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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Changes in metabolic chemical reporter structure yield a selective probe of O-GlcNAc modification.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2014
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Metabolic chemical reporters (MCRs) of glycosylation are analogues of monosaccharides that contain bioorthogonal functionalities and enable the direct visualization and identification of glycoproteins from living cells. Each MCR was initially thought to report on specific types of glycosylation. We and others have demonstrated that several MCRs are metabolically transformed and enter multiple glycosylation pathways. Therefore, the development of selective MCRs remains a key unmet goal. We demonstrate here that 6-azido-6-deoxy-N-acetyl-glucosamine (6AzGlcNAc) is a specific MCR for O-GlcNAcylated proteins. Biochemical analysis and comparative proteomics with 6AzGlcNAc, N-azidoacetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAz), and N-azidoacetyl-galactosamine (GalNAz) revealed that 6AzGlcNAc exclusively labels intracellular proteins, while GlcNAz and GalNAz are incorporated into a combination of intracellular and extracellular/lumenal glycoproteins. Notably, 6AzGlcNAc cannot be biosynthetically transformed into the corresponding UDP sugar-donor by the canonical salvage-pathway that requires phosphorylation at the 6-hydroxyl. In vitro experiments showed that 6AzGlcNAc can bypass this roadblock through direct phosphorylation of its 1-hydroxyl by the enzyme phosphoacetylglucosamine mutase (AGM1). Taken together, 6AzGlcNAc enables the specific analysis of O-GlcNAcylated proteins, and these results suggest that specific MCRs for other types of glycosylation can be developed. Additionally, our data demonstrate that cells are equipped with a somewhat unappreciated metabolic flexibility with important implications for the biosynthesis of natural and unnatural carbohydrates.
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Chemoproteomics reveals Toll-like receptor fatty acylation.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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BackgroundPalmitoylation is a 16-carbon lipid post-translational modification that increases protein hydrophobicity. This form of protein fatty acylation is emerging as a critical regulatory modification for multiple aspects of cellular interactions and signaling. Despite recent advances in the development of chemical tools for the rapid identification and visualization of palmitoylated proteins, the palmitoyl proteome has not been fully defined. Here we sought to identify and compare the palmitoylated proteins in murine fibroblasts and dendritic cells.Results563 putative palmitoylation substrates were identified, more than 200 of which have not been previously suggested to be palmitoylated in past proteomic studies. Here we validate the palmitoylation of several new proteins including TLRs 2, 5, and 10, CD80, CD86, and NEDD4. Palmitoylation of TLR2, which was uniquely identified in dendritic cells, was mapped to a transmembrane domain-proximal cysteine. Inhibition of TLR2 S-palmitoylation pharmacologically or by cysteine mutagenesis led to decreased cell surface expression and a decreased inflammatory response to microbial ligands.ConclusionsThis work identifies many fatty acylated proteins involved in fundamental cellular processes as well as cell type-specific functions, highlighting the value of examining the palmitoyl proteomes of multiple cell types. S-palmitoylation of TLR2 is a previously unknown immunoregulatory mechanism that represents an entirely novel avenue for modulation of TLR2 inflammatory activity.
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Chemical reporter for visualizing metabolic cross-talk between carbohydrate metabolism and protein modification.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2014
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Metabolic chemical reporters have been largely used to study posttranslational modifications. Generally, it was assumed that these reporters entered one biosynthetic pathway, resulting in labeling of one type of modification. However, because they are metabolized by cells before their addition onto proteins, metabolic chemical reporters potentially provide a unique opportunity to read-out on both modifications of interest and cellular metabolism. We report here the development of a metabolic chemical reporter 1-deoxy-N-pentynyl glucosamine (1-deoxy-GlcNAlk). This small-molecule cannot be incorporated into glycans; however, treatment of mammalian cells results in labeling of a variety proteins and enables their visualization and identification. Competition of this labeling with sodium acetate and an acetyltransferase inhibitor suggests that 1-deoxy-GlcNAlk can enter the protein acetylation pathway. These results demonstrate that metabolic chemical reporters have the potential to isolate and potentially discover cross-talk between metabolic pathways in living cells.
