the combination of AZD5363 with the antiandrogen bicalutamide, resulting in synergistic inhibition of cell proliferation and induction of apoptosis in vitro, and prolongation of tumor growth inhibition and PSA stabilization in CRPC in vivo. This study provides a preclinical proof-of-concept that combination of an AKT inhibitor with antiandrogen results in prolonged disease stabilization in a model of CRPC.
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The mechanism of DAB2IP in chemoresistance of prostate cancer cells.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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The docetaxel-based chemotherapy is the standard of care for castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), inevitably, patients develop resistance and decease. Until now, the mechanism and predictive marker for chemoresistance are poorly understood.
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Extracellular HSP27 mediates angiogenesis through Toll-like receptor 3.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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The heat-shock protein 27 (HSP27) is up-regulated in tumor cells and released in their microenvironment. Here, we show that extracellular HSP27 has a proangiogenic effect evidenced on chick chorioallantoic membrane. To explore this effect, we test the recombinant human protein (rhHSP27) at physiopathological doses (0.1-10 ?g/ml) onto human microvascular endothelial cells (HMECs) grown as monolayers or spheroids. When added onto HMECs, rhHSP27 dose-dependently accelerates cell migration (with a peak at 5 ?g/ml) and favors spheroid sprouting within 12-24 h. rhHSP27 increases VEGF gene transcription and promotes secretion of VEGF-activating VEGF receptor type 2. Increased VEGF transcription is related to NF-?B activation in 30 min. All of these effects are initiated by rhHSP27 interaction with Toll-like receptor 3 (TLR3). Such an interaction can be detected by immunoprecipitation but does not seem to be direct, as we failed to detect an interaction between rhHSP27 and monomeric TLR3 by SPR analysis. rhHSP27 is rapidly internalized with a pool of TLR3 to the endosomal compartment (within 15-30 min), which is required for NF-?B activation in a cytosolic Ca(2+)-dependent manner. The HSP27/TLR3 interaction induces NF-?B activation, leading to VEGF-mediated cell migration and angiogenesis. Such a pathway provides alternative targets for antiangiogenic cancer therapy.
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Mutation of the salt bridge-forming residues in the ETV6-SAM domain interface blocks ETV6-NTRK3-induced cellular transformation.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2013
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The ETV6-NTRK3 (EN) chimeric oncogene is expressed in diverse tumor types. EN is generated by a t(12;15) translocation, which fuses the N-terminal SAM (sterile ?-motif) domain of the ETV6 (or TEL) transcription factor to the C-terminal PTK (protein-tyrosine kinase) domain of the neurotrophin-3 receptor NTRK3. SAM domain-mediated polymerization of EN leads to constitutive activation of the PTK domain and constitutive signaling of the Ras-MAPK and PI3K-Akt pathways, which are essential for EN oncogenesis. Here we show through complementary biophysical and cellular biological techniques that mutation of Lys-99, which participates in a salt bridge at the SAM polymer interface, reduces self-association of the isolated SAM domain as well as high molecular mass complex formation of EN and abrogates the transformation activity of EN. We also show that mutation of Asp-101, the intermolecular salt bridge partner of Lys-99, similarly blocks transformation of NIH3T3 cells by EN, reduces EN tyrosine phosphorylation, inhibits Akt and Mek1/2 signaling downstream of EN, and abolishes tumor formation in nude mice. In contrast, mutations of Glu-100 and Arg-103, residues in the vicinity of the interdomain Lys-99-Asp-101 salt bridge, have little or no effect on these oncogenic characteristics of EN. Our results underscore the importance of specific electrostatic interactions for SAM polymerization and EN transformation.
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Cotargeting Androgen Receptor and Clusterin Delays Castrate-Resistant Prostate Cancer Progression by Inhibiting Adaptive Stress Response and AR Stability.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Although androgen receptor (AR) pathway inhibitors prolong survival in castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), resistance rapidly develops and is often associated with increased stress-activated molecular chaperones like clusterin (CLU) and continued AR signaling. Because adaptive pathways activated by treatment facilitate development of acquired resistance, cotargeting the stress response, activated by AR inhibition and mediated through CLU, may create conditional lethality and improve outcomes. Here, we report that CLU is induced by AR antagonism and silencing using MDV3100 and antisense, respectively, to become highly expressed in castrate- and MDV3100-resistant tumors and cell lines. CLU, as well as AKT and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signalosomes, increase in response to MDV3100-induced stress. Mechanistically, this stress response is coordinated by a feed-forward loop involving p90rsk (RPS6KA)-mediated phosphoactivation of YB-1 with subsequent induction of CLU. CLU inhibition repressed MDV3100-induced activation of AKT and MAPK pathways. In addition, when combined with MDV3100, CLU knockdown accelerated AR degradation and repressed AR transcriptional activity through mechanisms involving decreased YB-1-regulated expression of the AR cochaperone, FKBP52. Cotargeting the AR (with MDV3100) and CLU (with OGX-011) synergistically enhanced apoptotic rates over that seen with MDV3100 or OGX-011 monotherapy and delayed CRPC LNCaP tumor and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression in vivo. These data indicate that cotargeting adaptive stress pathways activated by AR pathway inhibitors, and mediated through CLU, creates conditional lethality and provides mechanistic and preclinical proof-of-principle to guide biologically rational combinatorial clinical trial design.
