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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Child-headed households in Rakai District, Uganda: a mixed-methods study.
Paediatr Int Child Health
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Objective: An important but neglected consequence of the AIDS pandemic that continues across sub-Saharan Africa is the phenomenon of child-headed households (CHH). This study aims to describe the challenges to health and well-being for young people living in child-headed households. Methods: A mixed-methods research approach linked common themes using qualitative and quantitative instruments to provide a broad picture of the location and challenges of CHH in Kabira, Kyotera and Kamuganja in the Rakai District of southern Uganda. Local knowledge was used to locate CHH. Results: 163 children living in 40 CHH were traced: 42·5% of the household heads were double orphans caring for younger siblings, and 43% were also caring for chronically ill or disabled grandparents who were economically unproductive and largely dependent on the eldest child for survival. It was found that those heading households were more likely not to attend school than children living at home with a parent. Their immediate needs ranged from food and shelter to health-care and education. Fear was a major theme: 38% of those interviewed reported fear of 'violence'. Children as young as 13 were responsible for navigating through complex decision-making processes from everyday basic necessities to decisions on the health care of younger siblings and grandparents. Conclusion: Children and young people living in CHH are a largely invisible and highly vulnerable population. Clear, officially accepted definitions of CHH are a first step in recognising this vulnerable group for whom safeguards will be necessary as social work develops in lower- and middle-income countries (LMICs). The precise numbers of CHH are unknown and further examination of this undocumented group is needed.
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Estrogen receptor expression is high but is of lower intensity in tubular carcinoma than in well-differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Context .- Tubular carcinoma (TC) is a rare, luminal A subtype of breast carcinoma with excellent prognosis, for which adjuvant chemotherapy is usually contraindicated. Objective .- To examine the levels of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor expression in cases of TC and well-differentiated invasive ductal carcinoma as compared to normal breast glands and to determine if any significant differences could be detected via molecular testing. Design .- We examined ER and progesterone receptor via immunohistochemistry in tubular (N = 27), mixed ductal/tubular (N = 16), and well-differentiated ductal (N = 27) carcinomas with comparison to surrounding normal breast tissue. We additionally performed molecular subtyping of 10 TCs and 10 ductal carcinomas via the PAM50 assay. Results .- Although ER expression was high for all groups, TC had statistically significantly lower ER staining percentage (ER%) (P = .003) and difference in ER expression between tumor and accompanying normal tissue (P = .02) than well-differentiated ductal carcinomas, with mixed ductal/tubular carcinomas falling between these 2 groups. Mean ER% was 79%, 87%, and 94%, and mean tumor-normal ER% differences were 13.6%, 25.9%, and 32.6% in tubular, mixed, and ductal carcinomas, respectively. Most tumors that had molecular subtyping were luminal A (9 of 10 tubular and 8 of 10 ductal), and no significant differences in specific gene expression between the 2 groups were identified. Conclusions .- Tubular carcinoma exhibited decreased intensity in ER expression, closer to that of normal breast parenchyma, likely as a consequence of a high degree of differentiation. Lower ER% expression by TC may represent a potential pitfall when performing commercially available breast carcinoma prognostic assays that rely heavily on ER-related gene expression.
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Comprehensive Quantitative Analysis of Ovarian and Breast Cancer Tumor Peptidomes.
J. Proteome Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Aberrant degradation of proteins is associated with many pathological states, including cancers. Mass spectrometric analysis of tumor peptidomes, the intracellular and intercellular products of protein degradation, has the potential to provide biological insights on proteolytic processing in cancer. However, attempts to use the information on these smaller protein degradation products from tumors for biomarker discovery and cancer biology studies have been fairly limited to date, largely due to the lack of effective approaches for robust peptidomics identification and quantification and the prevalence of confounding factors and biases associated with sample handling and processing. Herein, we have developed an effective and robust analytical platform for comprehensive analyses of tissue peptidomes, which is suitable for high-throughput quantitative studies. The reproducibility and coverage of the platform, as well as the suitability of clinical ovarian tumor and patient-derived breast tumor xenograft samples with postexcision delay of up to 60 min before freezing for peptidomics analysis, have been demonstrated. Moreover, our data also show that the peptidomics profiles can effectively separate breast cancer subtypes, reflecting tumor-associated protease activities. Peptidomics complements results obtainable from conventional bottom-up proteomics and provides insights not readily obtainable from such approaches.
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Loss of Trop2 causes ErbB3 activation through a neuregulin-1-dependent mechanism in the mesenchymal subtype of HNSCC.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2014
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In head and neck squamous cell cancer (HNSCC), four intrinsic subtypes (or groups) have been identified, and each one possesses a unique biology that will require specific treatment strategies. We previously reported that mesenchymal (group 2) tumors exhibit reduced levels of Trop2 expression. In this study, we investigated the functional role of Trop2 in HNSCC and find that loss results in autocrine activation of the EGFR family member ErbB3 via neuregulin-1. Trop2 localizes to both the cell surface and cytosol of HNSCC cells and forms a complex with neuregulin-1, which is predominantly cytosolic. Inactivation of Trop2 increases the concentration of neuregulin-1 at the cell surface where it is cleaved to activate ErbB3. In primary HNSCC, detection of ErbB3 activation was limited to Trop2 negative tumors. An analysis of the Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) HNSCC dataset confirms enrichment for ErbB3 activity in mesenchymal tumors. Notably, Trop2 loss triggers sensitivity to anti-ErbB3 antibodies, which results in reduced proliferation and tumorigenic growth of Trop2 negative HNSCC cancer cells. These results uncover a molecular mechanism by which tumor cells control the amount of cell-surface neuregulin-1 available for cleavage and ErbB3 activation. Moreover, we demonstrate that Trop2 is a potential surrogate biomarker to identify tumors with ErbB3 activation and may therefore respond to anti-ErbB3 therapeutics.
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Aromatase inhibitor-associated bone fractures: a case-cohort GWAS and functional genomics.
Mol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Bone fractures are a major consequence of osteoporosis. There is a direct relationship between serum estrogen concentrations and osteoporosis risk. Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) greatly decrease serum estrogen levels in postmenopausal women, and increased incidence of fractures is a side effect of AI therapy. We performed a discovery case-cohort genome-wide association study (GWAS) using samples from 1071 patients, 231 cases and 840 controls, enrolled in the MA.27 breast cancer AI trial to identify genetic factors involved in AI-related fractures, followed by functional genomic validation. Association analyses identified 20 GWAS single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) signals with P < 5E-06. After removal of signals in gene deserts and those composed entirely of imputed SNPs, we applied a functional validation "decision cascade" that resulted in validation of the CTSZ-SLMO2-ATP5E, TRAM2-TMEM14A, and MAP4K4 genes. These genes all displayed estradiol (E2)-dependent induction in human fetal osteoblasts transfected with estrogen receptor-?, and their knockdown altered the expression of known osteoporosis-related genes. These same genes also displayed SNP-dependent variation in E2 induction that paralleled the SNP-dependent induction of known osteoporosis genes, such as osteoprotegerin. In summary, our case-cohort GWAS identified SNPs in or near CTSZ-SLMO2-ATP5E, TRAM2-TMEM14A, and MAP4K4 that were associated with risk for bone fracture in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer patients treated with AIs. These genes displayed E2-dependent induction, their knockdown altered the expression of genes related to osteoporosis, and they displayed SNP genotype-dependent variation in E2 induction. These observations may lead to the identification of novel mechanisms associated with fracture risk in postmenopausal women treated with AIs.
