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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Pravastatin and olmesartan synergistically ameliorate renal failure-induced vascular calcification.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 05-19-2014
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Vascular calcification is a critical problem in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). In this study, we examined the effects of a HMG Co-A reductase inhibitor (statin) and an angiotensin ? type 1 receptor blocker (ARB) on renal failure-induced vascular calcification.
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[Sex hormones and cognitive function].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2014
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Endogenous estrogen is considered to be protective against cognitive dysfunction. However, clinical trials examining the efficacy of hormone replacement therapy (HRT) in postmenopausal women showed rather deteriorating effects of HRT on cognitive function and dementia, resulting in the recommendation of no use of HRT for the prevention of dementia. By contrast, recent advances in androgen research have suggested the effects of androgen on cognitive function in older men with mild cognitive impairment, pending the mechanistic clarification and clinical trials. Also, the protective role of androgen in cognitive and physical function in older women has been highlighted. Recent topics on the relationship between sex hormones and cognitive function were overviewed in this paper.
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Sarcopenia in Asia: consensus report of the Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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Sarcopenia, a newly recognized geriatric syndrome, is characterized by age-related decline of skeletal muscle plus low muscle strength and/or physical performance. Previous studies have confirmed the association of sarcopenia and adverse health outcomes, such as falls, disability, hospital admission, long term care placement, poorer quality of life, and mortality, which denotes the importance of sarcopenia in the health care for older people. Despite the clinical significance of sarcopenia, the operational definition of sarcopenia and standardized intervention programs are still lacking. It is generally agreed by the different working groups for sarcopenia in the world that sarcopenia should be defined through a combined approach of muscle mass and muscle quality, however, selecting appropriate diagnostic cutoff values for all the measurements in Asian populations is challenging. Asia is a rapidly aging region with a huge population, so the impact of sarcopenia to this region is estimated to be huge as well. Asian Working Group for Sarcopenia (AWGS) aimed to promote sarcopenia research in Asia, and we collected the best available evidences of sarcopenia researches from Asian countries to establish the consensus for sarcopenia diagnosis. AWGS has agreed with the previous reports that sarcopenia should be described as low muscle mass plus low muscle strength and/or low physical performance, and we also recommend outcome indicators for further researches, as well as the conditions that sarcopenia should be assessed. In addition to sarcopenia screening for community-dwelling older people, AWGS recommends sarcopenia assessment in certain clinical conditions and healthcare settings to facilitate implementing sarcopenia in clinical practice. Moreover, we also recommend cutoff values for muscle mass measurements (7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.4 kg/m(2) for women by using dual X-ray absorptiometry, and 7.0 kg/m(2) for men and 5.7 kg/m(2) for women by using bioimpedance analysis), handgrip strength (<26 kg for men and <18 kg for women), and usual gait speed (<0.8 m/s). However, a number of challenges remained to be solved in the future. Asia is made up of a great number of ethnicities. The majority of currently available studies have been published from eastern Asia, therefore, more studies of sarcopenia in south, southeastern, and western Asia should be promoted. On the other hand, most Asian studies have been conducted in a cross-sectional design and few longitudinal studies have not necessarily collected the commonly used outcome indicators as other reports from Western countries. Nevertheless, the AWGS consensus report is believed to promote more Asian sarcopenia research, and most important of all, to focus on sarcopenia intervention studies and the implementation of sarcopenia in clinical practice to improve health care outcomes of older people in the communities and the healthcare settings in Asia.
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Metabolic Syndrome, Sarcopenia and Role of Sex and Age: Cross-Sectional Analysis of Kashiwa Cohort Study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Recent epidemiological evidence suggests that effects of cardiovascular risk factors may vary depending on sex and age. In this study, we assessed the associations of metabolic syndrome (MetS) with sarcopenia and its components in older adults, and examined whether the associations vary by sex and age. We also tested if any one of the MetS components could explain the associations. We conducted a cross-sectional analysis of the baseline data from the cohort study conducted in Kashiwa city, Chiba, Japan in 2012 which included 1971 functionally-independent, community-dwelling Japanese adults aged 65 years or older (977 men, 994 women). Sarcopenia was defined based on appendicular skeletal muscle mass, grip strength and usual gait speed. MetS was defined based on the National Cholesterol Education Program's Adult Treatment Panel-III criteria. The prevalence of sarcopenia was 14.2% in men and 22.1% in women, while the prevalence of MetS was 43.6% in men and 28.9% in women. After adjustment for potential confounders, MetS was positively associated with sarcopenia in men aged 65 to 74 years (odds ratio 5.5; 95% confidence interval 1.9-15.9) but not in older men or women. Among the sarcopenia components, MetS was associated with lower muscle mass and grip strength, particularly in men aged 65 to 74 years. The associations of MetS with sarcopenia and its components were mainly driven by abdominal obesity regardless of sex or age. In conclusion, MetS is positively associated with sarcopenia in older men. The association is modified by sex and age, but abdominal obesity is the main contributor to the association across sex and age.
