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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Vitamin E Content and Estimated Need in German Infant and Follow-On Formulas With and Without Long-Chain Polyunsaturated Fatty Acids (LC-PUFA) Enrichment.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Many formulas (FM) for infants are nowadays supplemented with LC-PUFA. Due to the susceptibility of LC-PUFA to peroxidation, a potential risk of oxidative stress must be considered. We analyzed the concentration of unsaturated fatty acids to calculate an estimated vitamin E need and the concentration of vitamin E as an important lipophilic antioxidant in LC-PUFA enriched (FM(+), n = 31) and not enriched (FM(-), n = 29) formulas as well as in breast milk (BM, n = 118). No differences were observed in the ratios of vitamin E content to estimated vitamin E need between FM(+) and FM(-). Ratios were consistently above the minimum value according to European law. FM showed similar or higher ratios than BM, except in a worst-case scenario where BM showed higher ratios than FM(+). Our results indicate adequate vitamin E content relative to unsaturated fatty acid content in present-day commercial formulas. Given that breast milk tends to contain higher ratios of vitamin E content to estimated vitamin E need than LC-PUFA enriched formulas (at least in a worst-case scenario), the potential effects of increasing vitamin E content in LC-PUFA enriched formulas should be explored.
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Fish and rapeseed oil consumption in infants and mothers: dietary habits and determinants in a nationwide sample in Germany.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2014
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Fish and rapeseed oil are major sources of omega-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (n-3 PUFA) in complementary food, but little is known about current consumption in Germany.
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Food variety in commercial and homemade complementary meals for infants in Germany. Market survey and dietary practice.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Already infants do not meet the recommendations for fruit and vegetable intake although the complementary feeding period offers the possibility to expose the infant to a variety of flavours from fruits and vegetables. The objective of the present analysis was to identify differences in the vegetable variety in commercial vs. homemade complementary meals and to describe fish and meat variety in these meals in dietary practice in Germany. A further objective was to provide an overview of the food variety in commercial complementary vegetable-potato-meat/fish meals available on the German baby food market in 2012.
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Frequencies and demographic determinants of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in a nationwide sample of mothers in Germany.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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German guidelines recommend breast milk as ideal for infants nutrition, supporting exclusive breastfeeding for at least 4 months. Moreover, in mothers with insufficient fish intake, DHA status may be improved by supplementation during pregnancy and lactation. However, little is known on current rates of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in Germany. The objective of this study was to analyse frequencies and demographic determinants of breastfeeding and DHA supplementation in Germany.
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Factors associated with vitamin D deficiency in european adolescents: the HELENA study.
J. Nutr. Sci. Vitaminol.
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Evidence indicates low 25-hydroxyvitamin D [(25(OH)D] concentrations in European adolescents. Identification of potential determinants is therefore essential to guide public health initiatives aiming at optimizing vitamin D status across Europe. The aim of the study was to identify potential influencing factors of 25(OH)D concentrations in European adolescents aged 12.5 to 17.5 y, participating in the multi-centre cross-sectional Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study. A subset of 1,006 participants (46.8% males) was drawn from the main study. Measures of body composition, biochemical markers, socioeconomic status, dietary intake, physical activity, fitness, sleep time and vitamin D genetic polymorphism (rs1544410) were assessed. Stepwise multivariate linear regression analysis was conducted stratified by gender. In males, linear regression of 25(OH)D, suggested that (1) winter season (?=-0.364; p<0.01), (2) higher latitudes (?=-0.246; p<0.01), (3) BMI z-score (?=-0.198; p<0.05) and (4) retinol concentration (?=0.171; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. In females, (1) winter season (?=-0.370; p<0.01), (2) sleep time (?=-0.231; p<0.01), (3) supplement intake (?=0.221; p<0.05), (4) flexibility (?=0.184; p<0.05), (5) body fat % (?=0.201; p<0.05) (6), BMI z-score (?=-0.272; p<0.05), (7) higher latitudes (?=-0.219; p<0.01) and (8) handgrip strength (?=0.206; p<0.05) independently influenced 25(OH)D concentrations. Season, latitude, fitness, adiposity, sleep time and micronutrient supplementation were highly related to 25(OH)D concentrations found in European adolescents.