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SciClone: inferring clonal architecture and tracking the spatial and temporal patterns of tumor evolution.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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The sensitivity of massively-parallel sequencing has confirmed that most cancers are oligoclonal, with subpopulations of neoplastic cells harboring distinct mutations. A fine resolution view of this clonal architecture provides insight into tumor heterogeneity, evolution, and treatment response, all of which may have clinical implications. Single tumor analysis already contributes to understanding these phenomena. However, cryptic subclones are frequently revealed by additional patient samples (e.g., collected at relapse or following treatment), indicating that accurately characterizing a tumor requires analyzing multiple samples from the same patient. To address this need, we present SciClone, a computational method that identifies the number and genetic composition of subclones by analyzing the variant allele frequencies of somatic mutations. We use it to detect subclones in acute myeloid leukemia and breast cancer samples that, though present at disease onset, are not evident from a single primary tumor sample. By doing so, we can track tumor evolution and identify the spatial origins of cells resisting therapy.
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The changing face of heroin use in the United States: a retrospective analysis of the past 50 years.
JAMA Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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Over the past several years, there have been a number of mainstream media reports that the abuse of heroin has migrated from low-income urban areas with large minority populations to more affluent suburban and rural areas with primarily white populations.
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Genomic analysis of breast cancer heralds a changing treatment paradigm.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
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Deep genomic analysis in breast cancer and the identification of driver mutations will result in treatments based on molecular subtypes and pathways. Mutations not yet familiar to most oncologists will become part of the clinical oncology vernacular. Such discoveries will advance the concept of "biology first, not drug first," because molecular biology will drive drug development and clinical trial design involving small, molecularly defined subsets of patients, according to a presentation at the NCCN 19th Annual Conference.
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Body mass index, diabetes, and triple-negative breast cancer prognosis.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Higher body mass index (BMI) and diabetes are associated with worse breast cancer prognosis. However, few studies have focused on triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). The goal of this study is to examine this association in a cohort of patients with TNBC. We retrospectively reviewed 501 consecutive patients with TNBC seen at the Washington University Breast Oncology Clinic. Cox proportional hazard models were used to determine the relationship between BMI and diabetes at diagnosis with overall survival (OS) and disease free survival (DFS). Four hundred and forty-eight patients had BMI recorded and 71 patients had diabetes. The median age at diagnosis was 53 (23-98) years and follow-up was 40.1 months (IQR 25.2-62.9). Baseline BMI and diabetes were not associated with OS or DFS. OS hazard ratios (HRs) for patients who were overweight (BMI 25.0-29.99), with class I obesity (BMI 30-34.99), or BMI ?35 were 1.22 (CI 0.78-1.91), 0.92 (CI 0.59-1.43), and 1.16 (CI 0.70-1.90), respectively. The HRs for DFS in patients who were overweight, with class I obesity, or BMI ?35 were 1.01 (CI 0.65-1.56), 0.94 (CI 0.60-1.47), and 0.99 (CI 0.63-1.57), respectively. Similarly, the HRs for diabetics were 1.27 (CI 0.82-1.96) for OS and 0.98 (CI 0.64-1.51) for DFS. Obesity and diabetes did not significantly affect survival for patients with TNBC in this study.
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Community perceptions of unintentional child injuries in Makwanpur district of Nepal: a qualitative study.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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In Nepal, childhood unintentional injury is an emerging public health problem but it has not been prioritised on national health agenda. There is lack of literature on community perceptions about child injuries. This study has explored community perceptions about child injuries and how injuries can be prevented.
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Proteogenomic characterization of human colon and rectal cancer.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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Extensive genomic characterization of human cancers presents the problem of inference from genomic abnormalities to cancer phenotypes. To address this problem, we analysed proteomes of colon and rectal tumours characterized previously by The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) and perform integrated proteogenomic analyses. Somatic variants displayed reduced protein abundance compared to germline variants. Messenger RNA transcript abundance did not reliably predict protein abundance differences between tumours. Proteomics identified five proteomic subtypes in the TCGA cohort, two of which overlapped with the TCGA 'microsatellite instability/CpG island methylation phenotype' transcriptomic subtype, but had distinct mutation, methylation and protein expression patterns associated with different clinical outcomes. Although copy number alterations showed strong cis- and trans-effects on mRNA abundance, relatively few of these extend to the protein level. Thus, proteomics data enabled prioritization of candidate driver genes. The chromosome 20q amplicon was associated with the largest global changes at both mRNA and protein levels; proteomics data highlighted potential 20q candidates, including HNF4A (hepatocyte nuclear factor 4, alpha), TOMM34 (translocase of outer mitochondrial membrane 34) and SRC (SRC proto-oncogene, non-receptor tyrosine kinase). Integrated proteogenomic analysis provides functional context to interpret genomic abnormalities and affords a new paradigm for understanding cancer biology.
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Tacrolimus dose requirements in African-American and Caucasian kidney transplant recipients on mycophenolate and prednisone.
Clin Transplant
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2014
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Racial differences among kidney transplant recipients may impact the total daily tacrolimus dose required to achieve therapeutic tacrolimus concentrations. Previous studies suggest that African Americans require higher doses to achieve similar therapeutic drug concentrations compared with Caucasians. Data were collected on a total of 147 de novo kidney transplant recipients. Tacrolimus total daily dose (TDD) requirements (mg/kg/d) and tacrolimus concentrations were retrospectively reviewed at discharge and at days 30, 60, and 90 after transplant. TDD requirements in African-American and Caucasian patients were 0.14 mg/kg/d and 0.11 mg/kg/d, respectively (p = 0.005), at day 30. TDD requirements at day of hospital discharge and days 60 and 90 following transplant were significantly higher in African-American patients vs. Caucasian patients, with similar tacrolimus concentrations at all time points. This study suggests that when compared to Caucasians, African Americans require significantly higher TDD of tacrolimus to achieve similar tacrolimus concentrations. These findings provide transplant clinicians with a sense of certainty to more rapidly titrate daily tacrolimus doses in African-American patients to achieve therapeutic concentrations.
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High-throughput, automated quantification of white matter neurons in mild malformation of cortical development in epilepsy.
Acta Neuropathol Commun
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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In epilepsy, the diagnosis of mild Malformation of Cortical Development type II (mMCD II) predominantly relies on the histopathological assessment of heterotopic neurons in the white matter. The exact diagnostic criteria for mMCD II are still ill-defined, mainly because findings from previous studies were contradictory due to small sample size, and the use of different stains and quantitative systems. Advance in technology leading to the development of whole slide imaging with high-throughput, automated quantitative analysis (WSA) may overcome these differences, and may provide objective, rapid, and reliable quantitation of white matter neurons in epilepsy. This study quantified the density of NeuN immunopositive neurons in the white matter of up to 142 epilepsy and control cases using WSA. Quantitative data from WSA was compared to two other systems, semi-automated quantitation, and the widely accepted method of stereology, to assess the reliability and quality of results from WSA.
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Ischemia in tumors induces early and sustained phosphorylation changes in stress kinase pathways but does not affect global protein levels.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
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Protein abundance and phosphorylation convey important information about pathway activity and molecular pathophysiology in diseases including cancer, providing biological insight, informing drug and diagnostic development, and guiding therapeutic intervention. Analyzed tissues are usually collected without tight regulation or documentation of ischemic time. To evaluate the impact of ischemia, we collected human ovarian tumor and breast cancer xenograft tissue without vascular interruption and performed quantitative proteomics and phosphoproteomics after defined ischemic intervals. Although the global expressed proteome and most of the >25,000 quantified phosphosites were unchanged after 60 min, rapid phosphorylation changes were observed in up to 24% of the phosphoproteome, representing activation of critical cancer pathways related to stress response, transcriptional regulation, and cell death. Both pan-tumor and tissue-specific changes were observed. The demonstrated impact of pre-analytical tissue ischemia on tumor biology mandates caution in interpreting stress-pathway activation in such samples and motivates reexamination of collection protocols for phosphoprotein analysis.
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Factors contributing to the rise of buprenorphine misuse: 2008-2013.
Drug Alcohol Depend
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2014
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The purpose of the present study was to examine the motivations underlying the use of buprenorphine outside of therapeutic channels and the factors that might account for the reported rapid increase in buprenorphine misuse in recent years.
