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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The "Skinny" on brown fat, obesity, and bone.
Am. J. Phys. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
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The discovery that metabolically active brown fat is present in humans throughout ontogeny raises new questions about the interactions between thermoregulatory, metabolic, and skeletal homeostasis. Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is distinct from white adipose tissue (WAT) for its ability to burn, rather than store, energy. BAT uniquely expresses uncoupling protein-1 (abbreviated as UCP1), which diverts the energy produced by cellular respiration to generate heat. While BAT is found in small mammals, hibernators, and newborns, this depot was thought to regress in humans during early postnatal life. Recent studies revealed that human BAT remains metabolically active throughout childhood and even in adulthood, particularly in response to cold exposure. In addition to the constitutive BAT depots present at birth, BAT cells can be induced within WAT depots under specific metabolic and climatic conditions. These cells, called inducible brown fat, "brite," or beige fat, are currently the focus of intense investigation as a possible treatment for obesity. Inducible brown fat is associated with higher bone mineral density, suggesting that brown fat interacts with bone growth in previously unrecognized ways. Finally, BAT may have contributed to climatic adaptation in hominins. Here, I review current findings on the role of BAT in thermoregulation, bone growth, and metabolism, describe the potential role of BAT in moderating the obesity epidemic, and outline possible functions of BAT across hominin evolutionary history. Yrbk Phys Anthropol, 2014. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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The bone-fat interface: basic and clinical implications of marrow adiposity.
Lancet Diabetes Endocrinol
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2014
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Obesity and osteoporosis are two of the most common chronic disorders of the 21st century. Both are accompanied by significant morbidity. The only place in the mammalian organism where bone and fat lie adjacent to each other is in the bone marrow. Marrow adipose tissue is a dynamic depot that probably exists as both constitutive and regulated compartments. Adipocytes secrete cytokines and adipokines that either stimulate or inhibit adjacent osteoblasts. The relationship of marrow adipose tissue to other fat depots is complex and might play very distinct parts in modulation of metabolic homoeostasis, haemopoiesis, and osteogenesis. Understanding of the relationship between bone and fat cells that arise from the same progenitor within the bone marrow niche provides insight into the pathophysiology of age-related osteoporosis, diabetes, and obesity.
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The effect of the Achilles tendon on trabecular structure in the primate calcaneus.
Anat Rec (Hoboken)
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2013
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Humans possess the longest Achilles tendon relative to total muscle length of any primate, an anatomy that is beneficial for bipedal locomotion. Reconstructing the evolutionary history of the Achilles tendon has been challenging, in part because soft tissue does not fossilize. The only skeletal evidence for Achilles tendon anatomy in extinct taxa is the insertion site on the calcaneal tuber, which is rarely preserved in the fossil record and, when present, is equivocal for reconstructing tendon morphology. In this study, we used high-resolution three-dimensional microcomputed tomography (micro-CT) to quantify the microstructure of the trabecular bone underlying the Achilles tendon insertion site in baboons, gibbons, chimpanzees, and humans to test the hypothesis that trabecular orientation differs among primates with different tendon morphologies. Surprisingly, despite their very different Achilles tendon lengths, we were unable to find differences between the trabecular properties of chimpanzee and human calcanei in this specific region. There were regional differences within the calcaneus in the degree of anisotropy (DA) in both chimpanzees and humans, though the patterns were similar between the two species (higher DA inferiorly in the calcaneal tuber). Our results suggest that while trabecular bone within the calcaneus varies, it does not respond to the variation of Achilles tendon morphology across taxa in the way we hypothesized. These results imply that internal bone architecture may not be informative for reconstructing Achilles tendon anatomy in early hominins.
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Estrogen, exercise, and the skeleton.
Evol. Anthropol.
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2011
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Patterns of variation in bone size and shape provide crucial data for reconstructing hominin paleobiology, including ecogeographic adaptation, life history, and functional morphology. Measures of bone strength, including robusticity (diaphyseal thickness relative to length) and cross-sectional geometric properties such as moments of area, are particularly useful for inferring behavior because bone tissue adapts to its mechanical environment. Particularly during skeletal growth, exercise-induced strains can stimulate periosteal modeling so that, to some extent, bone thickness reflects individual behavior. Thus, patterns of skeletal robusticity have been used to identify gender-based activity differences, temporal shifts in mobility, and changing subsistence strategies. Although there is no doubt that mechanical loading leaves its mark on the skeleton, less is known about whether individuals differ in their skeletal responses to exercise. For example, the potential effects of hormones or growth factors on bone-strain interactions are largely unexplored. If the hormonal background can increase or decrease the effects of exercise on skeletal robusticity, then the same mechanical loads might cause different degrees of bone response in different individuals. Here I focus on the role of the hormone estrogen in modulating exercise-induced changes in human bone thickness.
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Why does starvation make bones fat?