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Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: From New Pathophysiology to New Treatment.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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Until recently, the only approved agent for metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) was docetaxel chemotherapy. But over the last 5 years, significant advances in the field have led to the approval of five new agents, each with different mechanisms of action and demonstrating improved overall survival in separate randomized phase 3 trials. Many of these novel agents are now also being evaluated in earlier stages of the disease, which may ultimately lead to even better outcomes.
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A model for the design and construction of a resource for the validation of prognostic prostate cancer biomarkers: the Canary Prostate Cancer Tissue Microarray.
Adv Anat Pathol
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Tissue microarrays (TMAs) provide unique resources for rapid evaluation and validation of tissue biomarkers. The Canary Foundation Retrospective Prostate Tissue Microarray Resource used a rigorous statistical design, quota sampling, a variation of the case-cohort study, to select patients for inclusion in a multicenter, retrospective prostate cancer TMA cohort. The study is designed to definitively validate tissue biomarkers of prostate cancer recurrence after radical prostatectomy. Tissue samples from over 1000 participants treated for prostate cancer with radical prostatectomy between 1995 and 2004 were selected at 6 participating institutions in the United States and Canada. This design captured the heterogeneity of screening and clinical practices in the contemporary North American population. Standardized clinical data were collected in a centralized database. The project has been informative in several respects. The scale and complexity of assembling TMAs with over 200 cases at each of 6 sites involved unanticipated levels of effort and time. Our statistical design promises to provide a model for outcome-based studies where tissue localization methods are applied to high-density TMAs.
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Expression and function of the progesterone receptor in human prostate stroma provide novel insights to cell proliferation control.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Like other tissues, the prostate is an admixture of many different cell types that can be segregated into components of the epithelium or stroma. Reciprocal interactions between these 2 types of cells are critical for maintaining prostate homeostasis, whereas aberrant stromal cell proliferation can disrupt this balance and result in diseases such as benign prostatic hyperplasia. Although the androgen and estrogen receptors are relatively well studied for their functions in controlling stromal cell proliferation and differentiation, the role of the progesterone receptor (PR) remains unclear.
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The eEF2 kinase confers resistance to nutrient deprivation by blocking translation elongation.
Cell
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2013
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Metabolic adaptation is essential for cell survival during nutrient deprivation. We report that eukaryotic elongation factor 2 kinase (eEF2K), which is activated by AMP-kinase (AMPK), confers cell survival under acute nutrient depletion by blocking translation elongation. Tumor cells exploit this pathway to adapt to nutrient deprivation by reactivating the AMPK-eEF2K axis. Adaptation of transformed cells to nutrient withdrawal is severely compromised in cells lacking eEF2K. Moreover, eEF2K knockdown restored sensitivity to acute nutrient deprivation in highly resistant human tumor cell lines. In vivo, overexpression of eEF2K rendered murine tumors remarkably resistant to caloric restriction. Expression of eEF2K strongly correlated with overall survival in human medulloblastoma and glioblastoma multiforme. Finally, C. elegans strains deficient in efk-1, the eEF2K ortholog, were severely compromised in their response to nutrient depletion. Our data highlight a conserved role for eEF2K in protecting cells from nutrient deprivation and in conferring tumor cell adaptation to metabolic stress. PAPERCLIP:
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Evolving landscape and novel treatments in metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Asian J. Androl.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2013
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Treatment options for castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) have advanced in recent years and significantly improved the outlook for patients with this aggressive and lethal disease. Further understanding of the biology of CRPC has led to several new targeted therapies and continues to emphasize the importance of androgen receptor (AR) directed therapy. The treatment landscape is rapidly changing and further biologically rationale, biomarker-based ongoing clinical trials are needed. We review the recent results of major clinical trials in CRPC. New and investigational agents now in clinical evaluation are reviewed including inhibitors of angiogenesis, microtubules, chaperones, AR and intracellular kinases, as well as immunotherapy, radiopharmaceuticals and bone-targeted agents. The recent improvement in prognosis for CRPC brings continued optimism for further improvements. Thoughtful planning of clinical trials and further understanding of the mechanisms of resistance to therapies will allow for continued progress in patient care.
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Phase III, randomized, placebo-controlled study of docetaxel in combination with zibotentan in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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PURPOSE As part of the ENTHUSE (Endothelin A Use) program, the efficacy and safety of zibotentan (ZD4054), an oral specific endothelin A receptor antagonist, has been investigated in combination with docetaxel in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). PATIENTS AND METHODS In this randomized, double-blind, placebo-controlled, phase III study, patients received intravenous docetaxel 75 mg/m(2) on day 1 of 21-day cycles plus oral zibotentan 10 mg or placebo once daily. The primary end point was overall survival (OS). Secondary end points included time to pain and prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, pain and PSA response, progression-free survival, health-related quality of life, and safety. Results A total of 1,052 patients received study treatment (docetaxel-zibotentan, n = 524; docetaxel-placebo, n = 528). At the time of data cutoff, there had been 277 and 280 deaths, respectively. There was no difference in OS for patients receiving docetaxel-zibotentan compared with those receiving docetaxel-placebo (hazard ratio, 1.00; 95% CI, 0.84 to 1.18; P = .963). No significant differences were observed on secondary end points, including time to pain progression (median 9.3 v 10.0 months, respectively) or pain response (odds ratio, 0.84; 95% CI, 0.61 to 1.16; P = .283). The median time to death was 20.0 and 19.2 months for the zibotentan and placebo groups, respectively. The most commonly reported adverse events in zibotentan-treated patients were peripheral edema (52.7%), diarrhea (35.4%), alopecia (33.9%), and nausea (33.3%). CONCLUSION Docetaxel plus zibotentan 10 mg/d did not result in a significant improvement in OS compared with docetaxel plus placebo in patients with metastatic CRPC.
