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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Sum frequency and second harmonic generation from the surface of a liquid microjet.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2014
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The use of a liquid microjet as a possible source of interest for Second Harmonic Generation (SHG) and Sum Frequency Generation (SFG) spectroscopy is examined. We measured non-resonant SHG scattering patterns from the air/water interface of a microjet of pure water and observe a strong enhancement of the SHG signal for certain scattering angles. These enhancements can be explained by the optical properties and the shape of the liquid microjet. SFG experiments at the surface of a liquid microjet of ethanol in air show that it is also possible to measure the coherent vibrational SFG spectrum of the ethanol/air interface in this way. Our findings are useful for future far-UV or X-ray based nonlinear optical surface experiments on liquid jets. In addition, combined X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and SHG/SFG measurements are feasible, which will be very useful in improving our understanding of the molecular foundations of electrostatic and chemical surface properties and phenomena.
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Amyotrophic Lateral Sclerosis Genetic Studies: From Genome-wide Association Mapping to Genome Sequencing.
Neuroscientist
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2014
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Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis (ALS) is a neurodegenerative disease of obscure etiology. Multiple genetic studies have been conducted to advance our understanding of the disease, employing a variety of techniques such as linkage mapping in families, to genome-wide association studies and sequencing based approaches such as whole exome sequencing and whole genome sequencing and a few epigenetic analyses. While major progress has been made, the majority of the genetic variation involved in ALS is yet to be undefined. The optimal study designs to investigate ALS depend on the genetic model for the disease, and it is likely that different approaches will be required to map genes involved in familial and sporadic disease. The potential approaches and their strengths and weaknesses are discussed.
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Chemical and Computational Methods for the Characterization of Covalent Reactive Groups for Prospective Design of Irreversible Inhibitors.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Interest in drugs that covalently modify their target is driven by the desire for enhanced efficacy that can result from the silencing of enzymatic activity until protein re-synthesis can occur, along with the potential for increased selectivity by targeting uniquely positioned nucleophilic residues in the protein. However, covalent approaches carry additional risk for toxicities or hypersensitivity reactions that can result from covalent modification of unintended targets. Here we describe methods for measuring the reactivity of covalent reactive groups (CRGs) with a biologically relevant nucleophile, glutathione (GSH), along with kinetic data for a broad array of electrophiles. We also describe a computational method for predicting electrophilic reactivity, which taken together can be applied to the prospective design of thiol-reactive covalent inhibitors.
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Compound heterozygous mutations in RIPPLY2 associated with vertebral segmentation defects.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Segmentation defects of the vertebrae (SDV) are caused by aberrant somite formation during embryogenesis and result in irregular formation of the vertebrae and ribs. The Notch signal transduction pathway plays a critical role in somite formation and patterning in model vertebrates. In humans, mutations in several genes involved in the Notch pathway are associated with SDV, with both autosomal recessive (MESP2, DLL3, LFNG, HES7) and autosomal dominant (TBX6) inheritance. However, many individuals with SDV do not carry mutations in these genes. Using whole-exome capture and massive parallel sequencing, we identified compound heterozygous mutations in RIPPLY2 in two brothers with multiple regional SDV, with appropriate familial segregation. One novel mutation (c.A238T:p.Arg80*) introduces a premature stop codon. In transiently transfected C2C12 mouse myoblasts, the RIPPLY2 mutant protein demonstrated impaired transcriptional repression activity compared with wild-type RIPPLY2 despite similar levels of expression. The other mutation (c.240-4T>G), with minor allele frequency <0.002, lies in the highly conserved splice site consensus sequence 5' to the terminal exon. Ripply2 has a well-established role in somitogenesis and vertebral column formation, interacting at both gene and protein levels with SDV-associated Mesp2 and Tbx6. We conclude that compound heterozygous mutations in RIPPLY2 are associated with SDV, a new gene for this condition.
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Bone tumor segmentation on bone scans using context information and random forests.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Bone tumor segmentation on bone scans has recently been adopted as a basis for objective tumor assessment in several phase II and III clinical drug trials. Interpretation can be difficult due to the highly sensitive but non-specific nature of bone tumor appearance on bone scans. In this paper we present a machine learning approach to segmenting tumors on bone scans, using intensity and context features aimed at addressing areas prone to false positives. We computed the context features using landmark points, identified by a modified active shape model. We trained a random forest classifier on 100 and evaluated on 73 prostate cancer subjects from a multi-center clinical trial. A reference segmentation was provided by a board certified radiologist. We evaluated our learning based method using the Jaccard index and compared against the state of the art, rule based method. Results showed an improvement from 0.50 +/- 0.31 to 0.57 +/- 0.27. We found that the context features played a significant role in the random forest classifier, helping to correctly classify regions prone to false positives.
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An Immunochip based interrogation of scleroderma susceptibility variants identifies a novel association at DNASE1L3.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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IntroductionThe aim of the study was to interrogate the genetic architecture and autoimmune pleiotropy of scleroderma susceptibility in the Australian population.MethodsWe genotyped individuals from a well-characterized cohort of Australian scleroderma patients with the Immunochip, a custom array enriched for single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) at immune loci. Controls were taken from the 1958 British Birth Cohort. After data cleaning and adjusting for population stratification the final dataset consisted of 486 cases, 4,458 controls and 146,525 SNPs. Association analyses were conducted using logistic regression in PLINK. A replication study was performed using 833 cases and 1938 controls.ResultsA total of 8 loci with suggestive association (P <10-4.5) were identified, of which 5 showed significant association in the replication cohort (HLA-DRB1, DNASE1L3, STAT4, TNP03-IRF5 and VCAM1). The most notable findings were at the DNASE1L3 locus, previously associated with systemic lupus erythematosus, and VCAM1, a locus not previously associated with human disease. This study identified a likely functional variant influencing scleroderma susceptibility at the DNASE1L3 locus; a missense polymorphism rs35677470 in DNASE1L3, with an odds ratio of 2.35 (P¿=¿2.3¿×¿10¿10) in anti-centromere antibody (ACA) positive cases.ConclusionsThis pilot study has confirmed previously reported scleroderma associations, revealed further genetic overlap between scleroderma and systemic lupus erythematosus, and identified a putative novel scleroderma susceptibility locus.
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Anomalous origin of left coronary artery from pulmonary artery - Duped by 2D; saved by color Doppler: Echocardiographic lesson from two cases.
Ann Pediatr Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Echocardiography is an important first-line investigation for detection of anomalous origin of a coronary artery from the pulmonary artery (ALCAPA). We report two cases of ALCAPA that illustrate the importance of systematic performance of the echocardiogram, mindful of technical artifacts that may mislead the echocardiographer color Doppler imaging in diagnosis of this condition.
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Effects of conversation on situation awareness and working memory in simulated driving.
Hum Factors
PUBLISHED: 10-04-2014
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In the present research, we investigated the hypothesis that working memory mediates conversation-induced impairment of situation awareness (SA) while driving.
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45 Years of Simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I Osteotomies: A Systematic Literature Review.
Cleft Palate Craniofac. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Objective :? To review and collectively summarize our knowledge of simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I osteotomies. Design :? A PubMed search using "Le Fort III," "simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I," "combined Le Fort III and Le Fort I," "dual midface," and "segmental midface" was performed. Articles with relevant abstracts were obtained for formal review. A new case of simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I is presented to describe and discuss specific operative indications and surgical decisions. Results :? There were 14 articles that met inclusion criteria with reports of simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I osteotomies. A total of 20 cases were present in the literature. No major complications were reported. We performed combined Le Fort III with Le Fort I osteotomies in a 25-year-old patient with Crouzon syndrome who had undergone a previous Le Fort III at the age of 4 years. The patient tolerated the procedure well, and postoperatively, her exophthalmos and class III malocclusion were corrected. Conclusions :? Simultaneous Le Fort III and Le Fort I can correct differential upper and lower midface hypoplasia and is a well-tolerated procedure in the mature facial skeleton. This systematic review improves our understanding of the surgical technique and indications for a procedure that can correct complex midfacial deformities.
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LpxC inhibitors as new antibacterial agents and tools for studying regulation of lipid a biosynthesis in Gram-negative pathogens.