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H1-antihistamines exacerbate high-fat diet-induced hepatic steatosis in wild-type but not in apolipoprotein E knockout mice.
Am. J. Physiol. Gastrointest. Liver Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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We examined the effects of two over-the-counter H1-antihistamines on the progression of fatty liver disease in male C57Bl/6 wild-type and apolipoprotein E (ApoE)-/- mice. Mice were fed a high-fat diet (HFD) for 3 mo, together with administration of either cetirizine (4 mg/kg body wt) or fexofenadine (40 mg/kg body wt) in drinking water. Antihistamine treatments increased body weight gain, gonadal fat deposition, liver weight, and hepatic steatosis in wild-type mice but not in ApoE-/- mice. Lobular inflammation, acute inflammation, and necrosis were not affected by H1-antihistamines in either genotype. Serum biomarkers of liver injury tended to increase in antihistamine-treated wild-type mice. Serum level of glucose was increased by fexofenadine, whereas lipase was increased by cetirizine. H1-antihistamines reduced the mRNA expression of ApoE and carbohydrate response element-binding protein in wild-type mice, without altering the mRNA expression of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1c, fatty acid synthase, or ApoB100, in either genotype. Fexofenadine increased both triglycerides and cholesterol ester, whereas cetirizine increased only cholesterol ester in liver, with a concomitant decrease in serum triglycerides by both antihistamines in wild-type mice. Antihistamines increased hepatic levels of conjugated bile acids in wild-type mice, with the effect being significant in fexofenadine-treated animals. The increase was associated with changes in the expression of organic anion transport polypeptide 1b2 and bile salt export pump. These results suggest that H1-antihistamines increase the progression of fatty liver disease in wild-type mice, and there seems to be an association between the severity of disease, presence of ApoE, and increase in hepatic bile acid levels.
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Using chemistry to investigate the molecular consequences of protein ubiquitylation.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Chemistry has long played an indispensable role in biological discovery through the synthesis of homogeneous, structurally defined material. With continuing advances in the area of synthetic protein chemistry, chemists are able to prepare increasingly large and complex proteins that have enabled key biochemical experiments. Here, we describe some of the chemical methods that have been applied to the synthesis of ubiquitylated proteins, as ubiquitylation is a crucial post-translational modification that mediates a variety of important biological effects on substrate proteins.
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Intestine-specific deletion of SIRT1 in mice impairs DCoH2-HNF-1?-FXR signaling and alters systemic bile acid homeostasis.
Gastroenterology
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2014
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Sirtuin 1 (SIRT1), the most conserved mammalian oxidized nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide-dependent protein deacetylase, is an important metabolic sensor in many tissues. However, little is known about its role in the small intestine, which absorbs and senses nutrients. We investigated the functions of intestinal SIRT1 in systemic bile acid and cholesterol metabolism in mice.
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A dual small-molecule rheostat for precise control of protein concentration in Mammalian cells.
Chembiochem
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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One of the most successful strategies for controlling protein concentrations in living cells relies on protein destabilization domains (DD). Under normal conditions, a DD will be rapidly degraded by the proteasome. However, the same DD can be stabilized or "shielded" in a stoichiometric complex with a small molecule, enabling dose-dependent control of its concentration. This process has been exploited by several labs to post-translationally control the expression levels of proteins in vitro as well as in vivo, although the previous technologies resulted in permanent fusion of the protein of interest to the DD, which can affect biological activity and complicate results. We previously reported a complementary strategy, termed traceless shielding (TShld), in which the protein of interest is released in its native form. Here, we describe an optimized protein concentration control system, TTShld, which retains the traceless features of TShld but utilizes two tiers of small molecule control to set protein concentrations in living cells. These experiments provide the first protein concentration control system that results in both a wide range of protein concentrations and proteins free from engineered fusion constructs. The TTShld system has a greatly improved dynamic range compared to our previously reported system, and the traceless feature is attractive for elucidation of the consequences of protein concentration in cell biology.