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Targeting an IKBKE cytokine network impairs triple-negative breast cancer growth.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2014
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Triple-negative breast cancers (TNBCs) are a heterogeneous set of cancers that are defined by the absence of hormone receptor expression and estrogen-related receptor ? (ERBB2) amplification. Here, we found that inducible I?B kinase-related (IKK-related) kinase IKBKE expression and JAK/STAT pathway activation compose a cytokine signaling network in the immune-activated subset of TNBC. We found that treatment of cultured IKBKE-driven breast cancer cells with CYT387, a potent inhibitor of TBK1/IKBKE and JAK signaling, impairs proliferation, while inhibition of JAK alone does not. CYT387 treatment inhibited activation of both NF-?B and STAT and disrupted expression of the protumorigenic cytokines CCL5 and IL-6 in these IKBKE-driven breast cancer cells. Moreover, in 3D culture models, the addition of CCL5 and IL-6 to the media not only promoted tumor spheroid dispersal but also stimulated proliferation and migration of endothelial cells. Interruption of cytokine signaling by CYT387 in vivo impaired the growth of an IKBKE-driven TNBC cell line and patient-derived xenografts (PDXs). A combination of CYT387 therapy with a MEK inhibitor was particularly effective, abrogating tumor growth and angiogenesis in an aggressive PDX model of TNBC. Together, these findings reveal that IKBKE-associated cytokine signaling promotes tumorigenicity of immune-driven TNBC and identify a potential therapeutic strategy using clinically available compounds.
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Intrapartum-related neonatal encephalopathy incidence and impairment at regional and global levels for 2010 with trends from 1990.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-25-2013
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Background:Intrapartum hypoxic events ("birth asphyxia") may result in stillbirth, neonatal or postneonatal mortality, and impairment. Systematic morbidity estimates for the burden of impairment outcomes are currently limited. Neonatal encephalopathy (NE) following an intrapartum hypoxic event is a strong predictor of long-term impairment.Methods:Linear regression modeling was conducted on data identified through systematic reviews to estimate NE incidence and time trends for 184 countries. Meta-analyses were undertaken to estimate the risk of NE by sex of the newborn, neonatal case fatality rate, and impairment risk. A compartmental model estimated postneonatal survivors of NE, depending on access to care, and then the proportion of survivors with impairment. Separate modeling for the Global Burden of Disease 2010 (GBD2010) study estimated disability adjusted life years (DALYs), years of life with disability (YLDs), and years of life lost (YLLs) attributed to intrapartum-related events.Results:In 2010, 1.15 million babies (uncertainty range: 0.89-1.60 million; 8.5 cases per 1,000 live births) were estimated to have developed NE associated with intrapartum events, with 96% born in low- and middle-income countries, as compared with 1.60 million in 1990 (11.7 cases per 1,000 live births). An estimated 287,000 (181,000-440,000) neonates with NE died in 2010; 233,000 (163,000-342,000) survived with moderate or severe neurodevelopmental impairment; and 181,000 (82,000-319,000) had mild impairment. In GBD2010, intrapartum-related conditions comprised 50.2 million DALYs (2.4% of total) and 6.1 million YLDs.Conclusion:Intrapartum-related conditions are a large global burden, mostly due to high mortality in low-income countries. Universal coverage of obstetric care and neonatal resuscitation would prevent most of these deaths and disabilities. Rates of impairment are highest in middle-income countries where neonatal intensive care was more recently introduced, but quality may be poor. In settings without neonatal intensive care, the impairment rate is low due to high mortality, which is relevant for the scale-up of basic neonatal resuscitation.
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Incorporating genomics into breast cancer clinical trials and care.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-04-2013
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Advances in DNA sequencing provide the potential for clinical assays that are timely and affordable and use small amounts of clinical material. The hypothesis has therefore been raised that marked improvements in patient outcomes will result when DNA diagnostics are matched to an armamentarium of targeted agents. While this may be partially true, much of the novel biology uncovered by recent sequencing analysis is poorly understood and not druggable with existing agents. Significant other challenges remain before these technologies can be successfully implemented in the clinic, including the predictive accuracy of pathway-based models, distinguishing drivers from passenger mutations, development of rational combinations, addressing genomic heterogeneity, and molecular evolution/resistance mechanisms. Developments in regulatory science will also need to proceed in parallel to scientific advances so that targeted treatment approaches can be delivered to small subsets of patients with defined biology and drug reimbursement is available for individuals whose tumor carries a mutation that has been successfully targeted in another malignancy, as long as they agree to participate in an outcome registry. Clin Cancer Res; 19(23); 6371-9. ©2013 AACR.
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Fluorouracil, epirubicin, and cyclophosphamide (FEC-75) followed by paclitaxel plus trastuzumab versus paclitaxel plus trastuzumab followed by FEC-75 plus trastuzumab as neoadjuvant treatment for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer (Z1041): a random
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2013
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Neoadjuvant chemotherapy with trastuzumab for patients with HER2-positive breast cancer can produce a pathological complete response in the breast in 30-65% of patients. We investigated the effect of the timing of trastuzumab administration with anthracycline and taxane neoadjuvant chemotherapy.
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome leads to a functional deterioration of the acinus post lung transplant.
Thorax
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2013
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Bronchiolitis obliterans syndrome (BOS) limits long-term survival of lung transplant recipients, and airflow obstruction in these patients likely originates in the small airways. 61 double lung transplant recipients performed multiple breath nitrogen washouts to obtain indices of acinar and conductive ventilation heterogeneity (Sacin, Scond). There was a significant association of BOS status with Sacin (Kruskal-Wallis; p<0.001) but not with Scond (p=0.1). These results demonstrate that it is the structural alteration of the terminal bronchioles, generating ventilation heterogeneity at the level of the diffusion front, and not the bronchioles located more proximally, that is driving the airflow obstruction that determines BOS status.
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Connecting genomic alterations to cancer biology with proteomics: the NCI Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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The National Cancer Institute (NCI) Clinical Proteomic Tumor Analysis Consortium is applying the latest generation of proteomic technologies to genomically annotated tumors from The Cancer Genome Atlas (TCGA) program, a joint initiative of the NCI and the National Human Genome Research Institute. By providing a fully integrated accounting of DNA, RNA, and protein abnormalities in individual tumors, these datasets will illuminate the complex relationship between genomic abnormalities and cancer phenotypes, thus producing biologic insights as well as a wave of novel candidate biomarkers and therapeutic targets amenable to verification using targeted mass spectrometry methods.
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Epidemiology of unintentional child injuries in the South-East Asia Region: a systematic review.
Int J Inj Contr Saf Promot
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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All the 11 members of the South-East Asia Region (SEAR) of the World Health Organization are categorised as low- and middle-income countries. This region has over a quarter of the worlds total population but comprises about one-third of the worlds unintentional injury-related deaths. There is a paucity of good-quality mortality and morbidity data from most of these countries. This is the first systematic review of community-based surveys on child injuries that summarises evidence from child injury studies from the SEAR countries. The included papers reported varying estimates of overall non-fatal unintentional injury rates across the countries, from 15/1000 children in Thailand to as high as 342/1000 children in India. The fatal injury rates were also found to be varying. This review revealed a need for strengthening child injury research using standard methodologies across the region and for promoting the dissemination of the results.
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Mutational analysis of breast cancer: guiding personalized treatments.
Breast
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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The application of high throughput techniques to profile DNA, RNA and protein in breast cancer samples from hundreds of patients has profoundly increased our knowledge of the disease. However there remain many knowledge gaps that will require a long process of extended clinical correlation studies, deeper integrated omic analysis and functional annotation to address. This article reviews conclusions from recent breast cancer omics profiling papers and considers pathways forward for extracting medically valuable information from large dimension data sets.