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Efficacy of combined use of three non-invasive atherosclerosis tests to predict vascular events in the elderly; carotid intima-media thickness, flow-mediated dilation of brachial artery and pulse wave velocity.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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Intima-media thickness (IMT) of the carotid artery, flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, and pulse wave velocity of the central artery (PWV) have been widely used to evaluate progression of atherosclerosis. Our previous work has revealed that IMT, FMD and PWV are related to each other, and the combination of these measurements was useful in identifying patients with atherosclerotic disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether combination of these measurements would predict future cardiovascular events better than each test alone.
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Respiratory dysrhythmia in dementia with Lewy bodies: a cross-sectional study.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD). DLB is characterised by intracytoplasmic inclusions called Lewy bodies that are often seen in the brainstem. Because modulation of the respiratory rhythm is one of the most important functions of the brainstem, patients with DLB may exhibit dysrhythmic breathing. This hypothesis has not yet been systematically studied. Therefore, we evaluated the association between DLB and dysrhythmic breathing.
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[Role of androgen in the elderly. Dementia and androgen].
Clin Calcium
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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It has been shown that age-related decline in androgen secretion is associated with cognitive impairment and the risk of dementia. Epidemiological studies using community-dwelling older people and observational studies enrolling subjects with cognitive impairment have demonstrated that older men with lower androgen levels have lower cognitive function and are likely to develop dementia. In contrast, the efficacy of androgen replacement therapy on cognitive function or dementia remains to be addressed, although some preliminary studies have reported positive effects on cognitive function. Randomized controlled trials and mechanistic clarification are required in the future.
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[Role of androgen in the elderly. Roles of androgen on blood vessels].
Clin Calcium
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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In the process of atherosclerosis, vascular effects of androgen remain poorly understood and have been controversial for a long time. For many years, it has been widely believed that androgen plays an unfavorable role in the development of atherosclerosis. Recently, however, an increasing body of evidence suggests that androgens may exert protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis, at least in elderly men. Androgen may exert complex effects on the vessel wall. Furthermore, experimental studies have demonstrated the direct action of androgen on the vasculature. In this review, we illustrate the action of androgen on the cardiovascular system, focusing on the action of testosterone on blood vessels.
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trans-Resveratrol in Gnetum gnemon protects against oxidative-stress-induced endothelial senescence.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2013
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Gnetum gnemon is an arboreal dioecious plant that is cultivated in Indonesia. The seeds of this species mainly contain dimeric stilbenoid compounds [gnetin C (1), gnemonoside A (2), and gnemonoside D (3)] along with trans-resveratrol (4). trans-Resveratrol has been reported to have antiaging, anticancer, and antidiabetic effects, as well as being a calorie restriction mimetic. SIRT1 exerts a protective effect against vascular senescence. In this study, the effects of these four main stilbenoid derivatives of a G. gnemon seed endosperm ethanolic extract on endothelial senescence were investigated. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice, administration of the G. gnemon ethanolic extract increased SIRT1 and decreased endothelial senescence. The concentration of 1 in blood plasma was 6-fold higher than 4 in these mice. Next, the in vitro effects of the four main stilbenoid derivatives of G. gnemon seeds were investigated. Senescent human umbilical vein endothelial cells were induced by hydrogen peroxide. Endothelial senescence was inhibited by 4, which increased the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase and SIRT1, whereas 1-3 had no effect. These results indicated that the ethanolic extract of G. gnemon seeds inhibits endothelial senescence, suggesting that 4 plays a critical role in the prevention of endothelial senescence.