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Identification of O-GlcNAc modification targets in mouse retinal pericytes: implication of p53 in pathogenesis of diabetic retinopathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Hyperglycemia is the primary cause of the majority of diabetes complications, including diabetic retinopathy (DR). Hyperglycemic conditions have a detrimental effect on many tissues and cell types, especially the retinal vascular cells including early loss of pericytes (PC). However, the mechanisms behind this selective sensitivity of retinal PC to hyperglycemia are undefined. The O-linked ?-N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc) modification is elevated under hyperglycemic condition, and thus, may present an important molecular modification impacting the hyperglycemia-driven complications of diabetes. We have recently demonstrated that the level of O-GlcNAc modification in response to high glucose is variable in various retinal vascular cells. Retinal PC responded with the highest increase in O-GlcNAc modification compared to retinal endothelial cells and astrocytes. Here we show that these differences translated into functional changes, with an increase in apoptosis of retinal PC, not just under high glucose but also under treatment with O-GlcNAc modification inducers, PUGNAc and Thiamet-G. To gain insight into the molecular mechanisms involved, we have used click-It chemistry and LC-MS analysis and identified 431 target proteins of O-GlcNAc modification in retinal PC using an alkynyl-modified GlcNAc analog (GlcNAlk). Among the O-GlcNAc target proteins identified here 115 of them were not previously reported to be target of O-GlcNAc modification. We have identified at least 34 of these proteins with important roles in various aspects of cell death processes. Our results indicated that increased O-GlcNAc modification of p53 was associated with an increase in its protein levels in retinal PC. Together our results suggest that post-translational O-GlcNAc modification of p53 and its increased levels may contribute to selective early loss of PC during diabetes. Thus, modulation of O-GlcNAc modification may provide a novel treatment strategy to prevent the initiation and progression of DR.
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An alkyne-aspirin chemical reporter for the detection of aspirin-dependent protein modification in living cells.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2013
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Aspirin (acetylsalicylic acid) is widely used for the acute treatment of inflammation and the management of cardiovascular disease. More recently, it has also been shown to reduce the risk of a variety of cancers. The anti-inflammatory properties of aspirin in pain-relief, cardio-protection, and chemoprevention are well-known to result from the covalent inhibition of cyclooxygenase enzymes through nonenzymatic acetylation of key serine residues. However, any additional molecular mechanisms that may contribute to the beneficial effects of aspirin remain poorly defined. Interestingly, studies over the past 50 years using radiolabeled aspirin demonstrated that other proteins are acetylated by aspirin and enrichment with antiacetyl-lysine antibodies identified 33 potential targets of aspirin-dependent acetylation. Herein we describe the development of an alkyne-modified aspirin analogue (AspAlk) as a chemical reporters of aspirin-dependent acetylation in living cells. When combined with the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition, this chemical reporter allowed for the robust in-gel fluorescent detection of acetylation and the subsequent enrichment and identification of 120 proteins, 112 of which have not been previously reported to be acetylated by aspirin in cellular or in vivo contexts. Finally, AspAlk was shown to modify the core histone proteins, implicating aspirin as a potential chemical-regulator of transcription.