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Time trends in dietary fat intake in a sample of German children and adolescents between 2000 and 2010: not quantity, but quality is the issue.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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Dietary fat intake in childhood may influence the risk for developing chronic diseases. The objective of the present study was to examine secular trends in the parameters of fat intake between 2000 and 2010 in a sample of German children and adolescents (n 808) participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Dietary data from 4380 3 d weighed dietary records were analysed using repeated-measures regression to determine time trends in fat quantity, i.e. the intake of total fat, and in fat quality, i.e. the ratios of SFA, MUFA and PUFA. In young children (2-3 years) and in adolescents (13-18 years), total fat intake remained stable over time, but decreased by 0·08 % of total energy (%E) per year in 4-12-year-old children. In 2010, median fat intake was at the upper end of the recommendations. SFA intake decreased slightly in 2-3- and 4-12-year-old children by 0·09 and 0·05 %E per year, respectively. MUFA and PUFA intakes remained stable in all the age groups except in adolescents. Here, PUFA intake decreased initially, but increased between 2005 and 2010. In 2010, only between 3 and 18 % of the respective age groups had an intake of SFA or PUFA within the recommendations. In conclusion, fat quantity and quality did not change substantially between 2000 and 2010. Fat quality, in particular, needs to be improved, since a large percentage of our sample did not meet the recommended intakes for SFA and PUFA.
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Carbohydrate intake in relation to BMI, HbA1c and lipid profile in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2013
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BACKGROUND & AIMS: To compare reported and recommended carbohydrate intake in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes (T1D) and to explore associations with BMI, HbA1c and lipid profile. METHODS: A cross-sectional observational study of reported carbohydrate intake in 46,010 patients with T1D aged 1-18 years from 332 diabetes centres in Germany and Austria in comparison to age-matched healthy children and adolescents. RESULTS: The median reported carbohydrate intake in T1D patients was markedly lower than in healthy children. It varied between 56% and 90% of recommended amounts across the paediatric age range with younger patients showing levels closer to recommend. Lower carbohydrate intake was associated with higher BMI-SDS (p < 0.001), particularly during adolescence, higher total cholesterol (p < 0.001), higher LDL-cholesterol (p = 0.005) and lower HbA1c (p < 0.001). CONCLUSIONS: The methodologically simple measure of reported carbohydrate intake may be a valuable addition to the information gathered on paediatric patients with T1D in an outpatient setting. Children and adolescents with T1D appear to restrict their consumption of carbohydrates, which may have adverse effects on BMI and the lipid profile, particularly if there is a compensatory increased fat intake. Health care providers should therefore advise patients and parents of the recommended age-dependent levels of carbohydrate intake.
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Nutrient intake of European adolescents: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2013
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OBJECTIVE: An adequate nutritional intake in childhood and adolescence is crucial for growth and the prevention of youth and adult obesity and nutrition-related morbidities. Improving nutrient intake in children and adolescents is of public health importance. The purpose of the present study was to describe and evaluate the nutrient intake in a European sample using the D-A-CH nutrient intake recommendations and the Nutritional Quality Index (NQI). DESIGN: The HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study is a cross-sectional study, the main objective of which is to obtain comparable data on a variety of nutritional and health-related parameters in adolescents aged 12·5-17·5 years. SETTING: Eight cities in Europe. SUBJECTS: The initial sample consisted of 3528 European adolescents. Among these, 1590 adolescents (54 % female) had sufficient and plausible dietary data on energy and nutrient intakes from two 24 h recalls using the HELENA-DIAT software. RESULTS: The intakes of most macronutrients, vitamins and minerals were in line with the D-A-CH recommendations. While the intakes of SFA and salt were too high, the intake of PUFA was too low. Furthermore, the intakes of vitamin D, folate, iodine and F were less than about 55 % of the recommendations. The median NQI was about 71 (of a maximum of 100). CONCLUSIONS: The intakes of most nutrients were adequate. However, further studies using suitable criteria to assess nutrient status are needed. Public health initiatives should educate children and adolescents regarding balanced food choices.