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Association of decreased sympathetic nervous activity with mortality of older adults in long-term care.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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To investigate the relationship between physical function, mortality and autonomic nervous activity measured by heart rate variability of elderly in long-term care.
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Priorities of health care outcomes for the elderly.
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2013
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Physicians are uncertain about what medical services should be provided to older and/or disabled patients. Better understanding of health outcome prioritization among health care providers and recipients may help the process of decision- and policy-making. For this purpose, surveys were conducted on priorities of health care outcomes for the elderly.
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion in an elderly patient with dementia: a case report.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2013
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Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia is an uncommon condition caused by aspiration of oil-based substances, occurring mainly in children. Here, we report the case of an 83-year-old patient with Alzheimers disease who presented with coughing and hypoxia. The diagnosis of acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia caused by accidental kerosene ingestion was made on the basis of the patients clinical history, and typical radiological and cytological findings. The patients cognitive impairment and an unsafe environment, in which the patients 91-year-old husband stored kerosene in an old shochu bottle, were responsible for the accidental ingestion. Acute exogenous lipoid pneumonia should be considered in the differential diagnosis for acute respiratory disorders in the rapidly aging population.
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Polypharmacy as a risk for fall occurrence in geriatric outpatients.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 12-23-2011
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To investigate the predictors of falls, such as comorbidity and medication, in geriatric outpatients in a longitudinal observational study.
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Sirtuin 1 retards hyperphosphatemia-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2011
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Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular disease as a complication of advanced atherosclerosis. Aged vascular cells manifest some morphological features of a senescent phenotype. Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, is an exciting target for cardiovascular disease management. Here, we investigated the role of SIRT1 in a calcification model of vascular smooth muscle cells (SMCs).
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Association of polypharmacy with fall risk among geriatric outpatients.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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To investigate the association of fall risk with comorbidities and medications in geriatric outpatients in a cross-sectional design.
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Relationship between interleukin-6 and cerebral deep white matter and periventricular hyperintensity in elderly women.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2011
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We evaluated the relationships between serum levels of high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP) and interleukin (IL)-6 with the severity of leukoaraiosis.
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Plasma sex hormone levels and mortality in disabled older men and women.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
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To investigate the relationship between circulating sex hormone levels and subsequent mortality in disabled elderly.
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Visceral fat accumulation and metabolic risk factor clustering in older adults.
J Am Geriatr Soc
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2010
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To examine the relationship between visceral fat area (VFA) evaluated using computed tomography (CT) scans and the number of metabolic risk factors in older adults.
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Induction of endothelial nitric oxide synthase, SIRT1, and catalase by statins inhibits endothelial senescence through the Akt pathway.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2010
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Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) have pleiotropic vascular protective effects besides cholesterol lowering. Recently, experimental and clinical studies have indicated that senescence of endothelial cells is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine whether statins would reduce endothelial senescence and to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the antisenescent property of statins.
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Effects of dehydroepiandrosterone supplementation on cognitive function and activities of daily living in older women with mild to moderate cognitive impairment.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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There is little evidence that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) has beneficial effects on physical and psychological functions in older women. We investigated the effect of DHEA supplementation on cognitive function and ADL in older women with cognitive impairment.
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DHEA attenuates PDGF-induced phenotypic proliferation of vascular smooth muscle A7r5 cells through redox regulation.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2010
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It is known that dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) inhibits a phenotypic switch in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC) induced by platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF)-BB. However, the mechanism behind the effect of DHEA on VSMC is not clear. Previously we reported that low molecular weight-protein tyrosine phosphatase (LMW-PTP) dephosphorylates PDGF receptor (PDGFR)-beta via a redox-dependent mechanism involving glutathione (GSH)/glutaredoxin (GRX)1. Here we demonstrate that the redox regulation of PDGFR-beta is involved in the effect of DHEA on VSMC. DHEA suppressed the PDGF-BB-dependent phosphorylation of PDGFR-beta. As expected, DHEA increased the levels of GSH and GRX1, and the GSH/GRX1 system maintained the redox state of LMW-PTP. Down-regulation of the expression of LMW-PTP using siRNA restored the suppression of PDGFR-beta-phosphorylation by DHEA. A promoter analysis of GRX1 and gamma-glutamylcysteine synthetase (gamma-GCS), a rate-limiting enzyme of GSH synthesis, showed that DHEA up-regulated the transcriptional activity at the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR) response element, suggesting PPARalpha plays a role in the induction of GRX1 and gamma-GCS expression by DHEA. In conclusion, the redox regulation of PDGFR-beta is involved in the suppressive effect of DHEA on VSMC proliferation through the up-regulation of GSH/GRX system.