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Comparative expression analysis reveals lineage relationships between human and murine gliomas and a dominance of glial signatures during tumor propagation in vitro.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2013
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Brain tumors are thought to originate from stem/progenitor cell populations that acquire specific genetic mutations. Although current preclinical models have relevance to human pathogenesis, most do not recapitulate the histogenesis of the human disease. Recently, a large series of human gliomas and medulloblastomas were analyzed for genetic signatures of prognosis and therapeutic response. Using a mouse model system that generates three distinct types of intrinsic brain tumors, we correlated RNA and protein expression levels with human brain tumors. A combination of genetic mutations and cellular environment during tumor propagation defined the incidence and phenotype of intrinsic murine tumors. Importantly, in vitro passage of cancer stem cells uniformly promoted a glial expression profile in culture and in brain tumors. Gene expression profiling revealed that experimental gliomas corresponded to distinct subclasses of human glioblastoma, whereas experimental supratentorial primitive neuroectodermal tumors (sPNET) correspond to atypical teratoid/rhabdoid tumor (AT/RT), a rare childhood tumor.
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Factors influencing the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary opioids in substance abusers seeking treatment in the United States.
Pain
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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The purpose of the present study was to identify the factors that influence the selection of hydrocodone and oxycodone as primary drugs of abuse in opioid-dependent subjects (n=3520) entering one of 160 drug treatment programs around the country. Anonymous, self-administered surveys and direct qualitative interviews were used to examine the influence of demographic characteristics, drug use patterns, and decision-related factors on primary opioid selection. Our results showed that oxycodone and hydrocodone were the drugs of choice in 75% of all patients. Oxycodone was the choice of significantly more users (44.7%) than hydrocodone (29.4%) because the quality of the high was viewed to be much better by 54% of the sample, compared to just 20% in hydrocodone users, who cited acetaminophen as a deterrent to dose escalation to get high and hence, its low euphoric rating. Hydrocodone users were generally risk-averse women, elderly people, noninjectors, and those who prefer safer modes of acquisition than dealers (ie, doctors, friends, or family members). In contrast, oxycodone was a much more attractive euphorigenic agent to risk-tolerant young, male users who prefer to inject or snort their drugs to get high and are willing to use more aggressive forms of diversion. Prevention and treatment approaches, and pain physicians, should benefit from these results because it is clear that not all drug abusers share the same characteristics, and the decision to use one drug over another is a complex one, which is largely attributable to individual differences (eg, personality, gender, age, and other factors).
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Combined targeting of mTOR and AKT is an effective strategy for basal-like breast cancer in patient-derived xenograft models.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2013
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Basal-like breast cancer is an aggressive disease for which targeted therapies are lacking. Recent studies showed that basal-like breast cancer is frequently associated with an increased activity of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway, which is critical for cell growth, survival, and angiogenesis. To investigate the therapeutic potential of PI3K pathway inhibition in the treatment of basal-like breast cancer, we evaluated the antitumor effect of the mTOR inhibitor MK-8669 and AKT inhibitor MK-2206 in WU-BC4 and WU-BC5, two patient-derived xenograft models of basal-like breast cancer. Both models showed high levels of AKT phosphorylation and loss of PTEN expression. We observed a synergistic effect of MK-8669 and MK-2206 on tumor growth and cell proliferation in vivo. In addition, MK-8669 and MK-2206 inhibited angiogenesis as determined by CD31 immunohistochemistry. Biomarker studies indicated that treatment with MK-2206 inhibited AKT activation induced by MK-8669. To evaluate the effect of loss of PTEN on tumor cell sensitivity to PI3K pathway inhibition, we knocked down PTEN in WU-BC3, a basal-like breast cancer cell line with intact PTEN. Compared with control (GFP) knockdown, PTEN knockdown led to a more dramatic reduction in cell proliferation and tumor growth inhibition in response to MK-8669 and MK-2206 both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a synergistic effect of these two agents on tumor volume was observed in WU-BC3 with PTEN knockdown. Our results provide a preclinical rationale for future clinical investigation of this combination in basal-like breast cancer with loss of PTEN.
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Renal transplant imaging using magnetic resonance angiography with a nonnephrotoxic contrast agent.
Transplantation
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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In renal allograft recipients presenting with graft dysfunction, it is critical to determine the patency of the transplant vasculature to guide clinical management. Conventional modalities such as Doppler ultrasound, contrast-enhanced computed tomography, magnetic resonance angiography (MRA), and noncontrast MRA are each of limited use because of technical factors and toxicity of standard contrast agents. The purpose of this study was to retrospectively review our institutional experience with renal transplant MRA using ferumoxytol (a nonnephrotoxic medication) as a contrast agent and evaluate its use in the assessment of allograft vascular patency in patients with graft dysfunction, either delayed or slow graft function within hours to days after kidney transplantation or acute kidney injury weeks to months after kidney transplantation.
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Endocrine-therapy-resistant ESR1 variants revealed by genomic characterization of breast-cancer-derived xenografts.
Cell Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
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To characterize patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) for functional studies, we made whole-genome comparisons with originating breast cancers representative of the major intrinsic subtypes. Structural and copy number aberrations were found to be retained with high fidelity. However, at the single-nucleotide level, variable numbers of PDX-specific somatic events were documented, although they were only rarely functionally significant. Variant allele frequencies were often preserved in the PDXs, demonstrating that clonal representation can be transplantable. Estrogen-receptor-positive PDXs were associated with ESR1 ligand-binding-domain mutations, gene amplification, or an ESR1/YAP1 translocation. These events produced different endocrine-therapy-response phenotypes in human, cell line, and PDX endocrine-response studies. Hence, deeply sequenced PDX models are an important resource for the search for genome-forward treatment options and capture endocrine-drug-resistance etiologies that are not observed in standard cell lines. The originating tumor genome provides a benchmark for assessing genetic drift and clonal representation after transplantation.
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Effect of continuous statistically standardized measures of estrogen and progesterone receptors on disease-free survival in NCIC CTG MA.12 Trial and BC Cohort.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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We hypothesized improved inter-laboratory comparability of estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PgR) across different assay methodologies with adjunctive statistical standardization, akin to bone mineral density (BMD) z-scores. We examined statistical standardization in MA.12, a placebo-controlled pre-menopausal trial of adjuvant tamoxifen with locally assessed hormone receptor +/- tumours, and in a cohort of post-menopausal British Columbia (BC) tamoxifen-treated patients.
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Exploring patients views of a cognitive behavioral therapy-based website for the self-management of irritable bowel syndrome symptoms.
J. Med. Internet Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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Cognitive behavioral therapy (CBT) has been shown to have positive effects on the management of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) symptoms. A factorial pilot randomized placebo-controlled trial (called MIBS) tested the potential effectiveness of a self-management CBT-based website alongside two medications: methylcellulose and mebeverine, and a placebo. The results showed no significant differences in quality of life or symptom severity measures, but enablement and participants global assessment of relief was higher in the website groups.
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A phase I trial of the IGF-1R antibody Cixutumumab in combination with temsirolimus in patients with metastatic breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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The mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) plays a critical role in promoting tumor cell growth and is frequently activated in breast cancer. In preclinical studies, the antitumor activity of mTOR inhibitors is attenuated by feedback up-regulation of AKT mediated in part by Insulin-like growth factor type 1 receptor (IGF-1R). We designed a phase I trial to determine the maximum-tolerated dose (MTD) and pharmacodynamic effects of the IGF-1R antibody Cixutumumab in combination with temsirolimus in patients with metastatic breast cancer refractory to standard therapies. A 3 + 3 Phase I design was chosen. Temsirolimus and Cixutumumab were administered intravenously on days 1, 8, 15, and 22 of a 4-week cycle. Of the 26 patients enrolled, four did not complete cycle 1 because of disease progression (n = 3) or comorbid condition (n = 1) and were replaced. The MTD was determined from the remaining 22 patients, aged 34-72 (median 48) years. Most patients (86 %) had estrogen receptor positive cancer. The median number of prior chemotherapy regimens for metastatic disease was 3. The MTD was determined to be Cixutumumab 4 mg/kg and temsirolimus 15 mg weekly. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included mucositis, neutropenia, and thrombocytopenia. Other adverse events included grade 1/2 fatigue, anemia, and hyperglycemia. No objective responses were observed, but four patients experienced stable disease that lasted for at least 4 months. Compared with baseline, there was a significant increase in the serum levels of IGF-1 (p < 0.001) and IGFBP-3 (p = 0.019) on day 2. Compared with day 2, there were significant increases in the serum levels of IGF-1 (p < 0.001), IGF-2 (p = 0.001), and IGFBP-3 (p = 0.019) on day 8. A phase II study in women with metastatic breast cancer is ongoing.
