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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Testosterone and social evaluative stress: the moderating role of basal cortisol.
Psychoneuroendocrinology
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
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Research has suggested that stressful situations lead to a decrease in testosterone, whereas concern with one's social status increases testosterone. However, results from studies examining testosterone reactivity in stressful situations that involve evaluation by others (hence status concerns) are inconsistent. Furthermore, there is a lack of research examining individual differences in testosterone responses in such situations. In this study 85 male participants underwent the Trier Social Stress Test (TSST, which includes performing speech and arithmetic tasks in front of two critical evaluators) and practiced solving puzzles. Testosterone and cortisol levels were assessed from saliva. Across participants, testosterone increased from baseline to peak levels following the stressor tasks. Importantly, the increase in testosterone was larger for participants with lower basal cortisol. Hence, lower basal cortisol (which is known to be associated with low social fearfulness) may help one to mobilize a larger testosterone response in situations that involve social-evaluative stress. Given the hypothesized adaptive role of a larger testosterone response in social competition situations, the results suggest that there may be long-term benefits in learning to lower one's social fearfulness in situations involving potential for negative evaluation by others.
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Feeding and reward: perspectives from three rat models of binge eating.
Physiol. Behav.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Research has focused on understanding how overeating can affect brain reward mechanisms and subsequent behaviors, both preclinically and in clinical research settings. This work is partly driven by the need to uncover the etiology and possible treatments for the ongoing obesity epidemic. However, overeating, or non-homeostatic feeding behavior, can occur independent of obesity. Isolating the variable of overeating from the consequence of increased body weight is of great utility, as it is well known that increased body weight or obesity can impart its own deleterious effects on physiology, neural processes, and behavior. In this review, we present data from three selected animal models of normal-weight non-homeostatic feeding behavior that have been significantly influenced by Bart Hoebels 40+-yr career studying motivation, feeding, reinforcement, and the neural mechanisms that participate in the regulation of these processes. First, a model of sugar bingeing is described (Avena/Hoebel), in which animals with repeated, intermittent access to a sugar solution develop behaviors and brain changes that are similar to the effects of some drugs of abuse, serving as the first animal model of food addiction. Second, another model is described (Boggiano) in which a history of dieting and stress can perpetuate further binge eating of palatable and non-palatable food. In addition, a model (Boggiano) is described that allows animals to be classified as having a binge-prone vs. binge-resistant behavioral profile. Lastly, a limited access model is described (Corwin) in which non-food deprived rats with sporadic limited access to a high-fat food develop binge-type behaviors. These models are considered within the context of their effects on brain reward systems, including dopamine, the opioids, cholinergic systems, serotonin, and GABA. Collectively, the data derived from the use of these models clearly show that behavioral and neuronal consequences of bingeing on a palatable food, even when at a normal body weight, are different from those that result from simply consuming the palatable food in a non-binge manner. These findings may be important in understanding how overeating can influence behavior and brain chemistry.
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Ten putative contributors to the obesity epidemic.
Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2009
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The obesity epidemic is a global issue and shows no signs of abating, while the cause of this epidemic remains unclear. Marketing practices of energy-dense foods and institutionally-driven declines in physical activity are the alleged perpetrators for the epidemic, despite a lack of solid evidence to demonstrate their causal role. While both may contribute to obesity, we call attention to their unquestioned dominance in program funding and public efforts to reduce obesity, and propose several alternative putative contributors that would benefit from equal consideration and attention. Evidence for microorganisms, epigenetics, increasing maternal age, greater fecundity among people with higher adiposity, assortative mating, sleep debt, endocrine disruptors, pharmaceutical iatrogenesis, reduction in variability of ambient temperatures, and intrauterine and intergenerational effects as contributing factors to the obesity epidemic are reviewed herein. While the evidence is strong for some contributors such as pharmaceutical-induced weight gain, it is still emerging for other reviewed factors. Considering the role of such putative etiological factors of obesity may lead to comprehensive, cause specific, and effective strategies for prevention and treatment of this global epidemic.
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Secretive food concocting in binge eating: test of a famine hypothesis.
Int J Eat Disord
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Food concocting, or making strange food mixtures, is well documented in the famine and experimental semistarvation literature and appears anecdotally in rare descriptions of eating disorder (ED) patients but has never been scientifically investigated. Here we do so in the context of binge-eating using a "famine hypothesis of concocting."
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.