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Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
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Dietary exposure assessments for children in europe (the EXPOCHI project): rationale, methods and design.
Arch Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2011
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The number of dietary exposure assessment studies focussing on children is very limited. Children are however a vulnerable group due to their higher food consumption level per kg body weight. Therefore, the EXPOCHI project aims 1 to create a relational network of individual food consumption databases in children, covering different geographical areas within Europe, and 2 to use these data to assess the usual intake of lead, chromium, selenium and food colours.
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Food intake of European adolescents in the light of different food-based dietary guidelines: results of the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) Study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2011
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Since inadequate food consumption patterns during adolescence are not only linked with the occurrence of obesity in youth but also with the subsequent risk of developing diseases in adulthood, the establishment and maintenance of a healthy diet early in life is of great public health importance. Therefore, the aim of the present study was to describe and evaluate the food consumption of a well-characterized sample of European adolescents against food-based dietary guidelines for the first time.
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Consumption of dietary salt measured by urinary sodium excretion and its association with body weight status in healthy children and adolescents.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Highly processed foods such as convenience foods usually have a high salt content and therefore might indirectly act as adipogenic due to an increasing consumption of sugar-containing beverages (SCB). We examined the association between dietary salt and body weight status.
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Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.
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Nutritional knowledge in European adolescents: results from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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To build up sufficient knowledge of a healthy diet. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe.
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Clustering patterns of physical activity, sedentary and dietary behavior among European adolescents: The HELENA study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2011
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Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. A better insight in the clustering of those behaviors, could help to identify groups who are at risk in developing chronic diseases. This study examines the prevalence and clustering of physical activity, sedentary and dietary patterns among European adolescents and investigates if the identified clusters could be characterized by socio-demographic factors.
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24 h-Sodium excretion and hydration status in children and adolescents--results of the DONALD Study.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2011
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To describe actual data on intake, sources, age and time trends of urinary sodium excretion and to analyze the potential association between urinary sodium excretion and hydration status respective beverage consumption in a sample of healthy German children and adolescents.
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Anthocyanins in the diet of infants and toddlers: intake, sources and trends.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2011
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Anthocyanins, a colourful group of flavonoids in many fruits and vegetables, are proposed to provide positive impact on human health. However, intake estimations have almost exclusively been conducted in adult populations. As infants and toddlers are a promising age group for health promotion, we examined their anthocyanin intake (as anthocyanidins), food sources and trends of age and time in anthocyanidin density.
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Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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It has been suggested that breast-feeding (BF) may be associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. A low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in apparently healthy children. The objective of this study was to assess the potential modulating effect of BF on the inflammatory status of healthy adolescents. Information on BF (duration) was obtained from parental records in 484 of 1040 healthy European urban adolescents (56.4% females) that had a blood sample obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition and Adolescence study. Blood serum inflammatory markers were measured, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors 3 and 4, ceruloplasmin, adhesion molecules (L-selectin and soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1), cytokines, TGF?1, and white blood cells. After univariate analysis, a propensity score, including the potential confounding factors, was computed and used to assess the association between BF and selected inflammatory markers. BF was not significantly associated with any of the selected inflammatory markers after adjustment for gender and propensity score. In our study, BF was not associated with low-grade inflammatory status in healthy adolescents, suggesting that the potential cardiovascular benefits of BF are related to other mechanisms than modulation of inflammation or might become relevant at a later age. Groups at high risk for cardiovascular disease should be a target for further research concerning the effects of BF.
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Detailed exposure assessment of dietary furan for infants consuming commercially jarred complementary food based on data from the DONALD study.