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[A case of limbic encephalitis with small cell lung carcinoma in which the cognitive function improved and redeteriorated during tumor therapy].
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2010
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We report the findings regarding a 70-year-old man with paraneoplastic limbic encephalitis. He presented with a chief complaint of inability to recall any events. He had been well until one month before admission, and then he abruptly began to show progressive amnesia. At admission, the patients score on the Revised Hasegawa Dementia Scale (HDS-R) showed a decline to 13/30, thus indicating the existence of severe disorientation and an impaired memory. The brain CT and EEG showed no specific abnormalities and an analysis of cerebrospinal fluid showed only a mild increase in the total protein level. A chest X-ray film revealed a mass in the right hilum, while a histological analysis of the biopsied specimen finally established a diagnosis of small cell lung carcinoma. The FDG-PET and the enhanced brain MRI showed a single small metastatic lesion in the cerebellum. After the 1st course of chemotherapy and whole brain radiation, cognitive function, especially the short-term memory, remarkably improved and the HDS-R score increased to 21/30. However, the tumor again increased in size during the 3(rd) and 4(th) courses of chemotherapy. Interestingly, cognitive function also worsened again and the score of HDS-R declined to 15/30, 20 weeks after the start of chemotherapy. Limbic encephalitis can be associated with malignant tumors, such as small cell lung carcinoma, and some reported cases have shown a cognitive improvement after tumor therapy. In our case, we also observed a reworsening of the cognitive function in association with the acquired chemoresistence.
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Association of low testosterone with metabolic syndrome and its components in middle-aged Japanese men.
Hypertens. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2010
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Epidemiological studies have shown that low testosterone is associated with metabolic syndrome (MetS) in Caucasian men. We investigated whether testosterone level is related to the prevalence of MetS in middle-aged Japanese men. A cross-sectional survey was conducted in 194 men aged 30-64 years (49+/-9). Blood sampling was performed in the morning after a 12-h fast, and the relationship between plasma hormone and MetS was analyzed. Low total testosterone was associated with MetS according to the Japanese criteria (HRs of 2.02 by quartile of testosterone; 95% CI=1.43-2.87) and the International Diabetes Federation criteria (HRs of 1.68 by quartile of testosterone; 95% CI=1.25-2.25). Age-adjusted regression analyses revealed that testosterone was significantly related to the MetS parameters of obesity (beta=-0.365 and -0.343 for waist circumference and body mass index, respectively), hypertension (beta=-0.278 and -0.157 for systolic and diastolic blood pressure, respectively), dyslipidemia (beta=-0.242 and 0.228 for triglycerides and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, respectively), insulin resistance (beta=-0.253 and -0.333 for fasting plasma glucose and homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance, respectively) and adiponectin (beta=0.216). Inclusion of waist circumference into the model largely weakened the association of testosterone with other metabolic risk factors. In contrast, high estradiol was associated with MetS and its parameters, mostly attributing to the positive correlation between estradiol and obesity. Dehydroepiandrosterone sulfate was not associated with MetS or its parameters. These results suggest that low testosterone is associated with MetS and its parameters in middle-aged Japanese men. The association between estradiol and MetS needs further investigation.
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SIRT1/eNOS axis as a potential target against vascular senescence, dysfunction and atherosclerosis.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 03-09-2010
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Sir2 (silent information regulator-2), an NAD(+)-dependent histone deacetylase, is highly conserved in organisms ranging from archaea to humans. Yeast Sir2 is responsible for silencing at repeated DNA sequences in mating-type loci, telomeres and rDNA, and plays critical roles in DNA repair, stress resistance and longevity.The phenomenon of human aging is known to be a critical cardiovascular risk factor. Senescence of endothelial cells has been proposed to be involved in vascular dysfunction and atherogenesis. Recent studies have demonstrated that mammalian Sirt1 NAD(+)-dependent protein deacetylase, the closest homologue of Sir2, regulates vascular angiogenesis, homeostasis and senescence. This review focuses on SIRT1 as a potential therapeutic target against atherosclerosis.