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2011
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Body fat, or adipose tissue, is a crucial energetic buffer against starvation in humans and other mammals, and reserves of white adipose tissue (WAT) rise and fall in parallel with food intake. Much less is known about the function of bone marrow adipose tissue (BMAT), which are fat cells found in bone marrow. BMAT mass actually increases during starvation, even as other fat depots are being mobilized for energy. This review considers several possible reasons for this poorly understood phenomenon. Is BMAT a passive filler that occupies spaces left by dying bone cells, a pathological consequence of suppressed bone formation, or potentially an adaptation for surviving starvation? These possibilities are evaluated in terms of the effects of starvation on the body, particularly the skeleton, and the mechanisms involved in storing and metabolizing BMAT during negative energy balance.
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Caloric restriction leads to high marrow adiposity and low bone mass in growing mice.
J. Bone Miner. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2010
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The effects of caloric restriction (CR) on the skeleton are well studied in adult rodents and include lower cortical bone mass but higher trabecular bone volume. Much less is known about how CR affects bone mass in young, rapidly growing animals. This is an important problem because low caloric intake during skeletal acquisition in humans, as in anorexia nervosa, is associated with low bone mass, increased fracture risk, and osteoporosis in adulthood. To explore this question, we tested the effect of caloric restriction on bone mass and microarchitecture during rapid skeletal growth in young mice. At 3 weeks of age, we weaned male C57Bl/6J mice onto 30% caloric restriction (10% kcal/fat) or normal diet (10% kcal/fat). Outcomes at 6 (n?=?4/group) and 12 weeks of age (n?=?8/group) included body mass, femur length, serum leptin and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) values, whole-body bone mineral density (WBBMD, g/cm(2)), cortical and trabecular bone architecture at the midshaft and distal femur, bone formation and cellularity, and marrow fat measurement. Compared with the normal diet, CR mice had 52% and 88% lower serum leptin and 33% and 39% lower serum IGF-1 at 6 and 12 weeks of age (p?
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Fat targets for skeletal health.
Nat Rev Rheumatol
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2009
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Emerging evidence points to a critical role for the skeleton in several homeostatic processes, including energy balance. The connection between fuel utilization and skeletal remodeling begins in the bone marrow with lineage allocation of mesenchymal stem cells to adipocytes or osteoblasts. Mature bone cells secrete factors that influence insulin sensitivity, and fat cells synthesize cytokines that regulate osteoblast differentiation; thus, these two pathways are closely linked. The emerging importance of the bone-fat interaction suggests that novel molecules could be used as targets to enhance bone formation and possibly prevent fractures. In this article, we discuss three pathways that could be pharmacologically targeted for the ultimate goal of enhancing bone mass and reducing osteoporotic fracture risk: the leptin, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma and osteocalcin pathways. Not surprisingly, because of the complex interactions across homeostatic networks, other pathways will probably be activated by this targeting, which could prove to be beneficial or detrimental for the organism. Hence, a more complete picture of energy utilization and skeletal remodeling will be required to bring any potential agents into the future clinical armamentarium.
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Parental diabetes: the Akita mouse as a model of the effects of maternal and paternal hyperglycemia in wildtype offspring.
PLoS ONE
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Maternal diabetes and high-fat feeding during pregnancy have been linked to later life outcomes in offspring. To investigate the effects of both maternal and paternal hyperglycemia on offspring phenotypes, we utilized an autosomal dominant mouse model of diabetes (hypoinsulinemic hyperglycemia in Akita mice). We determined metabolic and skeletal phenotypes in wildtype offspring of Akita mothers and fathers.
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A comparative study of the trabecular bony architecture of the talus in humans, non-human primates, and Australopithecus.
J. Hum. Evol.
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This study tested the hypothesis that talar trabecular microarchitecture reflects the loading patterns in the primate ankle joint, to determine whether talar trabecular morphology might be useful for inferring locomotor behavior in fossil hominins. Trabecular microarchitecture was quantified in the anteromedial, anterolateral, posteromedial, and posterolateral quadrants of the talar body in humans and non-human primates using micro-computed tomography. Trabecular bone parameters, including bone volume fraction, trabecular number and thickness, and degree of anisotropy differed between primates, but not in a manner entirely consistent with hypotheses derived from locomotor kinematics. Humans have highly organized trabecular struts across the entirety of the talus, consistent with the compressive loads incurred during bipedal walking. Chimpanzees possess a high bone volume fraction, consisting of plate-like trabecular struts. Orangutan tali are filled with a high number of thin, connected trabeculae, particularly in the anterior portion of the talus. Gorillas and baboons have strikingly similar internal architecture of the talus. Intraspecific analyses revealed no regional differences in trabecular architecture unique to bipedal humans. Of the 22 statistically significant regional differences in the human talus, all can also be found in other primates. Trabecular thickness, number, spacing, and connectivity density had the same regional relationship in the talus of humans, chimpanzees, gorillas, and baboons, suggesting a deeply conserved architecture in the primate talus. Australopithecus tali are human-like in most respects, differing most notably in having more oriented struts in the posteromedial quadrant of the body compared with the posterolateral quadrant. Though this result could mean that australopiths loaded their ankles in a unique manner during bipedal gait, the regional variation in degree of anisotropy was similar in humans, chimpanzees, and gorillas. These results collectively suggest that the microarchitecture of the talus does not simply reflect the loading environment, limiting its utility in reconstructing locomotion in fossil primates.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.