Matern Child Nutr
PUBLISHED: 12-22-2010
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Furan is a possible human carcinogen regularly occurring in commercially jarred complementary foods. This paper will provide a detailed exposure assessment for babies consuming these foods considering different intake scenarios. The occurrence data on furan in complementary foods were based on our own headspace-gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (HS-GC/MS) analytical results (n = 286). The average furan content in meals and menus was between 20 and 30 µg kg(-1), which is in excellent agreement with results from other European countries. Using measured food consumption data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study, the average exposures for consumers of commercially jarred foods ranged between 182 and 688 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1), with a worst case scenario for P95 consumers ranging between 351 and 1066 ng kg(-1) bw day(-1). The exposure data were then used to characterize risk using the margin of exposure method based on a benchmark dose lower confidence limit for a 10% response (BMDL10) of 1.28 mg kg(-1) bw day(-1) for hepatocellular tumours in rats. The margin of exposures (MOEs) were below the threshold of 10 000, which is often used to define public health risks, in all scenarios, ranging between 7022 and 1861 for average consumers and between 3642 and 1200 for the P95 consumers. Mitigative measures to avoid furan in complementary foods should be of high priority for risk management.
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Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Our aim in this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric strength, and explosive strength during adolescence. A total of 2567 adolescents (1426 girls) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study aged 12.5-17.5 y were included. Information about duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding was obtained retrospectively by means of a parental questionnaire. The 20-m shuttle run, handgrip strength, and standing long jump tests were used to assess physical fitness. Significant differences among the categories of breastfeeding duration were tested using ANCOVA after adjusting for a set of potential confounders: gestational and current age, birth weight, sexual maturation, fat mass, fat-free mass, maternal education, parental weight status, country, smoking behavior, and days of vigorous physical activity. Longer breastfeeding (either any or exclusive) was associated with a higher performance in the standing long jump test in both boys and girls (P < 0.001), regardless of fat mass, fat-free mass, and the rest of potential confounders. In adolescents who were breastfed for 3-5 mo or ?6 mo, the risk of having a standing long jump performance below the 5th percentile was reduced by half compared with those who were never breastfed [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96, P < 0.05; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.74, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest a role of breastfeeding in determining lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
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Comparison of several anthropometric indices with insulin resistance proxy measures among European adolescents: The Helena Study.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2010
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The aim of the current study was to compare the association of several anthropometric indices, with insulin resistance (IR) proxy measures in European adolescents. The present study comprises 1,097 adolescents aged 12.5-17.5 from ten European cities participating in the HELENA study. Weight, height, waist circumference (WC) and hip circumference, skinfolds thickness, fat mass (FM), fasting plasma glucose (G(F)) and serum insulin (I(F)) levels were measured. HOMA (as indicator of IR body mass index (BMI), waist to hip ratio (WHR) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were calculated. I(F) and HOMA were statistically significantly related to BMI, WC, skinfold sum, WHtR, WHR and FM. BMI, WC, WHtR, skinfold sum and FM displayed similar correlation with I(F) and HOMA as opposed to WHR where lower correlation with IR indices was detected in the overall sample. Similar results were found for boys, girls and underweight/normal weight adolescents. On the other hand, WC and WHtR were found to be more strongly associated with IR proxy measures compared to the rest of anthropometric indices among overweight/obese subjects. Based on the current findings, WC and WHtR could be used, alternatively, to identify the overweight/obese adolescent at risk for developing IR. In addition, all aforementioned anthropometric indices, except WHR, could be used among the underweight/normal weight adolescents.
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Iron intake and iron status in breastfed infants during the first year of life.
Clin Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2010
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Breastfed infants may be at particular risk for iron deficiency because breast milk is low in iron. In a secondary analysis of data from a complementary feeding trial, indicators of iron status were examined, with particular focus on the development of iron status in those infants who were fully breastfed during the first 4 months of life.
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Breakfast trends in children and adolescents: frequency and quality.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2010
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Although breakfast is important for obesity prevention and dietary quality, breakfast skipping is a common behaviour. Knowledge of changes in breakfast habits may provide potential behaviour targets for intervention programmes. The present study describes the actual data on trends in breakfast habits and composition.
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Evaluation of a computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents in six European countries: the Activ-O-Meter in the HELENA intervention study.
J Adolesc Health
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2010
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The present study investigates the effect of the Activ-O-Meter, an internet-based computer-tailored physical activity intervention in adolescents in six European centers involved in the HELENA study.
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Soft drinks and body weight development in childhood: is there a relationship?