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Androgen receptor-dependent activation of endothelial nitric oxide synthase in vascular endothelial cells: role of phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/akt pathway.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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The mechanisms of testosterone-induced vasodilatation are not fully understood. This study investigated the effect of testosterone on nitric oxide (NO) synthesis and its molecular mechanism using human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC). Testosterone at physiological concentrations (1-100 nm) induced a rapid (15-30 min) increase in NO production, which was associated with phosphorylation and activation of endothelial NO synthase (eNOS). Then, the involvement of the androgen receptor (AR), which is abundantly expressed in HAEC, was examined. The effect of testosterone on eNOS activation and NO production were abolished by pretreatment with an AR antagonist nilutamide and by transfection with AR small interference RNA. In contrast, testosterone-induced eNOS phosphorylation was unchanged by pretreatment with an aromatase inhibitor or by transfection with ERalpha small interference RNA. 5alpha-Dihydrotestosterone, a nonaromatizable androgen, also stimulated eNOS phosphorylation. Next, the signaling cascade that leads to eNOS phosphorylation was explored. Testosterone stimulated rapid phosphorylation of Akt in a time- and dose-dependent manner, with maximal response at 15-60 min. The rapid phosphorylation of eNOS or NO production induced by testosterone was inhibited by Akt inhibitor SH-5 or by phosphatidylinositol (PI) 3-kinase inhibitor wortmannin. Co-immunoprecipitation assays revealed a testosterone-dependent interaction between AR and the p85alpha subunit of PI3-kinase. In conclusion, testosterone rapidly induces NO production via AR-dependent activation of eNOS in HAEC. Activation of PI3-kinase/Akt signaling and the direct interaction of AR with p85alpha are involved, at least in part, in eNOS phosphorylation.
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Age-related changes in plasma androgen levels and their association with cardiovascular risk factors in male Japanese office workers.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2010
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To assess the age-related change in plasma androgen levels in healthy middle-aged men and whether any clinical parameters are associated with the hormonal change.
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Androgen receptor-dependent transactivation of growth arrest-specific gene 6 mediates inhibitory effects of testosterone on vascular calcification.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2010
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Recent epidemiological studies have found that androgen deficiency is associated with a higher incidence of cardiovascular disease in men. However, little is known about the mechanism underlying the cardioprotective effects of androgens. Here we show the inhibitory effects of testosterone on vascular calcification and a critical role of androgen receptor (AR)-dependent transactivation of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), a key regulator of inorganic phosphate (P(i))-induced calcification of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). Testosterone and nonaromatizable androgen dihydrotestosterone inhibited P(i)-induced calcification of human aortic VSMC in a concentration-dependent manner. Androgen inhibited P(i)-induced VSMC apoptosis, an essential process for VSMC calcification. The effects on VSMC calcification were mediated by restoration of P(i)-induced down-regulation of Gas6 expression and a subsequent reduction of Akt phosphorylation. These effects of androgen were blocked by an AR antagonist, flutamide, but not by an estrogen receptor antagonist, ICI 182,780. We then explored the mechanistic role of the AR in Gas6 expression and found an abundant expression of AR predominantly in the nucleus of VSMC and two consensus ARE sequences in the Gas6 promoter region. Dihydrotestosterone stimulated Gas6 promoter activity, and this effect was abrogated by flutamide and by AR siRNA. Site-specific mutation revealed that the proximal ARE was essential for androgen-dependent transactivation of Gas6. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated ligand-dependent binding of the AR to the proximal ARE of Gas6. These results indicate that AR signaling directly regulates Gas6 transcription, which leads to inhibition of vascular calcification, and provides a mechanistic insight into the cardioprotective action of androgens.
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[A case of a primary effusion lymphoma in the elderly].