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Mod5 protein binds to tRNA gene complexes and affects local transcriptional silencing.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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The tRNA gene-mediated (tgm) silencing of RNA polymerase II promoters is dependent on subnuclear clustering of the tRNA genes, but genetic analysis shows that the silencing requires additional mechanisms. We have identified proteins that bind tRNA gene transcription complexes and are required for tgm silencing but not required for gene clustering. One of the proteins, Mod5, is a tRNA modifying enzyme that adds an N6-isopentenyl adenosine modification at position 37 on a small number of tRNAs in the cytoplasm, although a subpopulation of Mod5 is also found in the nucleus. Recent publications have also shown that Mod5 has tumor suppressor characteristics in humans as well as confers drug resistance through prion-like misfolding in yeast. Here, we show that a subpopulation of Mod5 associates with tRNA gene complexes in the nucleolus. This association occurs and is required for tgm silencing regardless of whether the pre-tRNA transcripts are substrates for Mod5 modification. In addition, Mod5 is bound to nuclear pre-tRNA transcripts, although they are not substrates for the A37 modification. Lastly, we show that truncation of the tRNA transcript to remove the normal tRNA structure also alleviates silencing, suggesting that synthesis of intact pre-tRNAs is required for the silencing mechanism. These results are discussed in light of recent results showing that silencing near tRNA genes also requires chromatin modification.
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Site-specific differences in proteasome-dependent degradation of monoubiquitinated ?-synuclein.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-23-2013
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The formation of toxic aggregates composed largely of the protein ?-synuclein are a hallmark of Parkinsons disease. Evidence from both early-onset forms of the disease in humans and animal models has shown that the progression of the disease is correlated with the expression levels of ?-synuclein, suggesting that cellular mechanisms that degrade excess ?-synuclein are key. We and others have shown that monoubiquitinated ?-synuclein can be degraded by the 26S proteasome; however, the contributions of each of the nine known individual monoubiquitination sites were unknown. Herein, we determined the consequences of each of the modification sites using homogenous, semisynthetic proteins in combination with an in vitro proteasome turnover assay. The data suggest that the site-specific effects of monoubiquitination support different levels of ?-synuclein degradation.
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Tissue distribution, ontogeny, and chemical induction of aldo-keto reductases in mice.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2013
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Aldo-keto reductases (Akrs) are a conserved group of NADPH-dependent oxido-reductase enzymes. This study provides a comprehensive examination of the tissue distribution of the 16 substrate-metabolizing Akrs in mice, their expression during development, and whether they are altered by chemicals that activate distinct transcriptional factor pathways. Akr1c6, 1c14, 1c20, and 1c22 are primarily present in liver; Akr1a4, 1c18, 1c21, and 7a5 in kidney; Akr1d1 in liver and kidney; Akr1b7 in small intestine; Akr1b3 and Akr1e1 in brain; Akr1b8 in testes; Akr1c14 in ovaries; and Akrs1c12, 1c13, and 1c19 are expressed in numerous tissues. Liver expression of Akr1d1 and Akr1c is lowest during prenatal and postnatal development. However, by 20 days of age, liver Akr1d1 increases 120-fold, and Akr1c mRNAs increase as much as 5-fold (Akr1c19) to 1000-fold (Akr1c6). Treatment of mice with chemical activators of transcription factors constitutive androgen receptor (CAR), pregnane X receptor (PXR), and the nuclear factor-erythroid-2 (Nrf2) transcription factor alters liver mRNAs of Akrs. Specifically, CAR activation by 1,4-bis[2-(3,5-dichloropyridyloxy)]benzene (TCPOBOP) increases mRNAs of Akr1b7, Akr1c6, Akr1c19, and Akr1d1, whereas PXR activation by 5-pregnenolone-16?-carbonitrile (PCN) increases the mRNA of Akr1b7 and suppresses mRNAs of Akr1c13 and Akr1c20. The Nrf2 activator 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9-dien-28-imidazolide (CDDO-Im) induces mRNAs of Akr1c6 and Akr1c19. Moreover, Nrf2-null and Nrf2 overexpressing mice demonstrate that this induction is Nrf2-dependent.