Curr Opin Clin Nutr Metab Care
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2009
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The high sugar content of regular soft drinks brought up discussions on their influence on energy balance and body weight especially in childhood and adolescence. This review examines the evidence for a causal relationship between soft drink consumption and excess weight gain in childhood and identifies potential underlying mechanisms.
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Immigrational background affects the effectiveness of a school-based overweight prevention program promoting water consumption.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2009
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We tested whether a simple overweight prevention program promoting water consumption in elementary schools is equally effective in children with an immigrational background (MIG) and in those without (non-MIG). Thus, a secondary analysis of a controlled cluster trial, lasting one school year, was conducted. Thirty-two elementary schools located in low socioeconomic districts in two German cities were included. Of the 2,950 school children analyzed, 1,306 were MIG children. Water fountains were installed in the schools of the intervention group (IG) and teachers held lessons to promote water consumption. Control schools (control group (CG)) did not receive any intervention. Before and after intervention, body weight and height was measured. Overweight was defined by age- and sex-specific BMI cutoffs that are linked to an adult BMI of 25 kg/m(2). Beverage consumption was assessed in questionnaires. Modification of intervention effects by immigrational background was tested by interaction terms. The immigrational background modified the intervention effect on prevalence and remission of overweight (interaction term: P = 0.03 and P = 0.02), but not on the incidence of overweight (P = 0.06). After intervention, the risk of being overweight was reduced in the IG compared to the CG among non-MIG (odds ratio = 0.51, 95% confidence interval (CI): 0.31-0.83), but not among MIG children (odds ratio = 1.02, 95% CI: 0.63-1.65). After intervention, water consumption significantly increased in the IG equally among both, non-MIG and MIG, by ~1 glass/day. A simple school-based intervention promoting water consumption prevented overweight in non-MIG children, but failed in MIG children. Different beverage consumption, among other lifestyle factors, may account for this effect but scientific discussion remains open.
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A simple dietary intervention in the school setting decreased incidence of overweight in children.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2009
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The study analyzed the effect of a combined environmental and educational intervention solely promoting water consumption on the incidence of overweight among school children.
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Relative validity of a self-completion 24 h recall questionnaire to assess beverage consumption among schoolchildren aged 7 to 9 years.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2009
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Drinking habits in children are associated with diet quality, but validated assessment tools for large-scale studies in young children are lacking. Therefore, we validated a self-completion 24 h recall questionnaire (RQ) focusing on beverage consumption with a 24 h weighed record (WR).
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Dietary intake and plasma concentrations of PUFA and LC-PUFA in breastfed and formula fed infants under real-life conditions.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2009
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The breastfed infant is usually used as standard for formula feeding, also regarding long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LC-PUFA). Here, plasma fatty acid concentrations in formula fed infants and the effects of LC-PUFA supplementation were investigated under real-life conditions.
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Benzene in infant carrot juice: further insight into formation mechanism and risk assessment including consumption data from the DONALD study.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2009
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Benzene was previously detected as a heat-induced contaminant in infant carrot juices. This study shows that carrot juice contains substances such as beta-carotene, phenylalanine or terpenes that may act as precursors for benzene formation during food processing. As benzene exposure has been associated with childhood leukaemia and other cancers, this study aimed to provide a quantitative risk assessment. To accomplish this, we used measured food consumption data from the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) study, along with survey data on benzene in different juice categories. The calculated exposures for infants between 3 and 12 months were low, with averages between 1 and 10 ng/kg bw/day, resulting in a margin of exposure above 100,000. The exposures were judged as unlikely to pose a health risk for infants. Nevertheless, carcinogenic contaminants should be reduced to levels as low as reasonably achievable. The focus should be set on improving the sterilization conditions.