Nihon Ronen Igakkai Zasshi
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2009
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We report a 90-year-old man who was given a diagnosis of pleural effusion lymphoma (PEL) based on the detailed immunochemical and DNA analyses of the pleural effusion. He was bed-ridden and on enteral nutrition due to severe Alzheimers disease, and also had diabetes mellitus. He was transferred to our hospital with fever and massive pleural effusion. A cytological examination of the pleural effusion revealed class 5 atypical lymphocytes with a high nucleus/cytoplasm ratio. The origin of the atypical cells could not be determined by flow cytometry of the pleural effusion, which only suggested the existence of inflammatory changes. Considering his general physical status, further investigations were not performed. The respiratory failure progressed, and he died on the 45(th) hospital day. At autopsy, no atypical cells were identified in his organs other than in the right thoracic space. We conducted immunochemical staining after making a cell block from the effusion sample. Most of the atypical cells were CD30 positive, with human herpes virus-8 (HHV-8)-associated protein. A PCR analysis of the immunoglobulin heavy chain gene detected monoclonal rearrangement, thus indicating the atypical cells to be involved in the B-cell lineage. These findings led to a final diagnosis of PEL. PEL is a rare type of lymphoma confined to the body cavities without any prominent tumor mass, and its pathogenesis is related to HHV-8 infection. PEL develops mostly in immunocompromised patients, such as those with AIDS. However, it may also occur in elderly patients as well. We should therefore also consider the possibility of PEL in elderly patients presenting with pleural effusion of unknown origin.
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Association of plasma sex hormone levels with functional decline in elderly men and women.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2009
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We aimed to determine whether plasma sex hormone levels are associated with activities of daily living (ADL), cognition, depression and vitality in elderly individuals with functional decline.
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Low testosterone level as a predictor of cardiovascular events in Japanese men with coronary risk factors.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2009
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Recent epidemiological studies have found that testosterone deficiency is associated with higher mortality largely due to cardiovascular (CV) disease in community-dwelling older men. We investigated whether a low plasma testosterone level could predict cardiovascular events in middle-aged Japanese men with coronary risk factors.
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Aortic arch calcification detectable on chest X-ray is a strong independent predictor of cardiovascular events beyond traditional risk factors.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2009
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Arterial calcification makes the management of hemodynamics more difficult. Some reports have previously shown that simple assessment of aortic calcification using plain radiography is associated with cardiovascular (CV) events; however, these studies simply assessed whether aortic calcification was present or absent only, without considering its extent. Here, we evaluated validity of grading aortic arch calcification (AAC) to predict new CV events.
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[Hormone replacement therapy--growth hormone, melatonin, DHEA and sex hormones].
Nippon Rinsho
PUBLISHED: 07-14-2009
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The ability to maintain active and independent living as long as possible is crucial for the healthy longevity. Hormones responsible for some of the manifestations associated with aging are growth hormone, insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF-1), melatonin, dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA), sex hormones and thyroid hormones. These hormonal changes are associated with changes in body composition, visceral obesity, muscle weakness, osteoporosis, urinary incontinence, loss of cognitive functioning, reduction in well being, depression, as well as sexual dysfunction. With the prolongation of life expectancy, both men and women today live the latter third life with endocrine deficiencies. Hormone replacement therapy may alleviate the debilitating conditions of secondary partial endocrine deficiencies by preventing or delaying some aspects of aging.
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Validity and usefulness of aortic arch calcification in chest X-ray.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2009
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Arterial calcification is associated with cardiovascular (CV) disease, to be leading to vessel wall stiffness and causing the management of hemodynamics in the elderly more difficult. Here, we compared the extent of calcification in the aortic arch by reviewing chest X-rays to that in the abdominal aorta as assessed by more detailed examinations. In addition, the validity of the grading and the relationship of this useful grading to clinical risk factors were evaluated.
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[Sex and gender differences in cardiovascular medicine].
Masui
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2009
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Obvious gender differences exist in the incidence of cardiovascular disease. Atherosclerotic disease such as coronary artery disease and stroke are more prevalent in men, but some types of arrhythmia such as long QT syndrome are more prevalent in women. Genetic differences and sex hormones may play a role. Particularly, estrogen can exert protective effects against the cardiovascular and metabolic system. Gender differences in life style and sociomedical behavior may play some role.
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Sirolimus and everolimus induce endothelial cellular senescence via sirtuin 1 down-regulation: therapeutic implication of cilostazol after drug-eluting stent implantation.