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Urinary TMPRSS2:ERG and PCA3 in an active surveillance cohort: results from a baseline analysis in the Canary Prostate Active Surveillance Study.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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Active surveillance is used to manage low-risk prostate cancer. Both PCA3 and TMPRSS2:ERG are promising biomarkers that may be associated with aggressive disease. This study examines the correlation of these biomarkers with higher cancer volume and grade determined at the time of biopsy in an active surveillance cohort.
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A novel antiandrogen, Compound 30, suppresses castration-resistant and MDV3100-resistant prostate cancer growth in vitro and in vivo.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Resistance to antiandrogen drugs, like MDV3100, occurs in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Thus, preventing or treating antiandrogen resistance is a major clinical challenge. We identified a novel antiandrogen, Compound 30, and compared its efficacy with MDV3100. We found that Compound 30 inhibits androgen receptor (AR) activity in LNCaP cells, C4-2 cells, as well as MDV3100-resistant cell lines. Compared with MDV3100, Compound 30 treatment induces greater reduction in AR, prostate-specific antigen (PSA), and AR transcriptional activity, and prevents AR nuclear translocation in AR-sensitive LNCaP cells. Compound 30 has antiproliferative effects in LNCaP cells, in castrate-resistant C4-2 cells, and those resistant to MDV3100. Compound 30 was equally as effective as MDV3100 in reducing tumor volume and PSA in vivo. More importantly, Compound 30 is effective at inhibiting AR activity in MDV3100-resistant cell lines and significantly prevented tumor growth and PSA increases in mice bearing MDV3100-resistant xenografts. Together, our data show that Compound 30 strongly inhibited AR activity and suppressed castration-resistant LNCaP growth as well as MDV3100-resistant cell growth in vitro and in vivo. These data provide a preclinical proof-of-principle that Compound 30 could be a promising next generation anti-AR agent, especially in the context of antiandrogen-resistant tumors.
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Hsp27 regulates epithelial mesenchymal transition, metastasis, and circulating tumor cells in prostate cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Defining the mechanisms underlying metastatic progression of prostate cancer may lead to insights into how to decrease morbidity and mortality in this disease. An important determinant of metastasis is epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), and the mechanisms that control the process of EMT in cancer cells are still emerging. Here, we report that the molecular chaperone Hsp27 (HSPB1) drives EMT in prostate cancer, whereas its attenuation reverses EMT and decreases cell migration, invasion, and matrix metalloproteinase activity. Mechanistically, silencing Hsp27 decreased IL-6-dependent STAT3 phosphorylation, nuclear translocation, and STAT3 binding to the Twist promoter, suggesting that Hsp27 is required for IL-6-mediated EMT via modulation of STAT3/Twist signaling. We observed a correlation between Hsp27 and Twist in patients with prostate cancer, with Hsp27 and Twist expression each elevated in high-grade prostate cancer tumors. Hsp27 inhibition by OGX-427, an antisense therapy currently in phase II trials, reduced tumor metastasis in a murine model of prostate cancer. More importantly, OGX-427 treatment decreased the number of circulating tumor cells in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer in a phase I clinical trial. Overall, this study defines Hsp27 as a critical regulator of IL-6-dependent and IL-6-independent EMT, validating this chaperone as a therapeutic target to treat metastatic prostate cancer.
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Reduction in serum clusterin is a potential therapeutic biomarker in patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer treated with custirsen.
Cancer Med
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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Elevated levels of clusterin (CLU), a stress-induced and secreted cytoprotective chaperone, are associated with advanced tumor stage, metastasis, treatment resistance, and adverse outcome in several cancers. Custirsen, a second-generation antisense oligonucleotide, inhibits CLU production in tumor cells and reduces serum CLU levels. A Phase 2 study evaluated custirsen in combination with second-line chemotherapy in men with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) who had progressed while on or within 6 months of first-line docetaxel-based chemotherapy. Exploratory analyses evaluated serum CLU levels during custirsen treatment and correlative clinical effects on prostate-specific antigen (PSA) response, overall survival, and any relationship between serum CLU and PSA. Men with mCRPC were treated with mitoxantrone/prednisone/custirsen (MPC, n = 22) or docetaxel retreatment/prednisone/custirsen (DPC plus DPC-Assigned, n = 45) in an open-label, multicenter study. Subject-specific profiles of PSA and serum CLU levels during treatment were characterized using statistical modeling to compute subject-specific summary measures; these measures were analyzed for relationship to survival using proportional hazard regression. Estimated individual serum CLU response profiles were scored as below or at/above the median level for the population through 100 days postrandomization. Median survival was longer for subjects scoring below the median serum CLU level compared with subjects at/above the median level, respectively (MPC: 15.1 months vs. 6.2 months; DPC-Pooled: 17.0 months vs. 12.1 months). Lowered serum CLU levels during custirsen treatment when in combination with either chemotherapy regimen were predictive of longer survival in mCRPC. These results support further evaluation of serum CLU as a therapeutic biomarker.