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Incorporation of unnatural sugars for the identification of glycoproteins.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Glycosylation is an abundant post-translational modification that alters the fate and function of its substrate proteins. To aid in understanding the significance of protein glycosylation, identification of target proteins is key. As with all proteomics experiments, mass spectrometry has been established as the desired method for substrate identification. However, these approaches require selective enrichment and purification of modified proteins. Chemical reporters in combination with bioorthogonal reactions have emerged as robust tools for identifying post-translational modifications including glycosylation. We provide here a method for the use of bioorthogonal chemical reporters for isolation and identification of glycosylated proteins. More specifically, this protocol is a representative procedure from our own work using an alkyne-bearing O-GlcNAc chemical reporter (GlcNAlk) and a chemically cleavable azido-azo-biotin probe for the identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins.
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Thr302 is the site for the covalent modification of human cytochrome P450 2B6 leading to mechanism-based inactivation by tert-butylphenylacetylene.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-19-2011
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The mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2B6 by tert-butylphenylacetylene (BPA) in the reconstituted system was investigated. The inactivation of CYP2B6 by BPA is time-, concentration-, and NADPH-dependent and exhibits a K(I) of 2.8 ?M, a k(inact) of 0.7 min(-1), and a t(1/2) of 1 min. The partition ratio is ?5. Unlike CYP2B1 and CYP2B4, in addition to the formation of an apoprotein adduct and a glutathione conjugate, a small heme adduct was observed when CYP2B6 was incubated with BPA. The mass increase of the adducted apoprotein and GSH conjugate is 174 Da, equivalent to the mass of one molecule of BPA plus one oxygen atom. To identify the adducted residue, BPA-inactivated CYP2B6 was digested with trypsin, and the digest was then analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. A mass shift of 174 Da was used for the SEQUEST database search, and the identity of the modified residue was confirmed by MS/MS fragmentation of the modified peptide. Two residues, Lys274 and Thr302, were identified as having been modified. Further mutagenesis studies have demonstrated that the residue that is modified to result in inactivation is Thr302, not Lys274. Docking studies show that in the enzyme-substrate complex, Thr302 is in close contact with the triple bond of BPA with a distance of 3.8 ? between the terminal carbon of BPA and the oxygen in the hydroxyl group of Thr302. In conclusion, Thr302 of CYP2B6 is covalently modified by a reactive metabolite of BPA, and this modification is responsible for the mechanism-based inactivation.
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Impaired generation of 12-hydroxylated bile acids links hepatic insulin signaling with dyslipidemia.
Cell Metab.
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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The association of type 2 diabetes with elevated plasma triglyceride (TG) and very low-density lipoproteins (VLDL), and intrahepatic lipid accumulation represents a pathophysiological enigma and an unmet therapeutic challenge. Here, we uncover a link between insulin action through FoxO1, bile acid (BA) composition, and altered lipid homeostasis that brings new insight to this longstanding conundrum. FoxO1 ablation brings about two signature lipid abnormalities of diabetes and the metabolic syndrome, elevated liver and plasma TG. These changes are associated with deficiency of 12?-hydroxylated BAs and their synthetic enzyme, Cyp8b1, that hinders the TG-lowering effects of the BA receptor, Fxr. Accordingly, pharmacological activation of Fxr with GW4064 overcomes the BA imbalance, restoring hepatic and plasma TG levels of FoxO1-deficient mice to normal levels. We propose that generation of 12?-hydroxylated products of BA metabolism represents a signaling mechanism linking hepatic lipid abnormalities with type 2 diabetes, and a treatment target for this condition.
