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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Midbrain-hindbrain malformations in patients with malformations of cortical development and epilepsy: a series of 220 patients.
Epilepsy Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2013
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Midbrain-hindbrain malformations (MHM) may coexist with malformations of cortical development (MCD). This study represents a first attempt to investigate the spectrum of MHM in a large series of patients with MCD and epilepsy. We aimed to explore specific associations between MCD and MHM and to compare two groups of patients: MCD with MHM (wMHM) and MCD without MHM (w/oMHM) with regard to clinical and imaging features. Two hundred and twenty patients (116 women/104 men, median age 28 years, interquartile range 20-44 years at the time of assessment) with MCD and epilepsy were identified at the Departments of Neurology and Pediatrics, Innsbruck Medical University, Austria. All underwent high-resolution MRIs (1.5-T) between 01.01.2002 and 31.12.2011. Midbrain-hindbrain structures were visually assessed by three independent raters. MHM were seen in 17% (38/220) of patients. The rate of patients wMHM and w/oMHM differed significantly (p=0.004) in three categories of MCD (category I - to abnormal neuronal proliferation; category II - to abnormal neuronal migration; and category III - due to abnormal neuronal late migration/organization): MCD due to abnormal neuronal migration (31%) and organization (23%) were more commonly associated with MHM compared to those with MCD due to abnormal neuronal proliferation (9%). Extensive bilateral MCD were seen more often in patients wMHM compared to those w/oMHM (63% vs. 36%; p=0.004). In wMHM group compared to w/oMHM group there were higher rates of callosal dysgenesis (26% vs. 4%; p<0.001) and hippocampal abnormalities (52% vs. 27%; p<0.001). Patients wMHM were younger (median 25 years vs. 30 years; p=0.010) at the time of assessment and had seizure onset at an earlier age (median 5 years vs. 12 years; p=0.043) compared to those w/oMHM. Patients wMHM had higher rates of learning disability (71% vs. 38%; p<0.001), delayed developmental milestones (68% vs. 35%; p<0.001) and neurological deficits (66% vs. 47%; p=0.049) compared to those w/oMHM. The groups (wMHM and w/oMHM) did not differ in their response to antiepileptic treatment, seizure outcome, seizure types, EEG abnormalities and rate of status epilepticus. Presence of MHM in patients with MCD and epilepsy is associated with severe morphological and clinical phenotypes.
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Frameless stereotactic targeting devices: technical features, targeting errors and clinical results.
Int J Med Robot
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2011
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Brain biopsies (BB) and depth electrode placements (DEP) are increasingly performed using frameless stereotactic targeting devices. This paper is intended to provide a comprehensive review of the technical features, targeting errors and clinical results.
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Glutamate decarboxylase 67 is expressed in hippocampal mossy fibers of temporal lobe epilepsy patients.
Hippocampus
PUBLISHED: 04-20-2011
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Recently, expression of glutamate decarboxylase-67 (GAD67), a key enzyme of GABA synthesis, was detected in the otherwise glutamatergic mossy fibers of the rat hippocampus. Synthesis of the enzyme was markedly enhanced after experimentally induced status epilepticus. Here, we investigated the expression of GAD67 protein and mRNA in 44 hippocampal specimens from patients with mesial temporal lobe epilepsy (TLE) using double immunofluorescence histochemistry, immunoblotting, and in situ hybridization. Both in specimens with (n = 37) and without (n = 7) hippocampal sclerosis, GAD67 was highly coexpressed with dynorphin in terminal areas of mossy fibers, including the dentate hilus and the stratum lucidum of sector CA3. In the cases with Ammons horn sclerosis, also the inner molecular layer of the dentate gyrus contained strong staining for GAD67 immunoreactivity, indicating labeling of mossy fiber terminals that specifically sprout into this area. Double immunofluorescence revealed the colocalization of GAD67 immunoreactivity with the mossy fiber marker dynorphin. The extent of colabeling correlated with the number of seizures experienced by the patients. Furthermore, GAD67 mRNA was found in granule cells of the dentate gyrus. Levels, both of GAD67 mRNA and of GAD67 immunoreactivity were similar in sclerotic and nonsclerotic specimens and appeared to be increased compared to post mortem controls. Provided that the strong expression of GAD67 results in synthesis of GABA in hippocampal mossy fibers this may represent a self-protecting mechanism in TLE. In addition GAD67 expression also may result in conversion of excessive intracellular glutamate to nontoxic GABA within mossy fiber terminals.