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Hiding in plain view: genetic profiling reveals decades old cross contamination of bladder cancer cell line KU7 with HeLa.
J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2013
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KU7 is a popular urothelial carcinoma cell line that was isolated from the bladder of a patient at Keio University in 1980. It has subsequently been widely used in laboratories around the world. We describe how routine cell line authentication revealed that KU7 was cross contaminated almost 30 years ago with HeLa, a cervical carcinoma cell line.
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Plasma miRNAs as Biomarkers to Identify Patients with Castration-Resistant Metastatic Prostate Cancer.
Int J Mol Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2013
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have emerged as key regulators of numerous biological processes, and increasing evidence suggests that circulating miRNAs may be useful biomarkers of clinical disease. In this study, we sought to identify plasma miRNAs that differentiate patients with metastatic castration resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) from those with localized prostate cancer (PCa). Pooled plasma samples from patients with localized PCa or mCRPC (25 per group) were assayed using the Exiqon miRNA qPCR panel, and the differential expression of selected candidates was validated using qRT-PCR. We identified 63 miRNAs upregulated in mCRPC versus localized PCa, while only four were downregulated. Pearsons correlation analysis revealed two highly correlated groups: one consisting of miR-141, miR375 and miR-200c and the other including miR151-3p, miR423-3p, miR-126, miR152 and miR-21. A third group, containing miR-16 and miR-205, showed less correlation. One miRNA from each group (miR-141, miR151-3p and miR-16) was used for logistic regression analysis and proved to increase the sensitivity of the prostate-specific antigen (PSA) test alone. While no miRNA alone differentiated localized PCa and mCRPC, combinations had greater sensitivity and specificity. The expression of these 10 candidates was assayed for association with clinical parameters of disease progression through the cBio portal. Our results demonstrate that plasma levels of selected miRNAs are potential biomarkers to differentiate localized PCa and mCRPC.
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The E3 ubiquitin ligase Siah2 contributes to castration-resistant prostate cancer by regulation of androgen receptor transcriptional activity.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-13-2013
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Understanding the mechanism underlying the regulation of the androgen receptor (AR), a central player in the development of castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC), holds promise for overcoming the challenge of treating CRPC. We demonstrate that the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 targets a select pool of NCOR1-bound, transcriptionally-inactive AR for ubiquitin-dependent degradation, thereby promoting expression of select AR target genes implicated in lipid metabolism, cell motility, and proliferation. Siah2 is required for prostate cancer cell growth under androgen-deprivation conditions in vitro and in vivo, and Siah2 inhibition promotes prostate cancer regression upon castration. Notably, Siah2 expression is markedly increased in human CRPCs. Collectively, we find that selective regulation of AR transcriptional activity by the ubiquitin ligase Siah2 is important for CRPC development.
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The promise of heat shock protein inhibitors in the treatment of castration resistant prostate cancer.
Curr Opin Urol
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2013
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To present the recent advances in novel agents that target heat shock proteins (Hsps) to treat or delay the development of castration resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
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TAK-441, a novel investigational smoothened antagonist, delays castration-resistant progression in prostate cancer by disrupting paracrine hedgehog signaling.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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Hedgehog (Hh) signaling is a highly conserved intercellular and intracellular communication mechanism that governs organogenesis and is dysregulated in cancers of numerous tissues, including prostate. Up-regulated expression of the Hh ligands, Sonic (Shh) and Desert (Dhh), has been reported in androgen-deprived and castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). In a cohort of therapy naive, short- and long-term neoadjuvant hormone therapy-treated (NHT), and CRPC specimens, we observed elevated Dhh expression predominantly in long-term NHT specimens and elevated Shh expression predominantly in CRPC specimens. Together with previously demonstrated reciprocal signaling between Shh-producing prostate cancer (PCa) cells and urogenital mesenchymal fibroblasts, these results suggest that castration-induced Hh expression promotes CRPC progression through reciprocal paracrine signaling within the tumor microenvironment. We tested whether the orally available Smoothened (Smo) antagonist, TAK-441, could impair castration-resistant progression of LNCaP PCa xenografts by disrupting paracrine Hh signaling. Although TAK-441 or cyclopamine did not affect androgen withdrawal-induced Shh up-regulation or viability of LNCaP cells, castration-resistant progression of LNCaP xenografts was significantly delayed in animals treated with TAK-441. In TAK-441-treated xenografts, expression of murine orthologs of the Hh-activated genes, Gli1, Gli2 and Ptch1, was substantially suppressed, while expression of the corresponding human orthologs was unaffected. As androgen-deprived LNCaP cells up-regulate Shh expression, but are not sensitive to Smo antagonists, these studies indicate that TAK-441 leads to delayed castration-resistant progression of LNCaP xenografts by disrupting paracrine Hh signaling with the tumor stroma. Thus, paracrine Hh signaling may offer unique opportunities for prognostic biomarker development, drug targeting and therapeutic response monitoring of PCa progression.