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Chemical reporters for fluorescent detection and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins reveal glycosylation of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2011
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The dynamic modification of nuclear and cytoplasmic proteins by the monosaccharide N-acetyl-glucosamine (GlcNAc) continues to emerge as an important regulator of many biological processes. Herein we describe the development of an alkynyl-modified GlcNAc analog (GlcNAlk) as a new chemical reporter of O-GlcNAc modification in living cells. This strategy is based on metabolic incorporation of reactive functionality into the GlcNAc biosynthetic pathway. When combined with the Cu(I)-catalyzed [3 + 2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition, this chemical reporter allowed for the robust in-gel fluorescent visualization of O-GlcNAc and affinity enrichment and identification of O-GlcNAc-modified proteins. Using in-gel fluorescence detection, we characterized the metabolic fates of GlcNAlk and the previously reported azido analog, GlcNAz. We confirmed previous results that GlcNAz can be metabolically interconverted to GalNAz, whereas GlcNAlk does not, thereby yielding a more specific metabolic reporter of O-GlcNAc modification. We also used GlcNAlk, in combination with a biotin affinity tag, to identify 374 proteins, 279 of which were not previously reported, and we subsequently confirmed the enrichment of three previously uncharacterized proteins. Finally we confirmed the O-GlcNAc modification of the ubiquitin ligase NEDD4-1, the first reported glycosylation of this protein.
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Robust in-gel fluorescence detection of mucin-type O-linked glycosylation.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2011
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Mucin-type O-linked glycosylation is a common post translational modification of cell-surface and secretory pathway proteins and is implicated in vital biological processes as well as human disease. We report here the use of the metabolic chemical reporter GalNAz along with Cu(I)-catalyzed [3+2] azide-alkyne cycloaddition conditions for the robust, in-gel fluorescent visualization of mucin-type O-linked glycoproteins.
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Mechanism-based inactivation of human CYP2E1 by diethyldithocarbamate.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2010
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Although the ability of disulfiram to inactivate CYP2E1 has been known for more than 20 years, the mechanism has not yet been elucidated. A metabolite of disulfiram, diethyldithocarbamate (DDC), is converted by CYP2E1 to a reactive intermediate that subsequently inactivates the protein, leading to mechanism-based inactivation. Mass spectral analysis of the inactivated human 2E1 protein demonstrates that the inactivation is due to the formation of an adduct of the reactive metabolite of DDC with the apoprotein. These data, along with mass spectral analysis of a reactive intermediate trapped with GSH, indicate the involvement of a reactive intermediate with a molecular mass of 116 Da. Our results suggest that this binding involves formation of a disulfide bond with one of the eight cysteines in CYP2E1. The inactivation of wild-type CYP2E1 as well as two of its polymorphic mutants, CYP2E1*2 and CYP2E1*4, was also investigated. For wild-type CYP2E1, the K(I) was 12.2 ?M and the k(inact) was 0.02 min(-1). The K(I) values for the two polymorphic mutants were 227.6 and 12.4 ?M for CYP2E1.2 and CYP2E1.4, and the k(inact) values were 0.0061 and 0.0187 min(-1), respectively. These data indicate that DDC is a much less efficient inactivator of CYP2E1.2 than it is of either the wild-type or the CYP2E1.4 variant.
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Effects of a commonly occurring genetic polymorphism of human CYP3A4 (I118V) on the metabolism of anandamide.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2010
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The endocannabinoid system plays an important role in numerous physiological processes including mood, appetite, and pain sensation. A critical compound in maintaining cannabinoid tone is the endocannabinoid anandamide (AEA). We have recently shown that AEA is metabolized by several different human cytochromes P450 (P450) to form a number of metabolites, one of which exhibits increased biological activity. CYP3A4, one of the major P450s involved in the metabolism of AEA, produces four major metabolites. One of these metabolites, 5,6-epoxyeicosatrienoic acid ethanolamide (5,6-EET-EA), exhibits a much higher affinity than AEA for the cannabinoid 2 receptor (CB-2), which leads to a marked decrease in intracellular cAMP levels in cells expressing CB-2. There are multiple human alleles of CYP3A4, and the CYP3A4.4 allele has been shown to exhibit a significant decrease in activity. Recombinant CYP3A4*4 was expressed in Escherichia coli and was demonstrated to produce 60% less 6-hydroxytestosterone than the wild-type (WT) 3A4 in a reconstituted system. The metabolism of AEA by the WT and the CYP3A4.4 variant was investigated. The mutant produced 60% less of the four EET-EA metabolites than the WT. The mutant also produced a new peak on liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry not seen with the WT, which corresponded to 19-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid-ethanolamide. In addition, the mutant produces four novel peaks at m/z 380, which correspond to the addition of two oxygen atoms, possibly to form a peroxide bond. These data indicate that individuals expressing the CYP3A4.4 allele may exhibit significant variations in the metabolism of AEA as well as any other compounds resembling AEA.