J. Am. Coll. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2009
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The aim of this study was to compare the effects of paclitaxel, sirolimus, and everolimus on the senescent phenotype in human endothelial cells, and to further investigate possible involvement of mammalian sirtuin 1 (Sirt1) down-regulation as a mechanism.
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A selective estrogen receptor modulator inhibits TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis by activating ERK1/2 signaling pathway in vascular endothelial cells.
Vascul. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2009
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Tumor necrosis factor (TNF-alpha) is a pleiotropic cytokine exerting both inflammatory and cell death activity and is thought to play a role in the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis. The present study was designed to examine whether the raloxifene analogue, LY117018 could inhibit TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis in vascular endothelial cells and to clarify the involved mechanisms. Apoptosis of endothelial cells was determined by DNA fragmentation assay and the activation of caspase-3. LY117018 significantly inhibited TNF-alpha-induced caspase-3 activation and cell DNA fragmentation levels in bovine carotid artery endothelial cells. The inhibitory effect of LY117018 was abolished by an estrogen receptor antagonist ICI 182,780. p38 MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2 and Akt have been shown to act as apoptotic or anti-apoptotic signals. TNF-alpha stimulated the phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK, JNK, ERK1/2 and Akt in vascular endothelial cells. TNF-alpha-induced apoptosis was significantly decreased by SB203580, a p38 MAPK inhibitor or SP600125, a JNK inhibitor, but was enhanced by an ERK1/2 pathway inhibitor, PD98059 or a PI3-kinase/Akt pathway inhibitor, wortmannin. The anti-apoptotic effect of LY117018 was abrogated only by PD98059 but was not affected by the inhibitors for p38 MAPK, JNK, or Akt. LY117018 stimulated the further increase in phosphorylation of ERK1/2 in TNF-alpha treated endothelial cells but it did not affect phosphorylation levels of p38 MAPK, JNK or Akt. These results suggest that LY 110718 prevents caspase-3 dependent apoptosis induced by TNF-alpha in vascular endothelial cells through activation of the estrogen receptors and the ERK1/2 signaling pathway.
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Thrombomodulin, a novel molecule regulating inorganic phosphate-induced vascular smooth muscle cell calcification.
J. Mol. Cell. Cardiol.
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Hyperphosphatemia has emerged as a cardiovascular risk factor that stimulates calcification in vessels. We explored molecules that were induced by inorganic phosphate (Pi) at an early stage in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMC). In the present study, we examined the role of thrombomodulin (TM) in Pi-induced VSMC calcification based on the results of DNA microarray analysis. Both mRNA and protein expression of TM were markedly augmented in Pi-induced calcification. Conversely, knockdown of TM by siRNA significantly inhibited calcification, in addition to Pi-induced apoptosis which plays critical roles in VSMC calcification. We further found that TM suppressed both of mRNA and protein expression of growth arrest-specific gene 6 (Gas6), a key molecule regulating apoptosis. Recombinant extracellular epidermal growth factor (EGF)-repeat domain of TM exaggerated calcification and this effect was abrogated by a neutralizing antibody for EGF receptor, suggesting that the cleaved and secreted form of TM may activate EGF receptor. We also found that downregulation of Gas6 by TM/EGF receptor axis was mediated by ERK in VSMC calcification. In the aorta of adenine-fed rat, a typical medial calcification model with hyperphosphatemia, we found that TM expression was increased. Furthermore, in human calcified aorta, increased TM expression was also observed. These results indicate that TM is a novel molecule that promotes apoptosis and vascular calcification by regulation of Gas6, presumably via EGF receptor/ERK axis.
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The high frequency of periodic limb movements in patients with Lewy body dementia.
J Psychiatr Res
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Although dementia with Lewy bodies (DLB) is the second most common form of neurodegenerative dementia after Alzheimers disease (AD), the clinical diagnosis is frequently difficult. Because both REM sleep behavior disorders and Parkinsons disease also have alpha-synucleinopathy similar to DLB, and show an increase in periodic limb movements (PLM), we evaluated the association between DLB and PLM, which may serve as an additional information to differentiate AD and DLB.