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Genetic polymorphism at Val80 (rs700518) of the CYP19A1 gene is associated with aromatase inhibitor associated bone loss in women with ER + breast cancer.
Bone
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 (aromatase) gene have been reported to influence disease-free survival and the incidence of musculoskeletal complaints in patients taking aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer. Bone loss and fractures are well-recognized complications from AI therapy. The objective of this study is to determine the influence of polymorphisms in the CYP19A1 gene on bone loss among patients taking aromatase inhibitors for ER+ breast cancer.
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A survey of immunohistochemical biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer against a gene expression profile gold standard.
Mod. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2013
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Gene expression profiling of breast cancer delineates a particularly aggressive subtype referred to as basal-like, which comprises ?15% of all breast cancers, afflicts younger women and is refractory to endocrine and anti-HER2 therapies. Immunohistochemical surrogate definitions for basal-like breast cancer, such as the clinical ER/PR/HER2 triple-negative phenotype and models incorporating positive expression for CK5 (CK5/6) and/or EGFR are heavily cited. However, many additional biomarkers for basal-like breast cancer have been described in the literature. A parallel comparison of 46 proposed immunohistochemical biomarkers of basal-like breast cancer was performed against a gene expression profile gold standard on a tissue microarray containing 42 basal-like and 80 non-basal-like breast cancer cases. Ki67 and PPH3 were the most sensitive biomarkers (both 92%) positively expressed in the basal-like subtype, whereas CK14, IMP3 and NGFR were the most specific (100%). Among biomarkers surveyed, loss of INPP4B (a negative regulator of phosphatidylinositol signaling) was 61% sensitive and 99% specific with the highest odds ratio (OR) at 108, indicating the strongest association with basal-like breast cancer. Expression of nestin, a common marker of neural progenitor cells that is also associated with the triple-negative/basal-like phenotype and poor breast cancer prognosis, possessed the second highest OR at 29 among the 46 biomarkers surveyed, as well as 54% sensitivity and 96% specificity. As a positively expressed biomarker, nestin possesses technical advantages over INPP4B that make it a more ideal biomarker for identification of basal-like breast cancer. The comprehensive immunohistochemical biomarker survey presented in this study is a necessary step for determining an optimized surrogate immunopanel that best defines basal-like breast cancer in a practical and clinically accessible way.
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Molecular pathways: extracting medical knowledge from high-throughput genomic data.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2013
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High-throughput genomic data that measures RNA expression, DNA copy number, mutation status, and protein levels provide us with insights into the molecular pathway structure of cancer. Genomic lesions (amplifications, deletions, mutations) and epigenetic modifications disrupt biochemical cellular pathways. Although the number of possible lesions is vast, different genomic alterations may result in concordant expression and pathway activities, producing common tumor subtypes that share similar phenotypic outcomes. How can these data be translated into medical knowledge that provides prognostic and predictive information? First-generation mRNA expression signatures such as Genomic Healths Oncotype DX already provide prognostic information, but do not provide therapeutic guidance beyond the current standard of care, which is often inadequate in high-risk patients. Rather than building molecular signatures based on gene expression levels, evidence is growing that signatures based on higher-level quantities such as from genetic pathways may provide important prognostic and diagnostic cues. We provide examples of how activities for molecular entities can be predicted from pathway analysis and how the composite of all such activities, referred to here as the "activitome," helps connect genomic events to clinical factors to predict the drivers of poor outcome.
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Racial differences in outcomes of triple-negative breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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African American (AA) women have a higher incidence of triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC: negative for the expression of estrogen receptor, progesterone receptor, and HER2 gene amplification) than Caucasian (CA) women, explaining in part their higher breast cancer mortality. However, there have been inconsistent data in the literature regarding survival outcomes of TNBC in AA versus CA women. We performed a retrospective chart review on 493 patients with TNBC first seen at the Washington University Breast Oncology Clinic (WUBOC) between January 2006 and December 2010. Analysis was done on 490 women (30 % AA) for whom follow-up data was available. The median age at diagnosis was 53 (23-98) years and follow-up time was 27.2 months. There was no significant difference between AA and CA women in the age of diagnosis, median time from abnormal imaging to breast biopsy and from biopsy diagnosis to surgery, duration of follow-up, tumor stage, grade, and frequency of receiving neoadjuvant or adjuvant chemotherapy and pathologic complete response rate to neoadjuvant chemotherapy. There was no difference in disease free survival (DFS) and overall survival (OS) between AA and CA groups by either univariate or multivariate analysis that included age, race, and stage. The hazard ratio for AA women was 1.19 (CI 0.80-1.78, p = 0.39) and 0.91 (CI 0.62-1.35, p = 0.64) for OS and DFS, respectively. Among the 158 patients who developed recurrence or presented with stage IV disease (AA: n = 36, CA: n = 122), no racial differences in OS were observed. We conclude that race did not significantly affect the clinical presentation and outcome of TNBC in this single center study where patients received similar therapy and follow-up.
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Exemestane versus anastrozole in postmenopausal women with early breast cancer: NCIC CTG MA.27--a randomized controlled phase III trial.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2013
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In patients with hormone-dependent postmenopausal breast cancer, standard adjuvant therapy involves 5 years of the nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors anastrozole and letrozole. The steroidal inhibitor exemestane is partially non-cross-resistant with nonsteroidal aromatase inhibitors and is a mild androgen and could prove superior to anastrozole regarding efficacy and toxicity, specifically with less bone loss.
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Maternal infection and risk of intrapartum death: a population based observational study in South Asia.
BMC Pregnancy Childbirth
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2013
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Approximately 1.2 million stillbirths occur in the intrapartum period, and a further 717,000 annual neonatal deaths are caused by intrapartum events, most of which occur in resource poor settings. We aim to test the double-hit hypothesis that maternal infection in the perinatal period predisposes to neurodevelopmental sequelae from an intrapartum asphyxia insult, increasing the likelihood of an early neonatal death compared with asphyxia alone. This is an observational study of singleton newborn infants with signs of intrapartum asphyxia that uses data from three previously conducted cluster randomized controlled trials taking place in rural Bangladesh and India.
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Peripheral lung function in patients with stable and unstable asthma.
J. Allergy Clin. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 01-22-2013
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Exacerbations of asthma are thought to be caused by airflow obstruction resulting from airway inflammation, bronchospasm, and mucus plugging. Histologic evidence suggests the small airways, including acinar air spaces, are involved; however, this has not been corroborated in vivo by measurements of peripheral small-airway function.
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Neoadjuvant therapy in operable breast cancer: application to triple negative breast cancer.
J Oncol
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2013
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negative for the expression of estrogen receptor and progesterone receptor and HER2 amplification) has been limited to chemotherapy options. Neoadjuvant chemotherapy induces tumor shrinkage and improves the surgical outcomes of patients with locally advanced disease and also identifies those at high risk of disease relapse despite todays standard of care. By using pathologic complete response as a surrogate endpoint, novel treatment strategies can be efficiently assessed. Tissue analysis in the neoadjuvant setting is also an important research tool for the identification of chemotherapy resistance mechanisms and new therapeutic targets. In this paper, we review data on completed and ongoing neoadjuvant clinical trials in patients with TNBC and discuss treatment controversies that face clinicians and researchers when neoadjuvant chemotherapy is employed.