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Consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages and its association with nutrient intakes and diet quality in German children and adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2009
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In the present study the relationship of sugar-sweetened beverage (SSB) consumption with the intake of single nutrients and total diet quality in German children and adolescents was evaluated using a repeated-measures regression analysis model. We used dietary data from 7145 three-day weighed records of 1069 subjects aged 2-19 years participating in the Dortmund Nutritional and Anthropometric Longitudinally Designed (DONALD) Study. Intake of macronutrients as percentage of total energy intake (%En), intake of micronutrients as percentage of German reference values (intake quality score) and nutritional quality index (NQI) as an indicator of diet quality were chosen as separate dependent variables. SSB consumption was positively associated with %En from carbohydrates (boys v. girls: +4.00 v. +4.09 En%/MJ from SSB) and added sugars (boys v. girls: +7.36 v. +9.52 En%/MJ from SSB) and negatively with %En from protein (boys v. girls: - 1.25 v. - 1.31 En%/MJ from SSB) and fat (boys: - 2.82 v. - 2.73 En%/MJ from SSB). With respect to micronutrients, SSB consumption was negatively associated with folate and Ca intake, for which mean intake levels were inadequate in girls. Absolute diet quality was negatively associated with SSB consumption, whereas the effect was larger for girls (boys v. girls: - 1.41 v. - 2.63 points of NQI/MJ from SSB). Overall, results show a diluting effect of SSB consumption on micronutrient intake and diet quality. This effect might be relevant especially in girls as the association with diet quality was larger and mean NQI levels were lower in comparison with boys.
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Validation of energy requirement equations for estimation of breast milk consumption in infants.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2009
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To test equations for calculating infants energy requirements as a simple and reliable instrument for estimating the amount of breast milk consumed in epidemiological studies where test-weighing is not possible.
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Promotion and provision of drinking water in schools for overweight prevention: randomized, controlled cluster trial.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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The study tested whether a combined environmental and educational intervention solely promoting water consumption was effective in preventing overweight among children in elementary school.
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Complementary food with low (8%) or high (12%) meat content as source of dietary iron: a double-blinded randomized controlled trial.
Eur J Nutr
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2009
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To investigate whether a low meat content of complementary food as accepted by EU law increases the risk of well-nourished infants to develop iron deficiency during the complementary feeding period.
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Dietary intake of nickel and zinc by young children--results from food duplicate portion measurements in comparison to data calculated from dietary records and available data on levels in food groups.
J Trace Elem Med Biol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2009
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The daily dietary intake of nickel (Ni) and zinc (Zn) by 42 young children, 21 boys and 21 girls, from 4 to 7 years of age, living in urban and rural areas of Germany and having different food consumption behaviour, was determined by the duplicate method with a 7-day sampling period. Dietary records were also kept by the childrens parents for the 7-day sampling period. Individual reported food items were identified, assigned to food groups and, together with known Ni and Zn concentrations of foodstuffs, daily intake rates were calculated. The same method was used for calculations of the energy, fat, protein and carbohydrate intake rates. The levels in the food duplicates, determined by atomic absorption spectrometry, were in the range of 69-2000 microg Ni/kg(dry weight) (geometric mean (GM): 348) and 7.1-43 mg Zn/kg(dry weight) (GM: 17.5). Daily intake rates based on the 294 individual food duplicate analyses were 12-560 microgNi/d (GM: 92.3) and 1.5-11 mgZn/d (GM: 4.63). The results from the dietary records were 35-1050 microg Ni/d (GM: 123) and 1.7-15 mg Zn/d (GM: 5.35). The results of the daily intake rates from both methods showed a correlation with regard to Zn (r=0.56), but no correlation was found between either the Ni intake rates determined with both methods or between the Ni intake rates measured by the duplicate method and calculated intake rates from the dietary records of energy, fat, protein, carbohydrates or drinking water. In the case of nickel, the discrepancies between the methods lead one to suppose that the main factors influencing Ni intake by food are not directly caused by easily assessable food ingredients themselves. It is possible that other factors, such as contaminated drinking water or the transition of Ni from kettles or other household utensils made from stainless steel into the food, may be more relevant. In addition there are some foodstuffs with great variations in concentrations, often influenced by the growing area and environmental factors. Further, some food groups naturally high in Nickel like nuts, cocoa or teas might not have been kept sufficient within the records. In summary, the dietary record method gave sufficient results for Zn, but is insufficient for Ni. Based on the food duplicate analysis, children living in urban areas with consumption of food products from a family-owned garden or the surrounding area and/or products from domestic animals of the surrounding area had about one-third higher Ni levels in their food than children either living in an urban area or children consuming products exclusively from the supermarket. Only slight differences were found with regard to Zn. Compared to the recommendations of the German Society of Nutrition (DGE) (25-30 microgNi/d and 5.0 mgZn/d), the participants of the study had a clearly increased Ni and, in view of the geometric mean value, a nearly adequate Zn intake. Health risks are especially given with regard to the influence of nickel intake by food on dermatitis for nickel-sensitive individuals.