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Structure-activity analysis of semisynthetic nucleosomes: mechanistic insights into the stimulation of Dot1L by ubiquitylated histone H2B.
ACS Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2009
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Post-translational modification of histones plays an integral role in regulation of genomic expression through modulation of chromatin structure and function. Chemical preparations of histones bearing these modifications allows for comprehensive in vitro mechanistic investigation into their action to deconvolute observations from genome-wide studies in vivo. Previously, we reported the semisynthesis of ubiquitylated histone H2B (uH2B) using two orthogonal expressed protein ligation reactions. Semisynthetic uH2B, when incorporated into nucleosomes, directly stimulates methylation of histone H3 lysine 79 (K79) by the methyltransferase, disruptor of telomeric silencing-like (Dot1L). Although recruitment of Dot1L to the nucleosomal surface by uH2B could be excluded, comprehensive mechanistic analysis was precluded by systematic limitations in the ability to generate uH2B in large scale. Here we report a highly optimized synthesis of ubiquitylated H2B bearing a G76A point mutation u(G76A)H2B, yielding tens of milligrams of ubiquitylated protein. u(G76A)H2B is indistinguishable from the native uH2B by Dot1L, allowing for detailed studies of the resultant trans-histone crosstalk. Kinetic and structure-activity relationship analyses using u(G76A)H2B suggest a noncanonical role for ubiquitin in the enhancement of the chemical step of H3K79 methylation. Furthermore, titration of the level of uH2B within the nucleosome revealed a 1:1 stoichiometry of Dot1L activation.
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Anthrax lethal toxin induced lysosomal membrane permeabilization and cytosolic cathepsin release is Nlrp1b/Nalp1b-dependent.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2009
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NOD-like receptors (NLRs) are a group of cytoplasmic molecules that recognize microbial invasion or danger signals. Activation of NLRs can induce rapid caspase-1 dependent cell death termed pyroptosis, or a caspase-1 independent cell death termed pyronecrosis. Bacillus anthracis lethal toxin (LT), is recognized by a subset of alleles of the NLR protein Nlrp1b, resulting in pyroptotic cell death of macrophages and dendritic cells. Here we show that LT induces lysosomal membrane permeabilization (LMP). The presentation of LMP requires expression of an LT-responsive allele of Nlrp1b, and is blocked by proteasome inhibitors and heat shock, both of which prevent LT-mediated pyroptosis. Further the lysosomal protease cathepsin B is released into the cell cytosol and cathepsin inhibitors block LT-mediated cell death. These data reveal a role for lysosomal membrane permeabilization in the cellular response to bacterial pathogens and demonstrate a shared requirement for cytosolic relocalization of cathepsins in pyroptosis and pyronecrosis.
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Direct measurement of cathepsin B activity in the cytosol of apoptotic cells by an activity-based probe.
Chem. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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Cells control their own death through a program termed apoptosis, which is indispensable for development and homeostasis in all metazoans. Lysosomal cysteine proteases are not normally thought of as participating in apoptosis; however, recent reports have shown that the cathepsin proteases can be released from the lysosome during apoptosis, where they can participate in cell death. We report here the development of an activity-based probe that, under optimized conditions, reports on cathepsin B activity only in apoptotic cells by reading out the release of cathepsin B from the lysosomes. Biochemical characterization of apoptosis in cells from cathepsin B null mice shows delayed and suboptimal activation of caspases. Our data further supports a role for cathepsin B in the cytosol as a positive regulator of a cell death feed-forward loop and provides a chemical tool for future investigations.