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The genomic landscape of breast cancer as a therapeutic roadmap.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2013
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The application of high-throughput techniques to profile DNA, RNA, and protein in breast cancer samples from hundreds of patients has profoundly increased our knowledge of the disease. The etiologic events that drive breast cancer are finally coming into focus and should be used to set priorities for clinical trials. In this Prospective, we summarize some of the headline conclusions from 6 recent breast cancer "omics profiling" articles in Nature, with an emphasis on the implications for systemic therapy.
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PAM50 proliferation score as a predictor of weekly paclitaxel benefit in breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2013
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To identify a group of patients who might benefit from the addition of weekly paclitaxel to conventional anthracycline-containing chemotherapy as adjuvant therapy of node-positive operable breast cancer. The predictive value of PAM50 subtypes and the 11-gene proliferation score contained within the PAM50 assay were evaluated in 820 patients from the GEICAM/9906 randomized phase III trial comparing adjuvant FEC to FEC followed by weekly paclitaxel (FEC-P). Multivariable Cox regression analyses of the secondary endpoint of overall survival (OS) were performed to determine the significance of the interaction between treatment and the (1) PAM50 subtypes, (2) PAM50 proliferation score, and (3) clinical and pathological variables. Similar OS analyses were performed in 222 patients treated with weekly paclitaxel versus paclitaxel every 3 weeks in the CALGB/9342 and 9840 metastatic clinical trials. In GEICAM/9906, with a median follow up of 8.7 years, OS of the FEC-P arm was significantly superior compared to the FEC arm (unadjusted HR = 0.693, p = 0.013). A benefit from paclitaxel was only observed in the group of patients with a low PAM50 proliferation score (unadjusted HR = 0.23, p < 0.001; and interaction test, p = 0.006). No significant interactions between treatment and the PAM50 subtypes or the various clinical-pathological variables, including Ki-67 and histologic grade, were identified. Finally, similar OS results were obtained in the CALGB data set, although the interaction test did not reach statistical significance (p = 0.109). The PAM50 proliferation score identifies a subset of patients with a low proliferation status that may derive a larger benefit from weekly paclitaxel.
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Prioritizing Potentially Druggable Mutations with dGene: An Annotation Tool for Cancer Genome Sequencing Data.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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A major goal of cancer genome sequencing is to identify mutations or other somatic alterations that can be targeted by selective and specific drugs. dGene is an annotation tool designed to rapidly identify genes belonging to one of ten druggable classes that are frequently targeted in cancer drug development. These classes were comprehensively populated by combining and manually curating data from multiple specialized and general databases. dGene was used by The Cancer Genome Atlas squamous cell lung cancer project, and here we further demonstrate its utility using recently released breast cancer genome sequencing data. dGene is designed to be usable by any cancer researcher without the need for support from a bioinformatics specialist. A full description of dGene and options for its implementation are provided here.
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Automated detection of the phase III slope during inert gas washout testing.
J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-15-2011
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We describe a method to determine the phase III slope for the purpose of calculating indexes of ventilation heterogeneity, S(acin) and S(cond), from the multiple breath nitrogen washout test (MBNW). Our automated method applies a recursive, segmented linear regression technique to each breath of the MBNW test and determines the best point of transition, or breakpoint, between each phase of the washout. A sample set of 50 MBNW tests (controls, asthma, and COPD) was used to establish the conditions in which the phase III slope obtained from the automated technique best matched that obtained by two manual interpreters. We then applied our technique to a test set of 30 subjects (with an even number of subjects in each of the above groups) and compared these results against the manual analysis of a third independent manual interpreter. Indexes of ventilation heterogeneity were determined using both methods and compared. The phase III slopes determined by the automatic technique best matched the manual interpreter when the phase III slope was calculated from the phase II-III transition point plus the addition of 50% of the phase II volume to the end of the expiration. Calculation of the indexes S(acin) and S(cond) showed no overall difference between analysis methods in either S(acin) (P = 0.14) or S(cond) (P = 0.59) when the set threshold was applied to our automated analysis. Our analysis method provides an alternate means for rapid quantification of the MBNW test, removing operator dependence without alteration in either S(acin) or S(cond).
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Practical implications of gene-expression-based assays for breast oncologists.
Nat Rev Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2011
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Gene-expression profiling has had a considerable impact on our understanding of breast cancer biology, and more recently on clinical care. Two statistical approaches underlie these advancements. Supervised analyses have led to the development of gene-expression signatures designed to predict survival and/or treatment response, which has resulted in the development of new clinical assays. Unsupervised analyses have identified numerous biological signatures including signatures of cell type of origin, signaling pathways, and of cellular proliferation. Included within these biological signatures are the molecular subtypes known as the intrinsic subtypes of breast cancer. This classification has expanded our appreciation of the heterogeneity of breast cancer and has provided a way to sub-classify the disease in a manner that might have clinical utility. In this Review, we discuss the clinical utility of gene-expression-based assays and their technical potential as clinical tools vis-a-vis the performance of breast cancer biomarkers that are the current standard of care.
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ER and PI3K independently modulate endocrine resistance in ER-positive breast cancer.
Cancer Discov
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2011
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Endocrine therapy-resistant estrogen receptor-positive (ER(+)) breast cancer is the most common cause of breast cancer death. Miller and colleagues demonstrate that ligand-independent ER activity promotes the growth of breast cancer cells through CDK4/E2F. As an independent event, the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway is also upregulated in endocrine therapy-resistant cells. Promising preclinical evidence by several groups for the combination of an inhibitor of ligand-independent ER, fulvestrant, with PI3K inhibition, has led to the activation of trials evaluating this concept.
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Joubert syndrome presenting with motor delay and oculomotor apraxia.
Case Rep Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2011
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We describe two sisters who presented in early childhood with motor delay and unusual eye movements. Both demonstrated hypotonia and poor visual attention. The older girl at 14 weeks of age showed fine pendular horizontal nystagmus more pronounced on lateral gaze, but despite investigation with cranial MRI no diagnosis was reached. The birth of her younger sister four years later with a similar presentation triggered review of the sisters visual behaviour. Each had developed an unusual but similar form of oculomotor apraxia (OMA) with head thrusts to maintain fixation rather than to change fixation. MRI of the older sibling demonstrated the characteristic "molar tooth sign" (MTS) of Joubert syndrome which was subsequently confirmed on MRI in the younger sibling. We discuss the genetically heterogeneous ciliopathies now grouped as Joubert syndrome and Related Disorders. Clinicians need to consider this group of disorders when faced with unusual eye movements in the developmentally delayed child.
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Assessment of Ki67 in breast cancer: recommendations from the International Ki67 in Breast Cancer working group.
J. Natl. Cancer Inst.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2011
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Uncontrolled proliferation is a hallmark of cancer. In breast cancer, immunohistochemical assessment of the proportion of cells staining for the nuclear antigen Ki67 has become the most widely used method for comparing proliferation between tumor samples. Potential uses include prognosis, prediction of relative responsiveness or resistance to chemotherapy or endocrine therapy, estimation of residual risk in patients on standard therapy and as a dynamic biomarker of treatment efficacy in samples taken before, during, and after neoadjuvant therapy, particularly neoadjuvant endocrine therapy. Increasingly, Ki67 is measured in these scenarios for clinical research, including as a primary efficacy endpoint for clinical trials, and sometimes for clinical management. At present, the enormous variation in analytical practice markedly limits the value of Ki67 in each of these contexts. On March 12, 2010, an international panel of investigators with substantial expertise in the assessment of Ki67 and in the development of biomarker guidelines was convened in London by the co-chairs of the Breast International Group and North American Breast Cancer Group Biomarker Working Party to consider evidence for potential applications. Comprehensive recommendations on preanalytical and analytical assessment, and interpretation and scoring of Ki67 were formulated based on current evidence. These recommendations are geared toward achieving a harmonized methodology, create greater between-laboratory and between-study comparability, and allow earlier valid applications of this marker in clinical practice.