MBio
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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The problem of multidrug resistance in serious Gram-negative bacterial pathogens has escalated so severely that new cellular targets and pathways need to be exploited to avoid many of the preexisting antibiotic resistance mechanisms that are rapidly disseminating to new strains. The discovery of small-molecule inhibitors of LpxC, the enzyme responsible for the first committed step in the biosynthesis of lipid A, represents a clinically unprecedented strategy to specifically act against Gram-negative organisms such as Pseudomonas aeruginosa and members of the Enterobacteriaceae. In this report, we describe the microbiological characterization of LpxC-4, a recently disclosed inhibitor of this bacterial target, and demonstrate that its spectrum of activity extends to several of the pathogenic species that are most threatening to human health today. We also show that spontaneous generation of LpxC-4 resistance occurs at frequencies comparable to those seen with marketed antibiotics, and we provide an in-depth analysis of the mechanisms of resistance utilized by target pathogens. Interestingly, these isolates also served as tools to further our understanding of the regulation of lipid A biosynthesis and enabled the discovery that this process occurs very distinctly between P. aeruginosa and members of the Enterobacteriaceae. Finally, we demonstrate that LpxC-4 is efficacious in vivo against multiple strains in different models of bacterial infection and that the major first-step resistance mechanisms employed by the intended target organisms can still be effectively treated with this new inhibitor.
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Common variants near ABCA1, AFAP1 and GMDS confer risk of primary open-angle glaucoma.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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Primary open-angle glaucoma (POAG) is a major cause of irreversible blindness worldwide. We performed a genome-wide association study in an Australian discovery cohort comprising 1,155 cases with advanced POAG and 1,992 controls. We investigated the association of the top SNPs from the discovery stage in two Australian replication cohorts (932 cases and 6,862 controls total) and two US replication cohorts (2,616 cases and 2,634 controls total). Meta-analysis of all cohorts identified three loci newly associated with development of POAG. These loci are located upstream of ABCA1 (rs2472493[G], odds ratio (OR) = 1.31, P = 2.1 × 10(-19)), within AFAP1 (rs4619890[G], OR = 1.20, P = 7.0 × 10(-10)) and within GMDS (rs11969985[G], OR = 1.31, P = 7.7 × 10(-10)). Using RT-PCR and immunolabeling, we show that these genes are expressed within human retina, optic nerve and trabecular meshwork and that ABCA1 and AFAP1 are also expressed in retinal ganglion cells.
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Brain activation induced by voluntary alcohol and saccharin drinking in rats assessed with manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging.
Addict Biol
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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The neuroanatomical and neurochemical basis of alcohol reward has been studied extensively, but global alterations of neural activity in reward circuits during chronic alcohol use remain poorly described. Here, we measured brain activity changes produced by long-term voluntary alcohol drinking in the alcohol-preferring AA (Alko alcohol) rats using manganese-enhanced magnetic resonance imaging (MEMRI). MEMRI is based on the ability of paramagnetic manganese ions to accumulate in excitable neurons and thereby enhance the T1-weighted signal in activated brain areas. Following 6 weeks of voluntary alcohol drinking, AA rats were allowed to drink alcohol for an additional week, during which they were administered manganese chloride (MnCl2 ) with subcutaneous osmotic minipumps before MEMRI. A second group with an identical alcohol drinking history received MnCl2 during the abstinence week following alcohol drinking. For comparing alcohol with a natural reinforcer, MEMRI was also performed in saccharin-drinking rats. A water-drinking group receiving MnCl2 served as a control. We found that alcohol drinking increased brain activity extensively in cortical and subcortical areas, including the mesocorticolimbic and nigrostriatal dopamine pathways and their afferents. Remarkably similar activation maps were seen after saccharin ingestion. Particularly in the prelimbic cortex, ventral hippocampus and subthalamic nucleus, activation persisted into early abstinence. These data show that voluntary alcohol recruits an extensive network that includes the ascending dopamine systems and their afferent connections, and that this network is largely shared with saccharin reward. The regions displaying persistent alterations after alcohol drinking could participate in brain networks underlying alcohol seeking and relapse.
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Current smoking is associated with incident ankylosing spondylitis -- the HUNT population-based Norwegian health study.
J. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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Smoking contributes to progression of ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Because smoking is also a risk factor for incident rheumatoid arthritis (RA) and psoriatic arthritis, our aim was to test whether smoking habits are associated with incident AS.
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The revolution in human monogenic disease mapping.
Genes (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The successful completion of the Human Genome Project (HGP) was an unprecedented scientific advance that has become an invaluable resource in the search for genes that cause monogenic and common (polygenic) diseases. Prior to the HGP, linkage analysis had successfully mapped many disease genes for monogenic disorders; however, the limitations of this approach were particularly evident for identifying causative genes in rare genetic disorders affecting lifespan and/or reproductive fitness, such as skeletal dysplasias. In this review, we illustrate the challenges of mapping disease genes in such conditions through the ultra-rare disorder fibrodysplasia ossificans progressiva (FOP) and we discuss the advances that are being made through current massively parallel ("next generation") sequencing (MPS) technologies.
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Risk for ACPA-positive rheumatoid arthritis is driven by shared HLA amino acid polymorphisms in Asian and European populations.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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Previous studies have emphasized ethnically heterogeneous human leukocyte antigen (HLA) classical allele associations to rheumatoid arthritis (RA) risk. We fine-mapped RA risk alleles within the major histocompatibility complex (MHC) in 2782 seropositive RA cases and 4315 controls of Asian descent. We applied imputation to determine genotypes for eight class I and II HLA genes to Asian populations for the first time using a newly constructed pan-Asian reference panel. First, we empirically measured high imputation accuracy in Asian samples. Then we observed the most significant association in HLA-DR?1 at amino acid position 13, located outside the classical shared epitope (Pomnibus = 6.9 × 10(-135)). The individual residues at position 13 have relative effects that are consistent with published effects in European populations (His > Phe > Arg > Tyr ? Gly > Ser)-but the observed effects in Asians are generally smaller. Applying stepwise conditional analysis, we identified additional independent associations at positions 57 (conditional Pomnibus = 2.2 × 10(-33)) and 74 (conditional Pomnibus = 1.1 × 10(-8)). Outside of HLA-DR?1, we observed independent effects for amino acid polymorphisms within HLA-B (Asp9, conditional P = 3.8 × 10(-6)) and HLA-DP?1 (Phe9, conditional P = 3.0 × 10(-5)) concordant with European populations. Our trans-ethnic HLA fine-mapping study reveals that (i) a common set of amino acid residues confer shared effects in European and Asian populations and (ii) these same effects can explain ethnically heterogeneous classical allelic associations (e.g. HLA-DRB1*09:01) due to allele frequency differences between populations. Our study illustrates the value of high-resolution imputation for fine-mapping causal variants in the MHC.
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Outcomes of outpatient management of pediatric burns.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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The literature surrounding pediatric burns has focused on inpatient management. The goal of this study is to characterize the population of burned children treated as outpatients and assess outcomes validating this method of burn care. A retrospective review of 953 patients treated the burn clinic and burn unit of a tertiary care center. Patient age, burn etiology, burn characteristics, burn mechanism, and referral pattern were recorded. The type of wound care and incidence of outcomes including subsequent hospital admission, infection, scarring, and surgery served as the primary outcome data. Eight hundred and thirty children were treated as outpatients with a mean time of 1.8 days for the evaluation of burn injury in our clinic. Scalds accounted for 53% of the burn mechanism, with burns to the hand/wrist being the most frequent area involved. The mean percentage of TBSA was 1.4% for the outpatient cohort and 8% for the inpatient cohort. Burns in the outpatient cohort healed with a mean time of 13.4 days. In the outpatient cohort, nine (1%) patients had subsequent admissions and three (0.4%) patients had concern for infection. Eight patients from the outpatient cohort were treated with excision and grafting. The vast majority of pediatric burns are small, although they may often involve more critical areas such as the face and hand. Outpatient wound care is an effective treatment strategy which results in low rates of complications and should become the standard of care for children with appropriate burn size and home support.
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Founder p.Arg 446* mutation in the PDHX gene explains over half of cases with congenital lactic acidosis in Roma children.
Mol. Genet. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Investigation of 31 of Roma patients with congenital lactic acidosis (CLA) from Bulgaria identified homozygosity for the R446* mutation in the PDHX gene as the most common cause of the disorder in this ethnic group. It accounted for around 60% of patients in the study and over 25% of all CLA cases referred to the National Genetic Laboratory in Bulgaria. The detection of a homozygous patient from Hungary and carriers among population controls from Romania and Slovakia suggests a wide spread of the mutation in the European Roma population. The clinical phenotype of the twenty R446* homozygotes was relatively homogeneous, with lactic acidosis crisis in the first days or months of life as the most common initial presentation (15/20 patients) and delayed psychomotor development and/or seizures in infancy as the leading manifestations in a smaller group (5/20 patients). The subsequent clinical picture was dominated by impaired physical growth and a very consistent pattern of static cerebral palsy-like encephalopathy with spasticity and severe to profound mental retardation seen in over 80% of cases. Most patients had a positive family history. We propose testing for the R446* mutation in PDHX as a rapid first screening in Roma infants with metabolic acidosis. It will facilitate and accelerate diagnosis in a large proportion of cases, allow early rehabilitation to alleviate the chronic clinical course, and prevent further affected births in high-risk families.