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Expression and role of the angiotensin II AT2 receptor in human prostate tissue: in search of a new therapeutic option for prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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Evidence shows that angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1R) blockers may be associated with improved outcome in prostate cancer patients. It has been proposed that part of this effect could be due to angiotensin II type 2 receptor (AT2R) activation, the only active angiotensin II receptor in this situation. This study aimed to characterize the localization and expression of AT2R in prostate tissues and to assess its role on cell morphology and number in prostatic epithelial cells in primary culture.
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Radical prostatectomy in high-risk prostate cancer.
Int. J. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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One consistent finding in the studies regarding treating men with prostate cancer is that men with high-risk disease have the most to gain from treatment with curative intent. Men with high-risk or locally-advanced prostate cancer require treatment to the primary cancer or risk dying prematurely from their disease. Increasingly, combined androgen deprivation therapy?+?radiation treatment is seen as the standard treatment as a result of prospective studies in this space, and the perceived increased morbidity of radical prostatectomy in the setting of a "low" cure rate as monotherapy. In the absence of a well-conducted randomized trial, there is no definite evidence that one treatment is superior to the other. The advantages of radical prostatectomy are that it provides excellent local control of the primary tumor without an increase in morbidity, accurately stages the disease to guide further therapy, and removes benign sources of prostate-specific antigen so that failures can be promptly identified and subsequent treatment can be initiated in a timely manner. Although several guidelines recommend radiation treatment over radical prostatectomy as first-line treatment, there is no evidence that surgery is inferior and radical prostatectomy should remain part of any informed discussion regarding treatment options for men with high-risk prostate cancer.
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Inhibition of HSP27 blocks fibrosis development and EMT features by promoting Snail degradation.
FASEB J.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2013
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a devastating disease characterized by myofibroblast proliferation. Transition of epithelial/mesothelial cells into myofibroblasts [epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)] occurs under the influence of transforming growth factor (TGF)-?1, with Snail being a major transcription factor. We study here the role of the heat-shock protein HSP27 in fibrogenesis and EMT. In vitro, we have up- and down-modulated HSP27 expression in mesothelial and epithelial cell lines and studied the expression of different EMT markers induced by TGF-?1. In vivo, we inhibited HSP27 with the antisense oligonucleotide OGX-427 (in phase II clinical trials as anticancer agent) in our rat subpleural/pulmonary fibrosis models. We demonstrate that HSP27 is strongly expressed during the fibrotic process in patients with IPF and in different in vivo models. We showed that HSP27 binds to and stabilizes Snail and consequently induces EMT. Conversely, HSP27 knockdown leads to Snail proteasomal degradation, thus inhibiting TGF-?1-induced EMT. Inhibition of HSP27 with OGX-427 efficiently blocks EMT and fibrosis development. Controls in vivo were an empty adenovirus that did not induce fibrosis and a control antisense oligonucleotide. The present work opens the possibility of a new therapeutic use for HSP27 inhibitors against IPF, for which there is no conclusively effective treatment.
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BIRC6 protein, an inhibitor of apoptosis: role in survival of human prostate cancer cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2013
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BIRC6 is a member of the Inhibitors of Apoptosis Protein (IAP) family which is thought to protect a variety of cancer cells from apoptosis. The main objective of the present study was to investigate whether BIRC6 plays a role in prostate cancer and could be useful as a novel therapeutic target.
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IGF2 increases de novo steroidogenesis in prostate cancer cells.
Endocr. Relat. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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IGF2 is a mitogenic foetal growth factor commonly over-expressed in cancers, including prostate cancer (PC). We recently demonstrated that insulin can activate de novo steroidogenesis in PC cells, a major pathway for reactivation of androgen pathways and PC progression. IGF2 can activate the IGF1 receptor (IGF1R) or insulin receptor (INSR) or hybrids of these two receptors. We therefore hypothesized that IGF2 may contribute to PC progression via de novo steroidogenesis. IGF2 mRNA but not IGF2 receptor mRNA expression was increased in patient samples during progression to castrate-resistant PC as was immunoreactivity to INSR and IGF1R antibodies. Treatment of androgen receptor (AR)-positive PC cell lines LNCaP and 22RV1 with IGF2 for 48?h resulted in increased expression of steroidogenic enzyme mRNA and protein, including steroid acute regulatory protein (StAR), cytochrome p450 family member (CYP)17A1, aldo-keto reductase family member (AKR)1C3 and hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (HSD)17B3. IGF2 treatment resulted in increased steady state steroid levels and increased de novo steroidogenesis resulting in AR activation as demonstrated by PSA mRNA induction. Inhibition of the IGF1R/INSR signalling axis attenuated the effects of IGF2 on steroid hormone synthesis. We present a potential mechanism for prostatic IGF2 contributing to PC progression by inducing steroidogenesis and that IGF2 signalling and related pathways present attractive targets for PC therapy.
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Molecular characterization of neuroendocrine prostate cancer and identification of new drug targets.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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Neuroendocrine prostate cancer (NEPC) is an aggressive subtype of prostate cancer that most commonly evolves from preexisting prostate adenocarcinoma (PCA). Using Next Generation RNA-sequencing and oligonucleotide arrays, we profiled 7 NEPC, 30 PCA, and 5 benign prostate tissue (BEN), and validated findings on tumors from a large cohort of patients (37 NEPC, 169 PCA, 22 BEN) using IHC and FISH. We discovered significant overexpression and gene amplification of AURKA and MYCN in 40% of NEPC and 5% of PCA, respectively, and evidence that that they cooperate to induce a neuroendocrine phenotype in prostate cells. There was dramatic and enhanced sensitivity of NEPC (and MYCN overexpressing PCA) to Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy both in vitro and in vivo, with complete suppression of neuroendocrine marker expression following treatment. We propose that alterations in Aurora kinase A and N-myc are involved in the development of NEPC, and future clinical trials will help determine from the efficacy of Aurora kinase inhibitor therapy.