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Cancer genome sequencing and its implications for personalized cancer vaccines.
Cancers (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2011
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New DNA sequencing platforms have revolutionized human genome sequencing. The dramatic advances in genome sequencing technologies predict that the $1,000 genome will become a reality within the next few years. Applied to cancer, the availability of cancer genome sequences permits real-time decision-making with the potential to affect diagnosis, prognosis, and treatment, and has opened the door towards personalized medicine. A promising strategy is the identification of mutated tumor antigens, and the design of personalized cancer vaccines. Supporting this notion are preliminary analyses of the epitope landscape in breast cancer suggesting that individual tumors express significant numbers of novel antigens to the immune system that can be specifically targeted through cancer vaccines.
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Multiple Determinants of Specific Modes of Prescription Opioid Diversion.
J Drug Issues
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2011
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Numerous national surveys and surveillance programs have shown a substantial rise in the abuse of prescription opioids over the past 15 years. Accessibility of these drugs to non-patients is the result of their unlawful channeling from legal sources to the illicit marketplace (diversion). Empirical data on diversion remain absent from the literature. This paper examines abusers sources of diverted drugs from two large studies: 1) a national sample of opioid treatment clients (N=1983), and 2) a South Florida study targeting diverse populations of opioid abusers (N=782). The most common sources of diverted medications were dealers, sharing/trading, legitimate medical practice (e.g., unknowing medical providers), illegitimate medical practice (e.g., pill mills), and theft, in that order. Sources varied by users age, gender, ethnicity, risk-aversiveness, primary opioid of abuse, injection drug use, physical health, drug dependence, and either access to health insurance or relative financial wealth. Implications for prescription drug control policy are discussed.
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Molecular basis of triple negative breast cancer and implications for therapy.
Int J Breast Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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Triple negative breast cancer is an aggressive form of breast cancer with limited treatment options and is without proven targeted therapy. Understanding the molecular basis of triple negative breast cancer is crucial for effective new drug development. Recent genomewide gene expression and DNA sequencing studies indicate that this cancer type is composed of a molecularly heterogeneous group of diseases that carry multiple somatic mutations and genomic structural changes. These findings have implications for therapeutic target identification and the design of future clinical trials for this aggressive group of breast cancer.
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p53 Expression in node-positive breast cancer patients: results from the Cancer and Leukemia Group B 9344 Trial (159905).
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2011
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p53 as a prognostic and predictive factor in early-stage breast cancer has had mixed results. We studied p53 protein expression, by immunohistochemistry, in a randomized clinical trial of stage II patients treated with adjuvant doxorubicin and cyclophosphamide with or without paclitaxel [Cancer and Leukemia Group B (CALGB) 9344, INT0148]. Patients and Methods: Epithelial p53 expression was evaluated using two immunohistochemical antibodies (DO7 and 1801) in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissue from patients with node-positive breast cancer who were randomized to four cycles of cyclophosphamide and one of three doses of doxorubicin (60, 75, or 90 mg/m(2); AC) and to receive four subsequent cycles of paclitaxel (T) or not. Prognostic and predictive value of p53 protein expression was assessed, independent of treatment assignment, for escalating doses of doxorubicin or addition of T with endpoints of relapse-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS).
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Randomized phase II neoadjuvant comparison between letrozole, anastrozole, and exemestane for postmenopausal women with estrogen receptor-rich stage 2 to 3 breast cancer: clinical and biomarker outcomes and predictive value of the baseline PAM50-based int
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2011
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Preoperative aromatase inhibitor (AI) treatment promotes breast-conserving surgery (BCS) for estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. To study this treatment option, responses to three AIs were compared in a randomized phase II neoadjuvant trial designed to select agents for phase III investigations.
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Intrapartum-related stillbirths and neonatal deaths in rural bangladesh: a prospective, community-based cohort study.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2011
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Using a low-cost community surveillance system, we aimed to estimate intrapartum stillbirth and intrapartum-related neonatal death rates for a low-income community setting.
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Importance of PI3-kinase pathway in response/resistance to aromatase inhibitors.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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Endocrine therapy has been the most effective treatment modality for hormone receptor positive breast cancer. However, its efficacy has been limited by either de novo or acquired resistance. Recent data indicates that activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling is associated with the poor outcome luminal B subtype of breast cancer and accompanied by the development of endocrine therapy resistance. Importantly, inhibition of PI3K pathway signaling in endocrine resistant breast cancer cell lines reduces cell survival and improves treatment response to endocrine agents. Interestingly, mutations in PIK3CA, the alpha catalytic subunit of the class IA PI3K, which renders cells dependent on PI3K pathway signaling, is the most common genetic abnormality identified in hormone receptor positive breast cancer. The synthetic lethality observed between estrogen deprivation and PI3K pathway inhibition in estrogen receptor positive (ER+) breast cancer cell lines provides further scientific rational to target both estrogen receptor and the PI3K pathway in order to improve the outcome of ER+ breast cancer.
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Vitamin D and aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS): a phase II, double-blind, placebo-controlled, randomized trial.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2011
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A double-blind placebo-controlled randomized phase II trial was performed to determine whether High Dose Vitamin D2 supplementation (HDD) in women receiving adjuvant anastrozole improves aromatase inhibitor-induced musculoskeletal symptoms (AIMSS) and bone loss. Patients with early breast cancer and AIMSS were stratified according to their baseline 25-hydroxy vitamin D (25OHD) level. Stratum A (20-29 ng/ml) received either HDD 50,000 IU capsules weekly for 8 weeks then monthly for 4 months or placebo. Stratum B (10-19 ng/ml) received either HDD for 16 weeks and then monthly for 2 months, or placebo. AIMSS was assessed by the Brief Pain Inventory-Short Form (BPI-SF), the Fibromyalgia Impact Questionnaire (FIQ), and the Health Assessment Questionnaire-Disability Index (HAQ-DI) at baseline, 2, 4, and 6 months. Bone Mineral Density (BMD) was measured at baseline and at 6 months. The primary endpoint of the study was the change-from-baseline musculoskeletal pain. The secondary endpoint was the percent change in BMD at 6 months. Sixty women were enrolled. Baseline characteristics were comparable between the groups. At 2 months, FIQ pain (P = 0.0045), BPI worst-pain (P = 0.04), BPI average-pain (P = 0.0067), BPI pain-severity (P = 0.04), and BPI interference (P = 0.034) scores were better in the HDD than placebo group. The positive effect of HDD on AIMSS was stronger across all time points in Stratum B than Stratum A (FIQ pain, P = 0.04; BPI average, P = 0.03; BPI severity, P = 0.03; BPI interference, P = 0.04). BMD at the femoral neck decreased in the placebo and did not change in the HDD group (P = 0.06). Weekly HDD improves AIMSS and may have a positive effect on bone health. Vitamin D supplementation strategies for breast cancer patients on AI should be further investigated.
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Preclinical modeling of combined phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase inhibition with endocrine therapy for estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2011
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Inhibition of phosphatidylinositol-3-kinase (PI3K) induces apoptosis when combined with estrogen deprivation in estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancer. The aims of the present study were to identify effective PI3K pathway inhibitor and endocrine therapy combinations, to evaluate the effect of PI3K pathway mutations and estrogen dependency on tumor response, and to determine the relevance of PIK3CA mutation in recurrent disease.
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High prevalence of low vitamin D and musculoskeletal complaints in women with breast cancer.
