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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Spatiotemporal characterization of mTOR kinase activity following kainic acid induced status epilepticus and analysis of rat brain response to chronic rapamycin treatment.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a protein kinase that senses nutrient availability, trophic factors support, cellular energy level, cellular stress, and neurotransmitters and adjusts cellular metabolism accordingly. Adequate mTOR activity is needed for development as well as proper physiology of mature neurons. Consequently, changes in mTOR activity are often observed in neuropathology. Recently, several groups reported that seizures increase mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) kinase activity, and such increased activity in genetic models can contribute to spontaneous seizures. However, the current knowledge about the spatiotemporal pattern of mTOR activation induced by proconvulsive agents is rather rudimentary. Also consequences of insufficient mTOR activity on a status epilepticus are poorly understood. Here, we systematically investigated these two issues. We showed that mTOR signaling was activated by kainic acid (KA)-induced status epilepticus through several brain areas, including the hippocampus and cortex as well as revealed two waves of mTOR activation: an early wave (2 h) that occurs in neurons and a late wave that predominantly occurs in astrocytes. Unexpectedly, we found that pretreatment with rapamycin, a potent mTOR inhibitor, gradually (i) sensitized animals to KA treatment and (ii) induced gross anatomical changes in the brain.
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Exercise-induced motor improvement after complete spinal cord transection and its relation to expression of brain-derived neurotrophic factor and presynaptic markers.
BMC Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2009
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It has been postulated that exercise-induced activation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) may account for improvement of stepping ability in animals after complete spinal cord transection. As we have shown previously, treadmill locomotor exercise leads to up-regulation of BDNF protein and mRNA in the entire neuronal network of intact spinal cord. The questions arise: (i) how the treadmill locomotor training, supplemented with tail stimulation, affects the expression of molecular correlates of synaptic plasticity in spinal rats, and (ii) if a response is related to BDNF protein level and distribution. We investigated the effect of training in rats spinalized at low thoracic segments on the level and distribution of BDNF immunoreactivity (IR) in ventral quadrants of the lumbar segments, in conjunction with markers of presynaptic terminals, synaptophysin and synaptic zinc.
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Beyond control of protein translation: what we have learned about the non-canonical regulation and function of mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR).
Biochim. Biophys. Acta
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Mammalian target of rapamycin (mTOR) is a serine-threonine kinase involved in almost every aspect of mammalian cell function. This kinase was initially believed to control protein translation in response to amino acids and trophic factors, and this function has become a canonical role for mTOR. However, mTOR can form two separate protein complexes (mTORCs). Recent advances clearly demonstrate that both mTORCs can respond to various stimuli and change myriad cellular processes. Therefore, our current view of the cellular roles of TORCs has rapidly expanded and cannot be fully explained without appreciating recent findings about the new modes of mTOR regulation and identification of non-canonical effectors of mTOR that contribute to transcription, cytoskeleton dynamics, and membrane trafficking. This review discusses the molecular details of these newly discovered non-canonical functions that allow mTORCs to control the cellular environment at multiple levels. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Inhibitors of Protein Kinases (2012).
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Functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
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The memory of fear extinction is context dependent: fear that is suppressed in one context readily renews in another. Understanding of the underlying neuronal circuits is, therefore, of considerable clinical relevance for anxiety disorders. Prefrontal cortical and hippocampal inputs to the amygdala have recently been shown to regulate the retrieval of fear memories, but the cellular organization of these projections remains unclear. By using anterograde tracing in a transgenic rat in which neurons express a dendritically-targeted PSD-95:Venus fusion protein under the control of a c-fos promoter, we found that, during the retrieval of extinction memory, the dominant input to active neurons in the lateral amygdala was from the infralimbic cortex, whereas the retrieval of fear memory was associated with greater hippocampal and prelimbic inputs. This pattern of retrieval-related afferent input was absent in the central nucleus of the amygdala. Our data show functional anatomy of neural circuits regulating fear and extinction, providing a framework for therapeutic manipulations of these circuits.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.