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The ability of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) density to predict an upgrade in Gleason score between initial prostate biopsy and prostatectomy diminishes with increasing tumour grade due to reduced PSA secretion per unit tumour volume.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2011
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Study Type - Diagnostic (exploratory cohort) Level of Evidence 2b Whats known on the subject? and What does the study add? Due to sampling error, the Gleason score of clinically localized prostate cancer is frequently underestimated at the time of initial biopsy. Given that this may lead to inappropriate surveillance of patients with high-risk disease, there is considerable interest in identifying predictors of significant undergrading. Recently PSAD has been proposed to be an accurate predictor of subsequent upgrading in patients diagnosed with Gleason 6 disease on biopsy. We examined the predictive characteristics of PSAD in patients with low- and intermediate-risk disease on biopsy subsequently treated with radical prostatectomy. We found that although PSAD was a significant predictor of upgrade of biopsy Gleason 6 and 3 + 4 = 7 tumours, it failed to predict upgrading in patients with Gleason 7 tumours taken as a whole. When we explored reasons for this discrepancy, we found that the amount of PSA produced per unit tumour volume decreased with increasing Gleason score, thereby diminishing the predictive value of PSAD.
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TP53INP1 as new therapeutic target in castration-resistant prostate cancer.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2011
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Prostate cancer (PC) is one of the most common malignancies in industrialized countries, and the second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. We recently showed that over-expression of tumor protein 53-induced nuclear protein 1 (TP53INP1), a cell stress response protein, is a worse prognostic factor in PC, particularly predictive of biological cancer relapse. Moreover, treatment of castration-sensitive (CS) LNCaP tumor cells with a TP53INP1 antisense oligonucleotide (TP53INP1 ASO) inhibits proliferation and induces apoptosis. The aim of this study was to investigate variations of TP53INP1 expression in PC during androgen withdrawal therapy and in castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC).
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Clusterin is a critical downstream mediator of stress-induced YB-1 transactivation in prostate cancer.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2011
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Clusterin is a stress-activated, cytoprotective chaperone that confers broad-spectrum treatment resistance in cancer. However, the molecular mechanisms mediating CLU transcription following anticancer treatment stress remain incompletely defined. We report that Y-box binding protein-1 (YB-1) directly binds to CLU promoter regions to transcriptionally regulate clusterin expression. In response to endoplasmic reticulum stress inducers, including paclitaxel, YB-1 is translocated to the nucleus to transactivate clusterin. Furthermore, higher levels of activated YB-1 and clusterin are seen in taxane-resistant, compared with parental, prostate cancer cells. Knockdown of either YB-1 or clusterin sensitized prostate cancer cells to paclitaxel, whereas their overexpression increased resistance to taxane. Clusterin overexpression rescued cells from increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis following YB-1 knockdown; in contrast, however, YB-1 overexpression did not rescue cells from increased paclitaxel-induced apoptosis following clusterin knockdown. Collectively, these data indicate that YB-1 transactivation of clusterin in response to stress is a critical mediator of paclitaxel resistance in prostate cancer.
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Discovery of aryloxy tetramethylcyclobutanes as novel androgen receptor antagonists.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2011
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An aryloxy tetramethylcyclobutane was identified as a novel template for androgen receptor (AR) antagonists via cell-based high-throughput screening. Follow-up to the initial "hit" established 5 as a viable lead. Further optimization to achieve full AR antagonism led to the discovery of 26 and 30, both of which demonstrated excellent in vivo tumor growth inhibition upon oral administration in a castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) animal model.
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Tissue uptake of docetaxel loaded hydrophobically derivatized hyperbranched polyglycerols and their effects on the morphology of the bladder urothelium.
Biomaterials
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Recently, we have reported that docetaxel (DTX) loaded, amine terminated hyperbranched polyglycerol (HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2)) nanoparticles significantly increased drug uptake in mouse bladder tissues and was the most effective formulation to significantly inhibit tumor growth in an orthotopic model of bladder cancer. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles on bladder urothelial morphology and integrity, DTX uptake and permeability in bladder tissue and the extent of bladder urothelial recovery following exposure to, and then washout of, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles significantly increased the uptake of DTX in both isolated pig bladder as well as in live mouse bladder tissues. Furthermore, HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles were demonstrated to increase the permeability of the urinary bladder wall by causing changes to the urothelial barrier function and morphology through opening of tight junctions and exfoliation of the superficial umbrella cells. These data suggest that exfoliation may be triggered by an apoptosis mechanism, which was followed by a rapid recovery of the urothelium within 24 h post-instillation of HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles. HPG-C(8/10)-MePEG-NH(2) nanoparticles cause significant but rapidly recoverable changes in the bladder urothelial morphology, which we believe may make them suitable for increasing drug permeability of bladder tissue and intravesical drug delivery.