Breast J
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2010
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Reduced vitamin D levels may play a significant role in the development of fractures and musculoskeletal pains reported in patients on aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for breast cancer. In this study, we evaluated the vitamin D status in postmenopausal women with non-metastatic breast cancer who were about to start AI therapy. This study was conducted on community dwelling postmenopausal subjects, aged 35-80 years, with early non-metastatic breast cancer (up to stage IIIA), who were about to start therapy using third generation AIs. Symptoms of joint and muscle pains were obtained using a modified Leuven menopausal questionnaire. 25-hydroxyvitamin D [25(OH)D] was evaluated by radioimmunoassay while bone mineral density (BMD) of the lumbar spine and the proximal femur by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Of the 145 participants (mean age = 60.96 ± 0.88 years), 63 of 145 (43.5%) had baseline levels of 25(OH)D of < 20 ng/mL (deficient), 50 of 145 (34.5%) had levels between 20 and 29 ng/mL (insufficient), and only 32 of 145 (22%) had ? 30 ng/mL (sufficient); thus, 113 of 145 (78%) had low 25(OH)D levels (i.e., < 30 ng/mL). Arthralgias and myalgias were found in 61.3% and 43% of patients, respectively; and of those, 83.3% and 88.1% had 25(OH)D of < 30 ng/mL, respectively. Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency is high in breast cancer women and this may increase the risk of bone loss and fractures in those who are going to start AIs. Moreover, musculoskeletal pains are common in breast cancer women, even before the initiation of AIs and in association with low vitamin D in the majority. Future studies may be needed to establish the contribution of low vitamin D, if any, on the prevalence of musculoskeletal pains in women on AIs.
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The association between developmental coordination disorder and other developmental traits.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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To explore associations between developmental coordination disorder (DCD) and attention, language, social skills, and academic ability in a population-based cohort.
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Genome-wide associations and functional genomic studies of musculoskeletal adverse events in women receiving aromatase inhibitors.
J. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2010
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We performed a case-control genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) associated with musculoskeletal adverse events (MS-AEs) in women treated with aromatase inhibitors (AIs) for early breast cancer.
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Compartment syndrome of the thigh as a complication of anticoagulant therapy in a patient with a left ventricular assist device (Berlin Heart).
Gen Thorac Cardiovasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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A nontraumatic case of compartment syndrome of the thigh in a patient on anticoagulant therapy for a left ventricular assist device (LVAD) is reported. A 51-year-old man was on low-molecular-weight heparin (LMWH) anticoagulation and antiplatelet drugs for his LVAD, when he had a spontaneous-onset compartment syndrome of the posterior compartment of the left thigh, which was treated with urgent fasciotomy. Although compartment syndromes in the thigh are rare and mostly traumatic in origin, all clinicians must maintain a high degree of suspicion; moreover, although most often bleeding associated with LMWH is minor, occasionally it results in a major bleed resulting in limb-threatening conditions such as a compartment syndrome.
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A comparison of PAM50 intrinsic subtyping with immunohistochemistry and clinical prognostic factors in tamoxifen-treated estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2010
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To compare clinical, immunohistochemical (IHC), and gene expression models of prognosis applicable to formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded blocks in a large series of estrogen receptor (ER)-positive breast cancers from patients uniformly treated with adjuvant tamoxifen.
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Microarray data analysis in neoadjuvant biomarker studies in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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Microarray data have been widely utilized to discover biomarkers predictive of response to endocrine therapy in estrogen receptor-positive breast cancer. Typically, these data have focused on analyses conducted on the diagnostic specimen. However, dynamic temporal changes in gene expression associated with treatment may deliver significant improvements to the current generation of predictive models. We present and discuss some statistical issues relevant to the paper by Taylor and colleagues, who conducted studies to model the prognostic potential of gene expression changes that occur after endocrine treatment.
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Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy for breast cancer.
Surg. Oncol. Clin. N. Am.
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2010
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Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy improves surgical outcomes for postmenopausal women with bulky hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. Recent studies indicate that this approach may also be used in the management of smaller tumors with the hope of predicting outcomes from adjuvant endocrine manipulation. Neoadjuvant endocrine therapy provides a unique opportunity to identify molecular predictors of endocrine responsiveness and agents that can be used in combination with endocrine therapy to improve tumor response and overcome endocrine resistance.
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Determinants of fentanyl and other potent µ opioid agonist misuse in opioid-dependent individuals.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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Based on preclinical and clinical abuse liability assessments, fentanyl and other potent µ opioid agonists (e.g., hydromorphone and morphine) should be the most misused opioids if accessibility in the real world were not an issue. Since the latter is seldom true, we postulated that there would be a significant mismatch between actual and predicted rates of misuse.
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Impact of a training package for community birth attendants in Madagascar.
J. Trop. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2010
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This brief report assesses the impact of community birth attendant training and explores barriers to safe delivery in rural Madagascar. We assessed the knowledge of 25 community birth attendants using interviewer-administered questionnaires and explored attitudes to delivery in 4 focus groups of 10 women of reproductive age and 1 focus group of 10 birth attendants. We found a mismatch between hygiene knowledge and reported practice. Clinical experience appears to reinforce training to achieve longer lasting change in practitioner knowledge (e.g. of labour complications). Focus groups helped to identify practical barriers to clean (delivery kits) and safe delivery (cost) despite this knowledge. We proposed that a facilitated womens group programme may complement such training.
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Molecular profiling of triple negative breast cancer.
Breast Dis
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2010
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Advances in high-throughput technology and bioinformatics have made it possible to analyze tumors in an unbiased manner at the genomic level. These techniques aim to produce novel prognostic and predictive biomarkers, and most importantly, mechanistic insights that can be translated into ground-breaking therapeutic hypotheses. Genome-wide analysis is particularly relevant to the study of triple negative breast cancer (TNBC), as effective targeted therapy would make a considerable impact. At the transcriptome level, TNBC most frequently overlaps the intrinsic subtype referred to as "Basal-like. However other less common subtypes, including "Claudin-low", "HER2-enriched but without HER2 gene amplification", "Luminal B", "Luminal A" and "Molecular apocrine subtypes have also been described in TNBC. Additionally TNBC tumors that arise in the setting of a germ-line BRCA1 mutation may be considered a separate entity because of their potential susceptibility to poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibitor therapy. With the advent of whole genome sequencing, we envision further classification of TNBC that is based on genetic abnormalities linked to targeted therapeutics.
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Role of key informants and direct patient interviews in epidemiological studies of substance abuse.
Pharmacoepidemiol Drug Saf
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2010
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The present study was undertaken to assess the degree to which key informants perceptions of relative abuse liability of opioids in their communities correspond to actual drug use in their patients.
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A longitudinal study of factors associated with perceived risk of recurrence in women with ductal carcinoma in situ and early-stage invasive breast cancer.
Breast Cancer Res. Treat.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2010
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Breast cancer patients perceived risk of recurrence has been associated with psychological distress. Little is known about the change of patients perceived risk of recurrence over time and factors associated with their recurrence-risk perceptions. We prospectively recruited 549 newly diagnosed early-stage breast cancer patients; patients completed interviews at 6 weeks, 6 months, 1 year, and 2 years after definitive surgical treatment. A random-effects regression model with repeated ordinal measurements was used to estimate the relationship between perceived risk of recurrence and demographic, medical, and psychosocial factors. We analyzed data from 535 patients [34% ductal carcinoma in situ (DCIS); 20% non-white] who reported their perceived risk at one or more interviews. At the first interview, 16% reported having no lifetime risk of recurrence, and another 16% reported ? 50% risk of recurrence, including 15% of DCIS patients. Patients who were white (OR = 5.88, 95% CI 3.39-10.19) and had greater state anxiety (OR = 1.04, 95% CI 1.02-1.07) were more likely, while patients who received radiotherapy (OR = 0.72, 95% CI 0.54-0.96) and had more social support (OR = 0.59, 95% CI 0.46-0.75) were less likely to report higher risk of recurrence. Cancer stage was not significantly associated with perceived risk of recurrence. Perceived risk of recurrence did not change significantly over time. Educating early-stage breast cancer patients about their actual risk could result in more realistic recurrence-risk perceptions, and increasing social support could help alleviate anxiety associated with exaggerated risk perceptions.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.