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Src kinase-mediates androgen receptor-dependent non-genomic activation of signaling cascade leading to endothelial nitric oxide synthase.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
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Our previous study has demonstrated that testosterone rapidly activates endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), enhancing nitric oxide (NO) release from endothelial cells (ECs) via the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/Akt (PI3-kinase/Akt) pathway. The upstream regulators of this pathway are unknown. In this study, we further investigated the non-genomic action of testosterone in human aortic ECs. Acute (30 min) activation of eNOS caused by testosterone was unaffected by pretreatment with a transcriptional inhibitor, actinomycin D. Non-permeable testosterone-BSA rapidly induced Akt and eNOS phosphorylation. In contrast, luciferase reporter assay showed that the transcriptional activity of the androgen-responsive element (ARE) was increased by testosterone, but not by testosterone-BSA at 2h after stimulation. Immunostaining displayed co-localization of androgen receptor (AR) with caveolin-1. Fractional analysis showed that AR was expressed in caveolae-enriched membrane fractions. Immunoprecipitation assays revealed the association of AR with caveolin-1 and c-Src, suggesting complex formation among them. Testosterone rapidly increased the phosphorylation of c-Src on Tyr416, which was inhibited by an AR antagonist and by siRNA for AR. PP2, a specific-inhibitor of Src kinase, abolished the testosterone-induced phosphorylation of Akt and eNOS. Our data indicate that testosterone induces rapid assembly of a membrane signaling complex among AR, caveolin-1 and c-Src, which then facilitates activation of the c-Src/ PI3-kinase/Akt cascade, resulting in activation of eNOS.
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Indications and practice for tube feeding in Japanese geriatricians: implications of multidisciplinary team approach.
Geriatr Gerontol Int
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The aim of this study was to examine how geriatricians decide the indication of tube feeding in the elderly with eating difficulty as a result of several disorders, and to determine the factors associated with their decision making and interventions for dysphagia.
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Hormonal effects on blood vessels.
Hypertens. Res.
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The incidence of cardiovascular disease (CVD) is lower in younger women than in men of the same age, but it increases after menopause, implicating the atheroprotective action of endogenous estrogen. Although observational studies have suggested the efficacy of estrogen therapy in postmenopausal women, placebo-controlled, randomized trials, such as the Womens Health Initiative, have not confirmed effects of estrogen therapy on CVD. Conversely, basic, experimental research has progressed and provided mechanistic insight into estrogens action on blood vessels. By contrast, the vascular effects of androgens remain poorly understood and have been controversial for a long time. In recent years, an increasing body of evidence has suggested that androgens may exert protective effects against the development of atherosclerosis, at least in elderly men. Epidemiological studies have shown that the incidence of and mortality due to CVD were increased in elderly men with low testosterone levels, although the efficacy of androgen therapy remains unknown. Furthermore, recent experimental studies have demonstrated the direct action of androgens on the vasculature. In this review, we illustrate the effects of sex steroids on the cardiovascular system, focusing on the action of testosterone on the blood vessels.
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Testosterone deficiency accelerates neuronal and vascular aging of SAMP8 mice: protective role of eNOS and SIRT1.
PLoS ONE
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Oxidative stress and atherosclerosis-related vascular disorders are risk factors for cognitive decline with aging. In a small clinical study in men, testosterone improved cognitive function; however, it is unknown how testosterone ameliorates the pathogenesis of cognitive decline with aging. Here, we investigated whether the cognitive decline in senescence-accelerated mouse prone 8 (SAMP8), which exhibits cognitive impairment and hypogonadism, could be reversed by testosterone, and the mechanism by which testosterone inhibits cognitive decline. We found that treatment with testosterone ameliorated cognitive function and inhibited senescence of hippocampal vascular endothelial cells of SAMP8. Notably, SAMP8 showed enhancement of oxidative stress in the hippocampus. We observed that an NAD(+)-dependent deacetylase, SIRT1, played an important role in the protective effect of testosterone against oxidative stress-induced endothelial senescence. Testosterone increased eNOS activity and subsequently induced SIRT1 expression. SIRT1 inhibited endothelial senescence via up-regulation of eNOS. Finally, we showed, using co-culture system, that senescent endothelial cells promoted neuronal senescence through humoral factors. Our results suggest a critical role of testosterone and SIRT1 in the prevention of vascular and neuronal aging.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.