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Underestimation of Gleason score at prostate biopsy reflects sampling error in lower volume tumours.
BJU Int.
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2011
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• To determine the influence of tumour and prostate gland volumes on the underestimation of prostate cancer Gleason score in diagnostic core biopsies.
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Apo J/clusterin expression and secretion: evidence for 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-PGJ(2)-dependent mechanism.
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2011
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Cyclooxygenase-2 (Cox-2) and Apo J/clusterin are involved in inflammatory resolution and have each been reported to inhibit NF-?B signalling. Using a well-validated rat pheochromocytoma (PC12) cell culture model of Cox-2 over-expression the current study investigated inter-dependence between Cox-2 and clusterin with respect to induction of expression and impact on NF-?B signalling. Both gene expression and immunoblot analysis confirmed that intracellular and secreted levels of clusterin were elevated in Cox-2 over-expressing cells (PCXII). Clusterin expression was increased in control (PCMT) cells in a time- and dose-dependent manner by 15-deoxy-?(12,14)-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)), but not PGE(2), and inhibited in PCXII cells by pharmacological Cox inhibition. In PCXII cells, inhibition of two transcription factors known to be activated by 15d-PGJ(2), heat shock factor 1 (HSF-1) and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor (PPAR)?, by transcription factor oligonucleotide decoy and antagonist (GW9662) treatment, respectively, reduced clusterin expression. While PCXII cells exhibited reduced TNF-?-induced cell surface ICAM-1 expression, IkB phosphorylation and degradation were similar to control cells. With respect to the impact of Cox-2-dependent clusterin upregulation on NF-?B signalling, basal levels of I?B were similar in control and PCXII cells, and no evidence for a physical association between clusterin and phospho-I?B was obtained. Moreover, while PCXII cells exhibited reduced NF-?B transcriptional activity, this was not restored by clusterin knock-down. These results indicate that Cox-2 induces clusterin in a 15d-PGJ(2)-dependent manner, and via activation of HSF-1 and PPAR?. However, the results do not support a model whereby Cox-2/15d-PGJ(2)-dependent inhibition of NF-?B signalling involves clusterin.
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Randomized phase II trial of Custirsen (OGX-011) in combination with docetaxel or mitoxantrone as second-line therapy in patients with metastatic castrate-resistant prostate cancer progressing after first-line docetaxel: CUOG trial P-06c.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Clusterin (CLU) is an antiapoptotic, stress-induced protein conferring treatment resistance when overexpressed. This study tested custirsen, a CLU inhibitor, in patients with metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) progressing during or within 6 months of initial docetaxel therapy. Patients and Methods: Men were randomized to receive either docetaxel + prednisone + custirsen (DPC) or mitoxantrone + prednisone + custirsen (MPC).
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Insulin increases de novo steroidogenesis in prostate cancer cells.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Androgen-dependent pathways regulate maintenance and growth of normal and malignant prostate tissues. Androgen deprivation therapy (ADT) exploits this dependence and is used to treat metastatic prostate cancer; however, regression initially seen with ADT gives way to development of incurable castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC). Although ADT generates a therapeutic response, it is also associated with a pattern of metabolic alterations consistent with metabolic syndrome including elevated circulating insulin. Because CRPC cells are capable of synthesizing androgens de novo, we hypothesized that insulin may also influence steroidogenesis in CRPC. In this study, we examined this hypothesis by evaluating the effect of insulin on steroid synthesis in prostate cancer cell lines. Treatment with 10 nmol/L insulin increased mRNA and protein expression of steroidogenesis enzymes and upregulated the insulin receptor substrate insulin receptor substrate 2 (IRS-2). Similarly, insulin treatment upregulated intracellular testosterone levels and secreted androgens, with the concentrations of steroids observed similar to the levels reported in prostate cancer patients. With similar potency to dihydrotestosterone, insulin treatment resulted in increased mRNA expression of prostate-specific antigen. CRPC progression also correlated with increased expression of IRS-2 and insulin receptor in vivo. Taken together, our findings support the hypothesis that the elevated insulin levels associated with therapeutic castration may exacerbate progression of prostate cancer to incurable CRPC in part by enhancing steroidogenesis.
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Clusterin inhibition using OGX-011 synergistically enhances Hsp90 inhibitor activity by suppressing the heat shock response in castrate-resistant prostate cancer.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2011
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Small-molecule inhibitors of Hsp90 show promise in the treatment of castrate-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC); however, these inhibitors trigger a heat shock response that attenuates drug effectiveness. Attenuation is associated with increased expression of Hsp90, Hsp70, Hsp27, and clusterin (CLU) that mediate tumor cell survival and treatment resistance. We hypothesized that preventing CLU induction in this response would enhance Hsp90 inhibitor-induced CRPC cell death in vitro and in vivo. To test this hypothesis, we treated CRPC with the Hsp90 inhibitor PF-04929113 or 17-AAG in the absence or presence of OGX-011, an antisense drug that targets CLU. Treatment with either Hsp90 inhibitor alone increased nuclear translocation and transcriptional activity of the heat shock factor HSF-1, which stimulated dose- and time-dependent increases in HSP expression, especially CLU expression. Treatment-induced increases in CLU were blocked by OGX-011, which synergistically enhanced the activity of Hsp90 inhibition on CRPC cell growth and apoptosis. Accompanying these effects was a decrease in HSF-1 transcriptional activity as well as expression of HSPs, Akt, prostate-specific antigen, and androgen receptor. In vivo evaluation of the Hsp90 inhibitors with OGX-011 in xenograft models of human CRPC showed that OGX-011 markedly potentiated antitumor efficacy, leading to an 80% inhibition of tumor growth with prolonged survival compared with Hsp90 inhibitor monotherapy. Together, our findings indicate that Hsp90 inhibitor-induced activation of the heat shock response and CLU is attenuated by OGX-011, with synergistic effects on delaying CRPC progression.