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The correlation between reading and mathematics ability at age twelve has a substantial genetic component.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2014
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Dissecting how genetic and environmental influences impact on learning is helpful for maximizing numeracy and literacy. Here we show, using twin and genome-wide analysis, that there is a substantial genetic component to children's ability in reading and mathematics, and estimate that around one half of the observed correlation in these traits is due to shared genetic effects (so-called Generalist Genes). Thus, our results highlight the potential role of the learning environment in contributing to differences in a child's cognitive abilities at age twelve.
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The window of opportunity: a relevant concept for axial spondyloarthritis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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The window of opportunity is a concept critical to rheumatoid arthritis treatment. Early treatment changes the outcome of rheumatoid arthritis treatment, in that response rates are higher with earlier disease-modifying anti-rheumatic drug treatment and damage is substantially reduced. Axial spondyloarthritis is an inflammatory axial disease encompassing both nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis and established ankylosing spondylitis. In axial spondyloarthritis, studies of magnetic resonance imaging as well as tumor necrosis factor inhibitor treatment and withdrawal studies all suggest that early effective suppression of inflammation has the potential to reduce radiographic damage. This potential would suggest that the concept of a window of opportunity is relevant not only to rheumatoid arthritis but also to axial spondyloarthritis. The challenge now remains to identify high-risk patients early and to commence treatment without delay. Developments in risk stratification include new classification criteria, identification of clinical risk factors, biomarkers, genetic associations, potential antibody associations and an ankylosing spondylitis-specific microbiome signature. Further research needs to focus on the evidence for early intervention and the early identification of high-risk individuals.
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Genetic dissection of acute anterior uveitis reveals similarities and differences in associations observed with ankylosing spondylitis.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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To use high density genotyping to investigate the genetic associations of acute anterior uveitis (AAU) in patients both with and without ankylosing spondylitis (AS). Method We genotyped 1,711 patients with AAU (either primary or with AAU and AS), 2,339 AS patients without AAU, and 10,000 controls on the Illumina Immunochip Infinium microarray. We also used data on AS patients from previous genomewide association studies to investigate the AS risk locus ANTXR2 for its putative effect in AAU. ANTXR2 expression in mouse eyes was investigated by RT-PCR. Results Comparing all AAU cases with HC, strong association was seen over HLA-B corresponding to the HLA-B27 tag SNP rs116488202. Three non-MHC loci IL23R, the intergenic region 2p15 and ERAP1 were associated at genome-wide significance (P < 5x10(-8) ). Five loci harboring the immune-related genes IL10-IL19, IL18R1-IL1R1, IL6R, the chromosome 1q32 locus harboring KIF21B, as well as the eye related gene EYS, were also associated at a suggestive level of significance (P < 5x10(-6) ). A number of previously confirmed AS associations demonstrated significant differences in effect size between AS patients with AAU and AS patients without AAU. ANTXR2 expression was found to vary across eye compartments. Conclusion These findings, with both novel AAU specific associations, and associations shared with AS demonstrate overlapping but also distinct genetic susceptibility loci for AAU and AS. The associations in IL10 and IL18R1 are shared with inflammatory bowel disease, suggesting common etiologic pathways. © 2014 American College of Rheumatology.
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Augmentation of intraorbital volume with fat injection.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Enophthalmos is a challenging surgical problem to correct. Standard techniques to adjust orbital volume require invasive maneuvers such as osteotomies. Fat injection may provide a simple and less-invasive way of augmenting orbital volume to correct enophthalmos.
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Effect of dual bronchodilation with QVA149 on cardiac safety in healthy volunteers.
Int J Clin Pharmacol Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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QVA149 is a dual bronchodilator, containing a fixed-dose combination of the long-acting ?2-agonist indacaterol and long-acting muscarinic antagonist glycopyrronium, for the treatment of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Here we assess the potential of QVA149 (440/200 ?g) at 4-fold the therapeutic dose for causing cardiac pharmacodynamic (PD) effects.
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Siderophore receptor-mediated uptake of lactivicin analogues in gram-negative bacteria.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Multidrug-resistant Gram-negative pathogens are an emerging threat to human health, and addressing this challenge will require development of new antibacterial agents. This can be achieved through an improved molecular understanding of drug-target interactions combined with enhanced delivery of these agents to the site of action. Herein we describe the first application of siderophore receptor-mediated drug uptake of lactivicin analogues as a strategy that enables the development of novel antibacterial agents against clinically relevant Gram-negative bacteria. We report the first crystal structures of several sideromimic conjugated compounds bound to penicillin binding proteins PBP3 and PBP1a from Pseudomonas aeruginosa and characterize the reactivity of lactivicin and ?-lactam core structures. Results from drug sensitivity studies with ?-lactamase enzymes are presented, as well as a structure-based hypothesis to reduce susceptibility to this enzyme class. Finally, mechanistic studies demonstrating that sideromimic modification alters the drug uptake process are discussed.
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Comparison of the Quantitative CT Imaging Biomarkers of Idiopathic Pulmonary Fibrosis at Baseline and Early Change with an Interval of 7 Months.
Acad Radiol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Median survival of patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is 2-5 years. Sensitive imaging metrics can play a role in detecting early changes in therapeutic development. The aim of the present study was to compare known computed tomography (CT) histogram kurtosis and a classifier-based quantitative score to assess baseline severity and change over time in patients with IPF.
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Sensory, psychological, and metabolic dysfunction in HIV-associated peripheral neuropathy: A cross-sectional deep profiling study.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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HIV-associated sensory neuropathy (HIV-SN) is a frequent complication of HIV infection and a major source of morbidity. A cross-sectional deep profiling study examining HIV-SN was conducted in people living with HIV in a high resource setting using a battery of measures which included the following: parameters of pain and sensory symptoms (7day pain diary, Neuropathic Pain Symptom Inventory [NPSI] and Brief Pain Inventory [BPI]), sensory innervation (structured neurological examination, quantitative sensory testing [QST] and intraepidermal nerve fibre density [IENFD]), psychological state (Pain Anxiety Symptoms Scale-20 [PASS-20], Depression Anxiety and Positive Outlook Scale [DAPOS], and Pain Catastrophizing Scale [PCS], insomnia (Insomnia Severity Index [ISI]), and quality of life (Short Form (36) Health Survey [SF-36]). The diagnostic utility of the Brief Peripheral Neuropathy Screen (BPNS), Utah Early Neuropathy Scale (UENS), and Toronto Clinical Scoring System (TCSS) were evaluated. Thirty-six healthy volunteers and 66 HIV infected participants were recruited. A novel triumvirate case definition for HIV-SN was used that required 2 out of 3 of the following: 2 or more abnormal QST findings, reduced IENFD, and signs of a peripheral neuropathy on a structured neurological examination. Of those with HIV, 42% fulfilled the case definition for HIV-SN (n=28), of whom 75% (n=21) reported pain. The most frequent QST abnormalities in HIV-SN were loss of function in mechanical and vibration detection. Structured clinical examination was superior to QST or IENFD in HIV-SN diagnosis. HIV-SN participants had higher plasma triglyceride, concentrations depression, anxiety and catastrophizing scores, and prevalence of insomnia than HIV participants without HIV-SN.
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Surgery: protecting patients during live urological surgery.
Nat Rev Urol
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Concerns have been raised regarding the educational value of live surgical events (LSEs) and whether such events compromise patient safety. Now, the European Association of Urology has published a Live Surgery Policy Statement, aimed at protecting patient safety and ensuring that LSEs are conducted in an ethical and accountable manner.
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Consensus statement on the investigation and management of non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA).
Int J Rheum Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Non-radiographic axial spondyloarthritis (nr-axSpA) is axial inflammatory arthritis where plain radiographic damage is not evident. An unknown proportion of these patients will progress to ankylosing spondylitis (AS). The increasing recognition of nr-axSpA has been greatly assisted by the widespread use of magnetic resonance imaging. The aim of this article was to construct a set of consensus statements based on a literature review to guide investigation and promote best management of nr-axSpA.
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Cardiovascular disease is increased prior to onset of rheumatoid arthritis but not osteoarthritis: the population-based Nord-Trøndelag health study (HUNT).
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
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Patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA) have increased risk of cardiovascular (CV) events. We sought to test the hypothesis that due to increased inflammation, CV disease and risk factors are associated with increased risk of future RA development.
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Interleukin-23 mediates the intestinal response to microbial ?-1,3-glucan and the development of spondyloarthritis pathology in SKG mice.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Spondyloarthritides (SpA) occur in 1% of the population and include ankylosing spondylitis (AS) and arthropathy of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), with characteristic spondylitis, arthritis, enthesitis, and IBD. Genetic studies implicate interleukin-23 (IL-23) receptor signaling in the development of SpA and IBD, and IL-23 overexpression in mice is sufficient for enthesitis, driven by entheseal-resident T cells. However, in genetically prone individuals, it is not clear where IL-23 is produced and how it drives the SpA syndrome, including IBD or subclinical gut inflammation of AS. Moreover, it is unclear why specific tissue involvement varies between patients with SpA. We undertook this study to determine the location of IL-23 production and its role in SpA pathogenesis in BALB/c ZAP-70(W163C)-mutant (SKG) mice injected intraperitoneally with ?-1,3-glucan (curdlan).