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N-Propargyloxycarbamate monosaccharides as metabolic chemical reporters of carbohydrate salvage pathways and protein glycosylation.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
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Metabolic chemical reporters of glycosylation allow for the visualization and identification of a variety of glycoconjugates by taking advantage of the promiscuity of carbohydrate metabolism. Here we describe the synthesis and characterization of metabolic chemical reporters bearing an N-propargyloxycarbamate (Poc) group that creates discrimination between glycosylation pathways.
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O-GlcNAc modification prevents peptide-dependent acceleration of ?-synuclein aggregation.
Chembiochem
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Sweet relief: the Parkinsons disease- associated protein ?-synuclein is post-translationally modified by N-acetylglucosamine (O-GlcNAc), but the biochemical consequences are unknown. Here we show that an O-GlcNAc-modified peptide does not participate in ?-synuclein aggregation, thus suggesting that O-GlcNAc might directly inhibit aggregation in cells.
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Interactions between CYP2E1 and CYP2B4: effects on affinity for NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and substrate metabolism.
Drug Metab. Dispos.
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Studies in microsomal and reconstituted systems have shown that the presence of one cytochrome P450 isoform can significantly influence the catalytic activity of another isoform. In this study, we assessed whether CYP2E1 could influence the catalytic activity of CYP2B4 under steady-state turnover conditions. The results show that CYP2E1 inhibits CYP2B4-mediated metabolism of benzphetamine (BNZ) with a K(i) of 0.04 µM. However, CYP2B4 is not an inhibitor of CYP2E1-mediated p-nitrophenol hydroxylation. When these inhibition studies were performed with the artificial oxidant tert-butyl hydroperoxide, CYP2E1 did not significantly inhibit CYP2B4 activity. Determinations of the apparent K(M) and k(cat) of CYP2B4 for CPR in the presence of increasing concentrations of CYP2E1 revealed a mixed inhibition of CYP2B4 by CYP2E1. At low concentrations of CYP2E1, the apparent K(M) of CYP2B4 for CPR increased up to 23-fold with virtually no change in the k(cat) for the reaction, however, at higher concentrations of CYP2E1, the apparent K(M) of CYP2B4 for CPR decreased to levels similar to those observed in the absence of CYP2E1 and the k(cat) also decreased by 11-fold. Additionally, CYP2E1 increased the apparent K(M) of CYP2B4 for BNZ by 8-fold and the apparent K(M) did not decrease to its original value when saturating concentrations of CPR were used. While the individual apparent K(M) values of CYP2B4 and CYP2E1 for CPR are similar, the apparent K(M) of CYP2E1 for CPR in the presence of CYP2B4 decreased significantly, thus suggesting that CYP2B4 enhances the affinity of CYP2E1 for CPR and this may allow CYP2E1 to out-compete CYP2B4 for CPR.
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Small-molecule reprogramming of cancer metabolism.
Chem. Biol.
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Small molecules that inhibit common cancer-associated changes in metabolism have great potential as widely applicable therapies. In this issue of Chemistry & Biology, Kung et al. report the characterization of a small molecule activator of the enzyme pyruvate kinase M2, which reprograms cancer cell metabolism resulting in dependence on the amino acid serine.
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Semisynthetic, site-specific ubiquitin modification of ?-synuclein reveals differential effects on aggregation.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
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The process of neurodegeneration in Parkinsons Disease is intimately associated with the aggregation of the protein ?-synuclein into toxic oligomers and fibrils. Interestingly, many of these protein aggregates are found to be post-translationally modified by ubiquitin at several different lysine residues. However, the inability to generate homogeneously ubiquitin modified ?-synuclein at each site has prevented the understanding of the specific biochemical consequences. We have used protein semisynthesis to generate nine site-specifically ubiquitin modified ?-synuclein derivatives and have demonstrated that different ubiquitination sites have differential effects on ?-synuclein aggregation.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.