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Consensus PP1 binding motifs regulate transcriptional corepression and alternative RNA splicing activities of the steroid receptor coregulators, p54nrb and PSF.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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Originally identified as essential pre-mRNA splicing factors, non-POU-domain-containing, octamer binding protein (p54nrb) and PTB-associated RNA splicing factor (PSF) are also steroid receptor corepressors. The mechanisms by which p54nrb and PSF regulate gene transcription remain unclear. Both p54nrb and PSF contain protein phosphatase 1 (PP1) consensus binding RVxF motifs, suggesting that PP1 may regulate phosphorylation status of p54nrb and PSF and thus their function in gene transcription. In this report, we demonstrated that PP1 forms a protein complex with both p54nrb and PSF. PP1 interacts directly with the RVxF motif only in p54nrb, but not in PSF. Association with PP1 results in dephosphorylation of both p54nrb and PSF in vivo and the loss of their transcriptional corepressor activities. Using the CD44 minigene as a reporter, we showed that PP1 regulates p54nrb and PSF alternative splicing activities that determine exon skipping vs. inclusion in the final mature RNA for translation. In addition, changes in transcriptional corepression and RNA splicing activities of p54nrb and PSF are correlated with alterations in protein interactions of p54nrb and PSF with transcriptional corepressors such as Sin3A and histone deacetylase 1, and RNA splicing factors such as U1A and U2AF. Furthermore, we demonstrated a novel function of the RVxF motif within PSF that enhances its corepression and RNA splicing activities independent of PP1. We conclude that the RVxF motifs play an important role in controlling the multifunctional properties of p54nrb and PSF in the regulation of gene transcription.
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Decrease in donor heart injury by recombinant clusterin protein in cold preservation with University of Wisconsin solution.
Surgery
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2011
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Donor organ injury during cold preservation before transplantation negatively impacts graft survival. Clusterin (CLU) is a chaperonic protein, and its expression confers donor hearts resistance to cold ischemic injury. This study was conducted to evaluate if the supplement of recombinant CLU protein (rCLU) protects donor organs from injury during cold storage with University of Wisconsin (UW) solution.
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Progression from high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to cancer: a randomized trial of combination vitamin-E, soy, and selenium.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2011
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High-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) is a putative precursor of invasive prostate cancer (PCa). Preclinical evidence suggests vitamin E, selenium, and soy protein may prevent progression of HGPIN to PCa. This hypothesis was tested in a randomized phase III double-blind study of daily soy (40 g), vitamin E (800 U), and selenium (200 ?g) versus placebo.
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The androgen receptor fuels prostate cancer by regulating central metabolism and biosynthesis.
EMBO J.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2011
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The androgen receptor (AR) is a key regulator of prostate growth and the principal drug target for the treatment of prostate cancer. Previous studies have mapped AR targets and identified some candidates which may contribute to cancer progression, but did not characterize AR biology in an integrated manner. In this study, we took an interdisciplinary approach, integrating detailed genomic studies with metabolomic profiling and identify an anabolic transcriptional network involving AR as the core regulator. Restricting flux through anabolic pathways is an attractive approach to deprive tumours of the building blocks needed to sustain tumour growth. Therefore, we searched for targets of the AR that may contribute to these anabolic processes and could be amenable to therapeutic intervention by virtue of differential expression in prostate tumours. This highlighted calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase kinase 2, which we show is overexpressed in prostate cancer and regulates cancer cell growth via its unexpected role as a hormone-dependent modulator of anabolic metabolism. In conclusion, it is possible to progress from transcriptional studies to a promising therapeutic target by taking an unbiased interdisciplinary approach.
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Carbidopa enhances antitumoral activity of bicalutamide on the androgen receptor-axis in castration-resistant prostate tumors.
Prostate
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2011
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Response to bicalutamide after castration failure is not durable and treatment options at this stage are limited. Carbidopa, an L-dopa decarboxylase (AR-coactivator) inhibitor, has been shown to retard prostate tumor growth/PSA production in xenografts. Here, we hypothesize that pharmacological targeting of the AR-axis by combination treatment with bicalutamide plus carbidopa significantly enhances antitumoral activity in vitro and in vivo compared to monotherapy with either drug.
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New therapies for castration-resistant prostate cancer: efficacy and safety.
Eur. Urol.
PUBLISHED: 03-30-2011
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Prostate cancer (PCa) is the most common noncutaneous malignancy and the second leading cause of cancer mortality amongst men in the Western world. Up to 40% of men diagnosed with PCa will eventually develop metastatic disease, and although most respond to initial medical or surgical castration, progression to castration resistance is universal. The average survival for patients with castration-resistant prostate cancer (CRPC) is 2-3 yr.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.