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Non-uniform spatial distribution of tin oxide (SnO?) nanoparticles at the air-water interface.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Depth resolved X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) combined with a 25 ?m liquid jet is used to quantify the spatial distribution of 3 nm SnO2 nanoparticles (NPs) from the air-water interface (AWI) into the suspension bulk. Results are consistent with those of a layer several nm thick at the AWI that is completely devoid of NPs.
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Impact of preoperative narcotic use on outcomes in migraine surgery.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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This study focuses on the impact of preoperative narcotic medication use on outcomes of surgical treatment of migraine headaches.
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Single-stage renal transplantation-urinary diversion: a novel surgical approach.
Urology
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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This article reports outcomes of 2 patients who received a single-stage renal transplantation and concomitant urinary-diversion procedure.
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The IFITM5 mutation c.-14C > T results in an elongated transcript expressed in human bone; and causes varying phenotypic severity of osteogenesis imperfecta type V.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2014
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The genetic mutation resulting in osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) type V was recently characterised as a single point mutation (c.-14C > T) in the 5' untranslated region (UTR) of IFITM5, a gene encoding a transmembrane protein with expression restricted to skeletal tissue. This mutation creates an alternative start codon and has been shown in a eukaryotic cell line to result in a longer variant of IFITM5, but its expression has not previously been demonstrated in bone from a patient with OI type V.
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Massive panniculectomy in the super obese and super-super obese: retrospective comparison of primary closure versus partial open wound management.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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The incidence of obesity is on the rise in the United States and worldwide. Complications following panniculectomy are higher for super obese patients, often requiring readmission and additional interventions. In this study, the authors compare the outcomes of patients who underwent primary closure of their resection wounds to the outcomes of patients who underwent initial open wound management with a negative-pressure dressing.
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Spinal inflammation in the absence of sacroiliac joint inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging in patients with active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis.
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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To evaluate the presence of spinal inflammation with and without sacroiliac (SI) joint inflammation on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) in patients with active nonradiographic axial spondyloarthritis (SpA), and to compare the disease characteristics of these subgroups.
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Cationic peptides neutralize Ox-LDL, prevent its uptake by macrophages, and attenuate inflammatory response.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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Apolipoprotein A1 (ApoA1) and apolipoprotein E (ApoE) mimetic peptides have attracted attention due to their ability to reduce atherosclerosis and exhibit antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, and hypolipidemic properties. In this study, we tested whether three distinct and unrelated cationic peptides would inhibit the oxidation of lipoproteins and whether they would counteract and neutralize the negatively charged modified lipoproteins, inhibit their uptake and inflammation by macrophages.
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Genome-wide association study for radiographic vertebral fractures: a potential role for the 16q24 BMD locus.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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Vertebral fracture risk is a heritable complex trait. The aim of this study was to identify genetic susceptibility factors for osteoporotic vertebral fractures applying a genome-wide association study (GWAS) approach. The GWAS discovery was based on the Rotterdam Study, a population-based study of elderly Dutch individuals aged > 55 years; and comprising 329 cases and 2666 controls with radiographic scoring (McCloskey–Kanis) and genetic data. Replication of one top-associated SNP was pursued by de-novo genotyping of 15 independent studies across Europe, the United States, and Australia and one Asian study. Radiographic vertebral fracture assessment was performed using McCloskey–Kanis or Genant semi-quantitative definitions. SNPs were analyzed in relation to vertebral fracture using logistic regression models corrected for age and sex. Fixed effects inverse variance and Han–Eskin alternative random effects meta-analyses were applied. Genome-wide significance was set at p < 5 × 10? 8. In the discovery, a SNP (rs11645938) on chromosome 16q24 was associated with the risk for vertebral fractures at p = 4.6 × 10? 8. However, the association was not significant across 5720 cases and 21,791 controls from 14 studies. Fixed-effects meta-analysis summary estimate was 1.06 (95% CI: 0.98–1.14; p = 0.17), displaying high degree of heterogeneity (I2 = 57%; Qhet p = 0.0006). Under Han–Eskin alternative random effects model the summary effect was significant (p = 0.0005). The SNP maps to a region previously found associated with lumbar spine bone mineral density (LS-BMD) in two large meta-analyses from the GEFOS consortium. A false positive association in the GWAS discovery cannot be excluded, yet, the low-powered setting of the discovery and replication settings (appropriate to identify risk effect size > 1.25) may still be consistent with an effect size < 1.10, more of the type expected in complex traits. Larger effort in studies with standardized phenotype definitions is needed to confirm or reject the involvement of this locus on the risk for vertebral fractures.
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Runs of homozygosity and a cluster of vulvar cancer in young Australian Aboriginal women.
Gynecol. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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A cluster of vulvar cancer exists in young Aboriginal women living in remote communities in Arnhem Land, Australia. A genetic case-control study was undertaken involving 30 cases of invasive vulvar cancer and its precursor lesion, high-grade vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN), and 61 controls, matched for age and community of residence. It was hypothesized that this small, isolated population may exhibit increased autozygosity, implicating recessive effects as a possible mechanism for increased susceptibility to vulvar cancer.
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Does the microbiome play a causal role in spondyloarthritis?
Clin. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2014
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The purpose of this study is to review the potential causal role of the microbiome in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. The method used for the study is literature review. The microbiome plays a major role in educating the immune response. The microbiome is strongly implicated in inflammatory bowel disease which has clinical and genetic overlap with spondyloarthritis. The microbiome also plays a causal role in bowel and joint disease in HLA B27/human beta 2 microglobulin transgenic rats. The mechanism(s) by which HLA B27 could influence the microbiome is unknown but theories include an immune response gene selectivity, an effect on dendritic cell function, or a mucosal immunodeficiency. Bacteria are strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of spondyloarthritis. Studies to understand how HLA B27 affects bacterial ecosystems should be encouraged.
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Genetic determinants of heel bone properties: genome-wide association meta-analysis and replication in the GEFOS/GENOMOS consortium.