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Validation of the Diet Quality Index for Adolescents by comparison with biomarkers, nutrient and food intakes: the HELENA study.
Br. J. Nutr.
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Food-based dietary guidelines (FBDG) aim to address the nutritional requirements at population level in order to prevent diseases and promote a healthy lifestyle. Diet quality indices can be used to assess the compliance with these FBDG. The present study aimed to investigate whether the newly developed Diet Quality Index for Adolescents (DQI-A) is a good surrogate measure for adherence to FBDG, and whether adherence to these FBDG effectively leads to better nutrient intakes and nutritional biomarkers in adolescents. Participants included 1804 European adolescents who were recruited in the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, non-consecutive 24 h recalls. A DQI-A score, considering the components dietary quality, diversity and equilibrium, was calculated. Associations between the DQI-A and food and nutrient intakes and blood concentration biomarkers were investigated using multilevel regression analysis corrected for centre, age and sex. DQI-A scores were associated with food intake in the expected direction: positive associations with nutrient-dense food items, such as fruits and vegetables, and inverse associations with energy-dense and low-nutritious foods. On the nutrient level, the DQI-A was positively related to the intake of water, fibre and most minerals and vitamins. No association was found between the DQI-A and total fat intake. Furthermore, a positive association was observed with 25-hydroxyvitamin D, holo-transcobalamin and n-3 fatty acid serum levels. The present study has shown good validity of the DQI-A by confirming the expected associations with food and nutrient intakes and some biomarkers in blood.
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Main characteristics and participation rate of European adolescents included in the HELENA study.
Arch Public Health
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Participation rate and response rate are key issues in a cross sectional large-scale epidemiological study. The objective of this paper is to describe the study population and to evaluate participation and response rate as well as the key nutritional status variables in male and female adolescents involved in the HELENA study.
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Relative validity of a 3 d estimated food record in German toddlers.
Public Health Nutr
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To determine the relative validity of a 3 d estimated food record (EFR) used to assess energy and nutrient intakes in toddlers, using a 3 d weighed food record (WDR) as the reference method.
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Anthocyanins in the diet of children and adolescents: intake, sources and trends.
Eur J Nutr
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Anthocyanin intake estimations in large cohorts include almost exclusively adults. For the purpose of early dietary prevention, however, it is of great interest to estimate anthocyanin intake of children and adolescents.
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Liking of anthocyanin-rich juices by children and adolescents.
Appetite
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There is evidence that a diet rich in plant foods is protective against cardiovascular disease and cancer, partly attributable to secondary plant metabolites such as anthocyanins, a colourful group of flavonoids. As at present children and adolescents do not consume the recommended amounts of fruits and vegetables, one possible way of increasing intake, and particularly intake of anthocyanins, may be an anthocyanin-rich juice, since fruit juice is popular with young Germans. We produced eight different fruit products (six juices, two smoothies), and conducted hedonic tests with participants from the DONALD Study. Paired comparisons showed that most subjects preferred apple to apple-bilberry juice, but grape vs. grape-bilberry juice was liked equally frequently. Rated on a hedonic scale the grape-bilberry mixture was preferred to apple-bilberry, both as juice and as smoothie. With regard to viscosity, juices were preferred to smoothies, both as grape-bilberry and as apple-bilberry. Internal Preference Mapping revealed however consumer subgroups with different preferences, raising the question which product should be promoted in order to reach a large target group. The product richest in anthocyanins, grape-bilberry juice, was accepted very well and may therefore be suitable for promotion to children, although the high sugar content of this juice must be taken into account.
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