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Cranial nerve monitoring during subpial dissection in temporomesial surgery.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Cranial nerves (CNs) crossing between the brainstem and skull base at the level of the tentorial hiatus may be at risk in temporomesial surgery involving subpial dissection and/or tumorous growth leading to distorted anatomy. We aimed to identify the surgical steps most likely to result in CN damage in this type of surgery.
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Frame-based vs frameless placement of intrahippocampal depth electrodes in patients with refractory epilepsy: a comparative in vivo (application) study.
Neurosurgery
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Despite progress in imaging technologies, documentation of unifocal electrical excitability is pivotal in patient selection for epilepsy surgery.
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Video-EEG monitoring: safety and adverse events in 507 consecutive patients.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2010
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Video-electroencephalography (EEG) monitoring plays a central role in the presurgical evaluation of medically refractory epilepsies and the diagnosis of nonepileptic attack disorders (NEADs). The aim of this study was to analyze safety and adverse events (AEs) during video-EEG monitoring.
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Complete removal of vagus nerve stimulator generator and electrodes.
J Neurosurg Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2010
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Vagus nerve stimulation has become widely used in the palliative treatment of refractory epilepsy. Removal of a vagus nerve stimulator may be desirable or even necessary due to lack of efficacy, intolerable side effects, signs of infection, or failure of the device. Unless the lead or the helical electrodes are defective, only the generator is explanted and the electrodes are usually left behind for fear of damaging nerve or surrounding structures. The authors review their experience with complete removal of the stimulating electrodes and pacemaker-like generator device in 9 consecutive patients, 3 of whom were children. Using microsurgical techniques, the authors were able to completely remove the stimulator, including electrodes in all patients. All nerves remained morphologically intact. One case of temporary and one of permanent clinically silent ipsilateral vocal cord paresis were observed.
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Successful surgery in late onset epilepsy with tuberous sclerosis complex.
Epileptic Disord
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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[Case records of Epileptic Disorders. Anatomo-electro clinical correlations. Case 01-2009]. Tuberous sclerosis complex (TSC) is a multisystem genetic disorder with variable phenotypic expression, caused by mutations in one of the two tumor suppressor genes, TSC1 or TSC2. Epilepsy is the most common neurological presentation and seizures are often medically intractable. Definition of the epileptogenic zone during presurgical evaluation is challenging given the multiple potentially epileptogenic lesions visible on MRI. However, TSC patients may nevertheless achieve seizure freedom, when preoperative evaluation yields concordant results. The strategies used in these patients vary substantially among different epilepsy surgery centres. We present a 21-year-old right-handed, intellectually not impaired woman with TSC and medically intractable seizures since the age of 15 years. Careful multi-stage presurgical evaluation, including prolonged video-EEG-monitoring, cerebral high resolution MRI, ictal and interictal [99m Tc]HMPAO-SPECT, [18 F]FDG-PET and further invasive recordings with subdural and depth electrodes led to the identification of an epileptogenic tuber with concordant seizure onset zone in the right neocortical temporal lobe. A tailored resection was performed leading to excellent surgical outcome (follow-up 12 months, Engel class I).
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Asymmetric seizure termination in primary and secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures.
Epilepsia
PUBLISHED: 03-23-2009
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In temporal lobe epilepsies an asymmetric termination (AST) of the clonic phase of secondary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (sGTCS) reliably lateralizes the side of seizure onset. The last clonic activity occurs ipsilateral to the side of the seizure onset zone. We compared the prevalence and lateralizing value of AST in sGTCS of frontal and temporal lobe origin as well as in primary generalized tonic-clonic seizures (pGTCS).
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Traumatic fistula between the middle meningeal artery and the sphenoparietal sinus.
Acta Neurochir (Wien)
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Post-traumatic fistulas between the middle meningeal artery and the cranial venous system are extremely rare. We describe clinical presentation and successful endovascular management of a case of post-traumatic fistula between the middle meningeal artery and the sphenoparietal sinus.
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Cortical indocyanine green videography for quantification of acute hypoperfusion after subarachnoid hemorrhage: a feasibility study.
Neurosurgery
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Acute neurological deficits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) correlate with outcome, and a phase of acute hypoperfusion was characterized recently. Indocyanine green (ICG) videography is an established intraoperative imaging technique with important descriptive potential.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.