Alireza Moayyeri, Yi-Hsiang Hsu, David Karasik, Karol Estrada, Su-Mei Xiao, Carrie Nielson, Priya Srikanth, Sylvie Giroux, Scott G Wilson, Hou-Feng Zheng, Albert V Smith, Stephen R Pye, Paul J Leo, Alexander Teumer, Joo-Yeon Hwang, Claes Ohlsson, Fiona McGuigan, Ryan L Minster, Caroline Hayward, José M Olmos, Leo-Pekka Lyytikäinen, Joshua R Lewis, Karin M A Swart, Laura Masi, Chris Oldmeadow, Elizabeth G Holliday, Sulin Cheng, Natasja M van Schoor, Nicholas C Harvey, Marcin Kruk, Fabiola Del Greco M, Wilmar Igl, Olivia Trummer, Efi Grigoriou, Robert Luben, Ching-Ti Liu, Yanhua Zhou, Ling Oei, Carolina Medina-Gomez, Joseph Zmuda, Greg Tranah, Suzanne J Brown, Frances M Williams, Nicole Soranzo, Johanna Jakobsdottir, Kristin Siggeirsdottir, Kate L Holliday, Anke Hannemann, Min Jin Go, Melissa Garcia, Ozren Polašek, Marika Laaksonen, Kun Zhu, Anke W Enneman, Mark McEvoy, Roseanne Peel, Pak Chung Sham, Maciej Jaworski, Asa Johansson, Andrew A Hicks, Pawel Pludowski, Rodney Scott, Rosalie A M Dhonukshe-Rutten, Nathalie van der Velde, Mika Kähönen, Jorma S Viikari, Harri Sievänen, Olli T Raitakari, Jesús González-Macías, José L Hernández, Dan Mellström, Osten Ljunggren, Yoon Shin Cho, Uwe Völker, Matthias Nauck, Georg Homuth, Henry Völzke, Robin Haring, Matthew A Brown, Eugene McCloskey, Geoffrey C Nicholson, Richard Eastell, John A Eisman, Graeme Jones, Ian R Reid, Elaine M Dennison, John Wark, Steven Boonen, Dirk Vanderschueren, Frederick C W Wu, Thor Aspelund, J Brent Richards, Doug Bauer, Albert Hofman, Kay-Tee Khaw, George Dedoussis, Barbara Obermayer-Pietsch, Ulf Gyllensten, Peter P Pramstaller, Roman S Lorenc, Cyrus Cooper, Annie Wai Chee Kung, Paul Lips, Markku Alen, John Attia, Maria Luisa Brandi, Lisette C P G M de Groot, Terho Lehtimäki, José A Riancho, Harry Campbell, Yongmei Liu, Tamara B Harris, Kristina Akesson, Magnus Karlsson, Jong-Young Lee, Henri Wallaschofski, Emma L Duncan, Terence W O'Neill, Vilmundur Gudnason, Timothy D Spector, François Rousseau, Eric Orwoll, Steven R Cummings, Nick J Wareham, Fernando Rivadeneira, André G Uitterlinden, Richard L Prince, Douglas P Kiel, Jonathan Reeve, Stephen K Kaptoge.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Quantitative ultrasound of the heel captures heel bone properties that independently predict fracture risk and, with bone mineral density (BMD) assessed by X-ray (DXA), may be convenient alternatives for evaluating osteoporosis and fracture risk. We performed a meta-analysis of genome-wide association (GWA) studies to assess the genetic determinants of heel broadband ultrasound attenuation (BUA; n = 14 260), velocity of sound (VOS; n = 15 514) and BMD (n = 4566) in 13 discovery cohorts. Independent replication involved seven cohorts with GWA data (in silico n = 11 452) and new genotyping in 15 cohorts (de novo n = 24 902). In combined random effects, meta-analysis of the discovery and replication cohorts, nine single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) had genome-wide significant (P < 5 × 10(-8)) associations with heel bone properties. Alongside SNPs within or near previously identified osteoporosis susceptibility genes including ESR1 (6q25.1: rs4869739, rs3020331, rs2982552), SPTBN1 (2p16.2: rs11898505), RSPO3 (6q22.33: rs7741021), WNT16 (7q31.31: rs2908007), DKK1 (10q21.1: rs7902708) and GPATCH1 (19q13.11: rs10416265), we identified a new locus on chromosome 11q14.2 (rs597319 close to TMEM135, a gene recently linked to osteoblastogenesis and longevity) significantly associated with both BUA and VOS (P < 8.23 × 10(-14)). In meta-analyses involving 25 cohorts with up to 14 985 fracture cases, six of 10 SNPs associated with heel bone properties at P < 5 × 10(-6) also had the expected direction of association with any fracture (P < 0.05), including three SNPs with P < 0.005: 6q22.33 (rs7741021), 7q31.31 (rs2908007) and 10q21.1 (rs7902708). In conclusion, this GWA study reveals the effect of several genes common to central DXA-derived BMD and heel ultrasound/DXA measures and points to a new genetic locus with potential implications for better understanding of osteoporosis pathophysiology.
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Genetics of rheumatoid arthritis contributes to biology and drug discovery.
Yukinori Okada, Di Wu, Gosia Trynka, Towfique Raj, Chikashi Terao, Katsunori Ikari, Yuta Kochi, Koichiro Ohmura, Akari Suzuki, Shinji Yoshida, Robert R Graham, Arun Manoharan, Ward Ortmann, Tushar Bhangale, Joshua C Denny, Robert J Carroll, Anne E Eyler, Jeffrey D Greenberg, Joel M Kremer, Dimitrios A Pappas, Lei Jiang, Jian Yin, Lingying Ye, Ding-Feng Su, Jian Yang, Gang Xie, Ed Keystone, Harm-Jan Westra, Tonu Esko, Andres Metspalu, Xuezhong Zhou, Namrata Gupta, Daniel Mirel, Eli A Stahl, Dorothée Diogo, Jing Cui, Katherine Liao, Michael H Guo, Keiko Myouzen, Takahisa Kawaguchi, Marieke J H Coenen, Piet L C M van Riel, Mart A F J van de Laar, Henk-Jan Guchelaar, Tom W J Huizinga, Philippe Dieudé, Xavier Mariette, S Louis Bridges, Alexandra Zhernakova, René E M Toes, Paul P Tak, Corinne Miceli-Richard, So-Young Bang, Hye-Soon Lee, Javier Martín, Miguel A González-Gay, Luis Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Solbritt Rantapää-Dahlqvist, Lisbeth Arlestig, Hyon K Choi, Yoichiro Kamatani, Pilar Galán, Mark Lathrop, , Steve Eyre, John Bowes, Anne Barton, Niek de Vries, Larry W Moreland, Lindsey A Criswell, Elizabeth W Karlson, Atsuo Taniguchi, Ryo Yamada, Michiaki Kubo, Jun S Liu, Sang-Cheol Bae, Jane Worthington, Leonid Padyukov, Lars Klareskog, Peter K Gregersen, Soumya Raychaudhuri, Barbara E Stranger, Philip L De Jager, Lude Franke, Peter M Visscher, Matthew A Brown, Hisashi Yamanaka, Tsuneyo Mimori, Atsushi Takahashi, Huji Xu, Timothy W Behrens, Katherine A Siminovitch, Shigeki Momohara, Fumihiko Matsuda, Kazuhiko Yamamoto, Robert M Plenge.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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A major challenge in human genetics is to devise a systematic strategy to integrate disease-associated variants with diverse genomic and biological data sets to provide insight into disease pathogenesis and guide drug discovery for complex traits such as rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Here we performed a genome-wide association study meta-analysis in a total of >100,000 subjects of European and Asian ancestries (29,880 RA cases and 73,758 controls), by evaluating ?10 million single-nucleotide polymorphisms. We discovered 42 novel RA risk loci at a genome-wide level of significance, bringing the total to 101 (refs 2 - 4). We devised an in silico pipeline using established bioinformatics methods based on functional annotation, cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci and pathway analyses--as well as novel methods based on genetic overlap with human primary immunodeficiency, haematological cancer somatic mutations and knockout mouse phenotypes--to identify 98 biological candidate genes at these 101 risk loci. We demonstrate that these genes are the targets of approved therapies for RA, and further suggest that drugs approved for other indications may be repurposed for the treatment of RA. Together, this comprehensive genetic study sheds light on fundamental genes, pathways and cell types that contribute to RA pathogenesis, and provides empirical evidence that the genetics of RA can provide important information for drug discovery.
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Genome-wide association analysis identifies 11 risk variants associated with the asthma with hay fever phenotype.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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To date, no genome-wide association study (GWAS) has considered the combined phenotype of asthma with hay fever. Previous analyses of family data from the Tasmanian Longitudinal Health Study provide evidence that this phenotype has a stronger genetic cause than asthma without hay fever.
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Immunochip analysis identifies multiple susceptibility loci for systemic sclerosis.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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In this study, 1,833 systemic sclerosis (SSc) cases and 3,466 controls were genotyped with the Immunochip array. Classical alleles, amino acid residues, and SNPs across the human leukocyte antigen (HLA) region were imputed and tested. These analyses resulted in a model composed of six polymorphic amino acid positions and seven SNPs that explained the observed significant associations in the region. In addition, a replication step comprising 4,017 SSc cases and 5,935 controls was carried out for several selected non-HLA variants, reaching a total of 5,850 cases and 9,401 controls of European ancestry. Following this strategy, we identified and validated three SSc risk loci, including DNASE1L3 at 3p14, the SCHIP1-IL12A locus at 3q25, and ATG5 at 6q21, as well as a suggested association of the TREH-DDX6 locus at 11q23. The associations of several previously reported SSc risk loci were validated and further refined, and the observed peak of association in PXK was related to DNASE1L3. Our study has increased the number of known genetic associations with SSc, provided further insight into the pleiotropic effects of shared autoimmune risk factors, and highlighted the power of dense mapping for detecting previously overlooked susceptibility loci.
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Unbiased compound screening identifies unexpected drug sensitivities and novel treatment options for gastrointestinal stromal tumors.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Most gastrointestinal stromal tumors (GIST) are caused by oncogenic KIT or platelet-derived growth factor receptor activation, and the small molecule kinase inhibitor imatinib mesylate is an effective first-line therapy for metastatic or unresectable GIST. However, complete remissions are rare and most patients ultimately develop resistance, mostly because of secondary mutations in the driver oncogenic kinase. Hence, there is a need for novel treatment options to delay failure of primary treatment and restore tumor control in patients who progress under therapy with targeted agents. Historic data suggest that GISTs do not respond to classical chemotherapy, but systematic unbiased screening has not been performed. In screening a compound library enriched for U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA)-approved chemotherapeutic agents (NCI Approved Oncology Drugs Set II), we discovered that GIST cells display high sensitivity to transcriptional inhibitors and topoisomerase II inhibitors. Mechanistically, these compounds exploited the cells' dependency on continuous KIT expression and/or intrinsic DNA damage response defects, explaining their activity in GIST. Mithramycin A, an indirect inhibitor of the SP1 transcription factor, and mitoxantrone, a topoisomerase II inhibitor, exerted significant antitumor effects in mouse xenograft models of human GIST. Moreover, these compounds were active in patient-derived imatinib-resistant primary GIST cells, achieving efficacy at clinically relevant concentrations. Taken together, our findings reveal that GIST cells have an unexpectedly high and specific sensitivity to certain types of FDA-approved chemotherapeutic agents, with immediate implications for encouraging their clinical exploration.
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An N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea induced Corticotropin releasing hormone promoter mutation provides a mouse model for endogenous glucocorticoid excess.
Endocrinology
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Cushings syndrome, which is characterized by excessive circulating glucocorticoid concentrations, may be due to adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH)-dependent or -independent causes that include anterior pituitary and adrenal cortical tumors, respectively. ACTH secretion is stimulated by corticotropin releasing hormone (CRH), and we report a mouse model for Cushings syndrome due to an N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) induced Crh mutation at -120bp of the promoter region, which significantly increased luciferase reporter activity, and was thus a gain-of-function mutation. Crh(-120/+) mice, when compared to wild-type littermates, had obesity, muscle wasting, thin skin, hair loss and elevated plasma and urinary concentrations of corticosterone. In addition, Crh(-120/+) mice had hyperglycemia, hyperfructosaminemia, hyperinsulinemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertriglyceridemia, hyperleptinemia but normal adiponectin. Crh(-120/+) mice also had low bone mineral density, hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria and decreased concentrations of plasma parathyroid hormone and osteocalcin. Bone histomorphometry revealed Crh(-120/+) mice to have significant reductions in mineralizing surface area, mineral apposition, bone formation rates, osteoblast number, and the percentage of cortico-endosteal bone covered by osteoblasts, which was accompanied by an increase in adipocytes in the bone marrow. Thus, a mouse model for Cushings syndrome has been established and this will help in further elucidating the pathophysiological effects of glucocorticoid excess and in evaluating treatments for corticosteroid-induced osteoporosis.
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Multistage genome-wide association meta-analyses identified two new loci for bone mineral density.
Hum. Mol. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2013
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Aiming to identify novel genetic variants and to confirm previously identified genetic variants associated with bone mineral density (BMD), we conducted a three-stage genome-wide association (GWA) meta-analysis in 27 061 study subjects. Stage 1 meta-analyzed seven GWA samples and 11 140 subjects for BMDs at the lumbar spine, hip and femoral neck, followed by a Stage 2 in silico replication of 33 SNPs in 9258 subjects, and by a Stage 3 de novo validation of three SNPs in 6663 subjects. Combining evidence from all the stages, we have identified two novel loci that have not been reported previously at the genome-wide significance (GWS; 5.0 × 10(-8)) level: 14q24.2 (rs227425, P-value 3.98 × 10(-13), SMOC1) in the combined sample of males and females and 21q22.13 (rs170183, P-value 4.15 × 10(-9), CLDN14) in the female-specific sample. The two newly identified SNPs were also significant in the GEnetic Factors for OSteoporosis consortium (GEFOS, n = 32 960) summary results. We have also independently confirmed 13 previously reported loci at the GWS level: 1p36.12 (ZBTB40), 1p31.3 (GPR177), 4p16.3 (FGFRL1), 4q22.1 (MEPE), 5q14.3 (MEF2C), 6q25.1 (C6orf97, ESR1), 7q21.3 (FLJ42280, SHFM1), 7q31.31 (FAM3C, WNT16), 8q24.12 (TNFRSF11B), 11p15.3 (SOX6), 11q13.4 (LRP5), 13q14.11 (AKAP11) and 16q24 (FOXL1). Gene expression analysis in osteogenic cells implied potential functional association of the two candidate genes (SMOC1 and CLDN14) in bone metabolism. Our findings independently confirm previously identified biological pathways underlying bone metabolism and contribute to the discovery of novel pathways, thus providing valuable insights into the intervention and treatment of osteoporosis.
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Measure of surface potential at the aqueous-oxide nanoparticle interface by XPS from a liquid microjet.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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We show that the surface potential at a water-oxide nanoparticle (NP) interface, long considered an immeasurable direct quantity, can be measured by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) from a liquid microjet. This new method does not require a priori knowledge of the particles surface structure or of the ion distribution throughout the electrical double layer for its interpretation and can be applied to any colloidal suspension independent of composition, particle size and shape, and solvent. We demonstrate the application for aqueous suspensions of 9 nm colloidal silica (SiO2) at pH 0.3 and 10.0, where the surface potential changes from positive to negative. The experimental results are compared with calculated surface potentials based on Guoy-Chapman theory and are shown to be in good agreement.
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An anatomical study of the lesser occipital nerve and its potential compression points: implications for surgical treatment of migraine headaches.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2013
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This study maps the course of the lesser occipital nerve and its potential compression sites in the posterior scalp.
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Agonistic anti-CD40 antibody therapy is effective against postoperative cancer recurrence and metastasis in a murine tumor model.
J. Immunother.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2013
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Postresection recurrences of cancer arising from occult tumor deposits, either local or metastatic, represent major causes of death in patients with operable solid tumors. Thus, new therapies are required that complement existing treatments to eradicate these occult deposits. Agonistic anti-CD40 antibody is one of the most powerful new cancer immunotherapies, enhancing immune priming of effector CD8 T cells by dendritic cells, leading to increased antitumor activity. We investigated the use of anti-CD40 antibody for the treatment of postoperative recurrence and metastasis, with regional lymphadenectomy, in a murine model of cancer. Subcutaneous AB1-HA mesothelioma tumors were induced in BALB/c mice. Established tumors were surgically excised on day 16, with or without sentinel lymph node removal. On the day of surgery, animals were rechallenged with AB1-HA tumor cells at the surgical site (local recurrence) or the opposite flank (metastasis). Postoperative tumors were treated with anti-CD40 (FGK45) on emergence, delivered either intratumorally, peritumorally, or systemically. Local or systemic anti-CD40 treatment slowed postsurgical metastatic growth relative to untreated controls (P = 0.020) and improved survival from metastasis. Anti-CD40 also retarded the growth of local recurrences (P = 0.004) and improved survival from recurrence. Sentinel lymph node dissection did not impair efficacy (P > 0.05). This study demonstrates that anti-CD40 therapy, given either locally or systemically, may be a powerful and readily translatable adjuvant to cancer surgery, including in cases where regional lymphadenectomy is indicated.
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Genetic insights into common pathways and complex relationships among immune-mediated diseases.
Nat. Rev. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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Shared aetiopathogenic factors among immune-mediated diseases have long been suggested by their co-familiality and co-occurrence, and molecular support has been provided by analysis of human leukocyte antigen (HLA) haplotypes and genome-wide association studies. The interrelationships can now be better appreciated following the genotyping of large immune disease sample sets on a shared SNP array: the Immunochip. Here, we systematically analyse loci shared among major immune-mediated diseases. This reveals that several diseases share multiple susceptibility loci, but there are many nuances. The most associated variant at a given locus frequently differs and, even when shared, the same allele often has opposite associations. Interestingly, risk alleles conferring the largest effect sizes are usually disease-specific. These factors help to explain why early evidence of extensive sharing is not always reflected in epidemiological overlap.
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A new endstation at the Swiss Light Source for ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray absorption spectroscopy measurements of liquid solutions.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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A new liquid microjet endstation designed for ultraviolet (UPS) and X-ray (XPS) photoelectron, and partial electron yield X-ray absorption (XAS) spectroscopies at the Swiss Light Source is presented. The new endstation, which is based on a Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 electron spectrometer, is the first liquid microjet endstation capable of operating in vacuum and in ambient pressures up to the equilibrium vapor pressure of liquid water at room temperature. In addition, the Scienta HiPP-2 R4000 energy analyzer of this new endstation allows for XPS measurements up to 7000 eV electron kinetic energy that will enable electronic structure measurements of bulk solutions and buried interfaces from liquid microjet samples. The endstation is designed to operate at the soft X-ray SIM beamline and at the tender X-ray Phoenix beamline. The endstation can also be operated using a Scienta 5 K ultraviolet helium lamp for dedicated UPS measurements at the vapor-liquid interface using either He I or He II ? lines. The design concept, first results from UPS, soft X-ray XPS, and partial electron yield XAS measurements, and an outlook to the potential of this endstation are presented.
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Genome-wide association analysis identifies 13 new risk loci for schizophrenia.
Stephan Ripke, Colm O'Dushlaine, Kimberly Chambert, Jennifer L Moran, Anna K Kähler, Susanne Akterin, Sarah E Bergen, Ann L Collins, James J Crowley, Menachem Fromer, Yunjung Kim, Sang Hong Lee, Patrik K E Magnusson, Nick Sanchez, Eli A Stahl, Stephanie Williams, Naomi R Wray, Kai Xia, Francesco Bettella, Anders D Borglum, Brendan K Bulik-Sullivan, Paul Cormican, Nick Craddock, Christiaan de Leeuw, Naser Durmishi, Michael Gill, Vera Golimbet, Marian L Hamshere, Peter Holmans, David M Hougaard, Kenneth S Kendler, Kuang Lin, Derek W Morris, Ole Mors, Preben B Mortensen, Benjamin M Neale, Francis A O'Neill, Michael J Owen, Milica Pejović Milovančević, Danielle Posthuma, John Powell, Alexander L Richards, Brien P Riley, Douglas Ruderfer, Dan Rujescu, Engilbert Sigurdsson, Teimuraz Silagadze, August B Smit, Hreinn Stefansson, Stacy Steinberg, Jaana Suvisaari, Sarah Tosato, Matthijs Verhage, James T Walters, , Douglas F Levinson, Pablo V Gejman, Claudine Laurent, Bryan J Mowry, Michael C O'Donovan, Ann E Pulver, Sibylle G Schwab, Dieter B Wildenauer, Frank Dudbridge, Jianxin Shi, Margot Albus, Madeline Alexander, Dominique Campion, David Cohen, Dimitris Dikeos, Jubao Duan, Peter Eichhammer, Stephanie Godard, Mark Hansen, F Bernard Lerer, Kung-Yee Liang, Wolfgang Maier, Jacques Mallet, Deborah A Nertney, Gerald Nestadt, Nadine Norton, George N Papadimitriou, Robert Ribble, Alan R Sanders, Jeremy M Silverman, Dermot Walsh, Nigel M Williams, Brandon Wormley, Maria J Arranz, Steven Bakker, Stephan Bender, Elvira Bramon, David Collier, Benedicto Crespo-Facorro, Jeremy Hall, Conrad Iyegbe, Assen Jablensky, René S Kahn, Luba Kalaydjieva, Stephen Lawrie, Cathryn M Lewis, Don H Linszen, Ignacio Mata, Andrew McIntosh, Robin M Murray, Roel A Ophoff, Jim van Os, Muriel Walshe, Matthias Weisbrod, Durk Wiersma, Peter Donnelly, Inês Barroso, Jenefer M Blackwell, Matthew A Brown, Juan P Casas, Aiden P Corvin, Panos Deloukas, Audrey Duncanson, Janusz Jankowski, Hugh S Markus, Christopher G Mathew, Colin N A Palmer, Robert Plomin, Anna Rautanen, Stephen J Sawcer, Richard C Trembath, Ananth C Viswanathan, Nicholas W Wood, Chris C A Spencer, Gavin Band, Celine Bellenguez, Colin Freeman, Garrett Hellenthal, Eleni Giannoulatou, Matti Pirinen, Richard D Pearson, Amy Strange, Zhan Su, Damjan Vukcevic, Cordelia Langford, Sarah E Hunt, Sarah Edkins, Rhian Gwilliam, Hannah Blackburn, Suzannah J Bumpstead, Serge Dronov, Matthew Gillman, Emma Gray, Naomi Hammond, Alagurevathi Jayakumar, Owen T McCann, Jennifer Liddle, Simon C Potter, Radhi Ravindrarajah, Michelle Ricketts, Avazeh Tashakkori-Ghanbaria, Matthew J Waller, Paul Weston, Sara Widaa, Pamela Whittaker, Mark I McCarthy, Kari Stefansson, Edward Scolnick, Shaun Purcell, Steven A McCarroll, Pamela Sklar, Christina M Hultman, Patrick F Sullivan.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Schizophrenia is an idiopathic mental disorder with a heritable component and a substantial public health impact. We conducted a multi-stage genome-wide association study (GWAS) for schizophrenia beginning with a Swedish national sample (5,001 cases and 6,243 controls) followed by meta-analysis with previous schizophrenia GWAS (8,832 cases and 12,067 controls) and finally by replication of SNPs in 168 genomic regions in independent samples (7,413 cases, 19,762 controls and 581 parent-offspring trios). We identified 22 loci associated at genome-wide significance; 13 of these are new, and 1 was previously implicated in bipolar disorder. Examination of candidate genes at these loci suggests the involvement of neuronal calcium signaling. We estimate that 8,300 independent, mostly common SNPs (95% credible interval of 6,300-10,200 SNPs) contribute to risk for schizophrenia and that these collectively account for at least 32% of the variance in liability. Common genetic variation has an important role in the etiology of schizophrenia, and larger studies will allow more detailed understanding of this disorder.
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Redefining the ideal nasolabial angle: Part 2. Expert analysis.
Plast. Reconstr. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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The nasolabial angle is the angle between the line drawn through the midpoint of the nostril aperture and a line drawn perpendicular to the Frankfort horizontal plane while intersecting subnasale. Previous analysis by the authors department yielded closer ranges between men and women of 96 and 98 degrees, respectively. This study further refines the ideal nasolabial angle using the opinions of a highly select group of seasoned rhinoplasty surgeons.
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Defects in the IFT-B component IFT172 cause Jeune and Mainzer-Saldino syndromes in humans.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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Intraflagellar transport (IFT) depends on two evolutionarily conserved modules, subcomplexes A (IFT-A) and B (IFT-B), to drive ciliary assembly and maintenance. All six IFT-A components and their motor protein, DYNC2H1, have been linked to human skeletal ciliopathies, including asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy (ATD; also known as Jeune syndrome), Sensenbrenner syndrome, and Mainzer-Saldino syndrome (MZSDS). Conversely, the 14 subunits in the IFT-B module, with the exception of IFT80, have unknown roles in human disease. To identify additional IFT-B components defective in ciliopathies, we independently performed different mutation analyses: candidate-based sequencing of all IFT-B-encoding genes in 1,467 individuals with a nephronophthisis-related ciliopathy or whole-exome resequencing in 63 individuals with ATD. We thereby detected biallelic mutations in the IFT-B-encoding gene IFT172 in 12 families. All affected individuals displayed abnormalities of the thorax and/or long bones, as well as renal, hepatic, or retinal involvement, consistent with the diagnosis of ATD or MZSDS. Additionally, cerebellar aplasia or hypoplasia characteristic of Joubert syndrome was present in 2 out of 12 families. Fibroblasts from affected individuals showed disturbed ciliary composition, suggesting alteration of ciliary transport and signaling. Knockdown of ift172 in zebrafish recapitulated the human phenotype and demonstrated a genetic interaction between ift172 and ift80. In summary, we have identified defects in IFT172 as a cause of complex ATD and MZSDS. Our findings link the group of skeletal ciliopathies to an additional IFT-B component, IFT172, similar to what has been shown for IFT-A.
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Whole exome sequencing is an efficient and sensitive method for detection of germline mutations in patients with phaeochromcytomas and paragangliomas.
Clin. Endocrinol. (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Genetic testing is recommended when the probability of a disease-associated germline mutation exceeds 10%. Germline mutations are found in approximately 25% of individuals with phaeochromcytoma (PCC) or paraganglioma (PGL); however, genetic heterogeneity for PCC/PGL means many genes may require sequencing. A phenotype-directed iterative approach may limit costs but may also delay diagnosis, and will not detect mutations in genes not previously associated with PCC/PGL.
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Pyridone-conjugated monobactam antibiotics with gram-negative activity.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2013
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Herein we describe the structure-aided design and synthesis of a series of pyridone-conjugated monobactam analogues with in vitro antibacterial activity against clinically relevant Gram-negative species including Pseudomonas aeruginosa , Klebsiella pneumoniae , and Escherichia coli . Rat pharmacokinetic studies with compound 17 demonstrate low clearance and low plasma protein binding. In addition, evidence is provided for a number of analogues suggesting that the siderophore receptors PiuA and PirA play a role in drug uptake in P. aeruginosa strain PAO1.
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Discovery of Dap-3 polymyxin analogues for the treatment of multidrug-resistant Gram-negative nosocomial infections.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
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We report novel polymyxin analogues with improved antibacterial in vitro potency against polymyxin resistant recent clinical isolates of Acinetobacter baumannii and Pseudomonas aeruginosa . In addition, a human renal cell in vitro assay (hRPTEC) was used to inform structure-toxicity relationships and further differentiate analogues. Replacement of the Dab-3 residue with a Dap-3 in combination with a relatively polar 6-oxo-1-phenyl-1,6-dihydropyridine-3-carbonyl side chain as a fatty acyl replacement yielded analogue 5x, which demonstrated an improved in vitro antimicrobial and renal cytotoxicity profiles relative to polymyxin B (PMB). However, in vivo PK/PD comparison of 5x and PMB in a murine neutropenic thigh model against P. aeruginosa strains with matched MICs showed that 5x was inferior to PMB in vivo, suggesting a lack of improved therapeutic index in spite of apparent in vitro advantages.
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Adaptation-based resistance to siderophore-conjugated antibacterial agents by Pseudomonas aeruginosa.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Multidrug resistance in Gram-negative bacteria has become so threatening to human health that new antibacterial platforms are desperately needed to combat these deadly infections. The concept of siderophore conjugation, which facilitates compound uptake across the outer membrane by hijacking bacterial iron acquisition systems, has received significant attention in recent years. While standard in vitro MIC and resistance frequency methods demonstrate that these compounds are potent, broad-spectrum antibacterial agents whose activity should not be threatened by unacceptably high spontaneous resistance rates, recapitulation of these results in animal models can prove unreliable, partially because of the differences in iron availability in these different methods. Here, we describe the characterization of MB-1, a novel siderophore-conjugated monobactam that demonstrates excellent in vitro activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa when tested using standard assay conditions. Unfortunately, the in vitro findings did not correlate with the in vivo results we obtained, as multiple strains were not effectively treated by MB-1 despite having low MICs. To address this, we also describe the development of new in vitro assays that were predictive of efficacy in mouse models, and we provide evidence that competition with native siderophores could contribute to the recalcitrance of some P. aeruginosa isolates in vivo.
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Recurrent toxic epidermal necrolysis secondary to iopromide contrast.
J Burn Care Res
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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We present the case report of a patient with three episodes of Stevens-Johnson syndrome/toxic epidermal necrolysis attributed to the monomeric, nonionic, intravenous contrast iopromide. All three episodes required inpatient management, with the last two episodes being referred to the burn unit. Recurrence was the result of misattribution of an antibiotic as the inciting agent in the first two episodes.
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Non-invasive visualisation and volume estimation of maggot masses using computed tomography scanning.
Int. J. Legal Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2013
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There is limited understanding of the actual temperatures that maggots experience during growth. The impact of maggot mass heating on their growth rates cannot be properly factored into maggot growth rate models, thus limiting the accuracy of forensic entomology estimates. One of the major factors contributing to mass heating is the mass size; however, measuring mass volume is problematic as masses quickly become disturbed when probing them to measure their depth and width. Furthermore, many masses are deep within the body cavity and are inaccessible. This study examined the development of a non-invasive means for measuring mass volume using computed tomography(CT) scanning. It was found that CT can be used to visualise and measure the volume of maggot masses, and a series of rules for doing so were established. The level of agreement between mass measurements made by four ‘judges’ using CT volumetric analysis tools produced excellent reliability (ICC > 0.95). This high level of reliability was maintained when applied to masses of different sizes in experimental cups of meat and natural masses of mixed species on human bodies. Entomological features of mortuary CT scans are now routinely reported in forensic entomology casework in Victoria, Australia, as a result of our work.
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Genetics of ankylosing spondylitis.
Mol. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a chronic inflammatory arthritis that affects the spine and sacroiliac joints. It causes significant disability and is associated with a number of other features including peripheral arthritis, anterior uveitis, psoriasis and inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Significant progress has been made in the genetics of AS have in the last five years, leading to new treatments in trial, and major leaps in understanding of the aetiopathogenesis of the disease.
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Microbes, the gut and ankylosing spondylitis.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2013
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It is increasingly clear that the interaction between host and microbiome profoundly affects health. There are 10 times more bacteria in and on our bodies than the total of our own cells, and the human intestine contains approximately 100 trillion bacteria. Interrogation of microbial communities by using classic microbiology techniques offers a very restricted view of these communities, allowing us to see only what we can grow in isolation. However, recent advances in sequencing technologies have greatly facilitated systematic and comprehensive studies of the role of the microbiome in human health and disease. Comprehensive understanding of our microbiome will enhance understanding of disease pathogenesis, which in turn may lead to rationally targeted therapy for a number of conditions, including autoimmunity.
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Expression profiling in spondyloarthropathy synovial biopsies highlights changes in expression of inflammatory genes in conjunction with tissue remodelling genes.
BMC Musculoskelet Disord
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2013
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In the spondyloarthropathies, the underlying molecular and cellular pathways driving disease are poorly understood. By undertaking a study in knee synovial biopsies from spondyloarthropathy (SpA) and ankylosing spondylitis (AS) patients we aimed to elucidate dysregulated genes and pathways.
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Identification of multiple risk variants for ankylosing spondylitis through high-density genotyping of immune-related loci.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis is a common, highly heritable inflammatory arthritis affecting primarily the spine and pelvis. In addition to HLA-B*27 alleles, 12 loci have previously been identified that are associated with ankylosing spondylitis in populations of European ancestry, and 2 associated loci have been identified in Asians. In this study, we used the Illumina Immunochip microarray to perform a case-control association study involving 10,619 individuals with ankylosing spondylitis (cases) and 15,145 controls. We identified 13 new risk loci and 12 additional ankylosing spondylitis-associated haplotypes at 11 loci. Two ankylosing spondylitis-associated regions have now been identified encoding four aminopeptidases that are involved in peptide processing before major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I presentation. Protective variants at two of these loci are associated both with reduced aminopeptidase function and with MHC class I cell surface expression.
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Mutations in the gene encoding IFT dynein complex component WDR34 cause Jeune asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy.
Am. J. Hum. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Bidirectional (anterograde and retrograde) motor-based intraflagellar transport (IFT) governs cargo transport and delivery processes that are essential for primary cilia growth and maintenance and for hedgehog signaling functions. The IFT dynein-2 motor complex that regulates ciliary retrograde protein transport contains a heavy chain dynein ATPase/motor subunit, DYNC2H1, along with other less well functionally defined subunits. Deficiency of IFT proteins, including DYNC2H1, underlies a spectrum of skeletal ciliopathies. Here, by using exome sequencing and a targeted next-generation sequencing panel, we identified a total of 11 mutations in WDR34 in 9 families with the clinical diagnosis of Jeune syndrome (asphyxiating thoracic dystrophy). WDR34 encodes a WD40 repeat-containing protein orthologous to Chlamydomonas FAP133, a dynein intermediate chain associated with the retrograde intraflagellar transport motor. Three-dimensional protein modeling suggests that the identified mutations all affect residues critical for WDR34 protein-protein interactions. We find that WDR34 concentrates around the centrioles and basal bodies in mammalian cells, also showing axonemal staining. WDR34 coimmunoprecipitates with the dynein-1 light chain DYNLL1 in vitro, and mining of proteomics data suggests that WDR34 could represent a previously unrecognized link between the cytoplasmic dynein-1 and IFT dynein-2 motors. Together, these data show that WDR34 is critical for ciliary functions essential to normal development and survival, most probably as a previously unrecognized component of the mammalian dynein-IFT machinery.
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A novel serogenetic approach determines the community prevalence of celiac disease and informs improved diagnostic pathways.
BMC Med
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2013
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Changing perspectives on the natural history of celiac disease (CD), new serology and genetic tests, and amended histological criteria for diagnosis cast doubt on past prevalence estimates for CD. We set out to establish a more accurate prevalence estimate for CD using a novel serogenetic approach.
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Control of endothelin-a receptor expression by progesterone is enhanced by synergy with Gata2.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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The endothelin-A receptor (Ednra) is involved in several physiological, pathological, and developmental pathways. Known for its function in vasoconstriction after being activated by endothelin-1, Ednra also controls cephalic neural crest cell development and appears to play a role in several pathologies, including cancer and periodontitis. However, the mechanisms regulating Ednra expression have not been identified despite its important functions. In this study, we investigated the role progesterone plays in Ednra gene expression in vivo and in vitro. In mice, pregnancy promotes Ednra expression in the heart, kidney, lung, uterus, and placenta, and the up-regulation is mediated by progesterone. We determined that the conserved region between -5.7 and -4.2 kb upstream of the mouse Ednra gene is necessary for the progesterone response. We also found that progesterone mediates Ednra activation through progesterone receptor B activation by its recruitment to PRE6, one of the 6 progesterone response elements found in that locus. However, gene activation by means of a GATA2 site was also necessary for the progesterone response. The Gata2 transcription factor enhances the progesterone response mediated by the progesterone receptor B. Together these results indicate that progesterone regulates Ednra expression by synergizing with Gata2 activity, a previously unknown mechanism. This mechanism may have an impact on pathologies involving the endothelin signaling.
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Brief report: high-throughput sequencing of IL23R reveals a low-frequency, nonsynonymous single-nucleotide polymorphism that is associated with ankylosing spondylitis in a Han Chinese population.
Arthritis Rheum.
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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Ankylosing spondylitis (AS) is a highly heritable common inflammatory arthritis that targets the spine and sacroiliac joints of the pelvis, causing pain and stiffness and leading eventually to joint fusion. Although previous studies have shown a strong association of IL23R with AS in white Europeans, similar studies in East Asian populations have shown no association with common variants of IL23R, suggesting either that IL23R variants have no role or that rare genetic variants contribute. The present study was undertaken to screen IL23R to identify rare variants associated with AS in Han Chinese.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.