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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Does Imaging ?v?3 Integrin Expression with PET Detect Changes in Angiogenesis During Bevacizumab Therapy?
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2014
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In recent years, there has been a growing interest in molecular imaging markers of tumor-induced angiogenesis. Several radiolabeled RGD (arginine, glycine, aspartate) peptides have been developed for PET imaging of ?v?3 integrins in the tumor vasculature, but there are only limited data on how angiogenesis inhibitors affect the tumor uptake of these peptides.
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Comparison of Somatostatin Receptor Agonist and Antagonist for Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy: A Pilot Study.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-24-2014
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Preclinical and clinical studies have indicated that somatostatin receptor (sst)-expressing tumors demonstrate higher uptake of radiolabeled sst antagonists than of sst agonists. In 4 consecutive patients with advanced neuroendocrine tumors, we evaluated whether treatment with (177)Lu-labeled sst antagonists is feasible.
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Radiochemical and radiobiological assessment of a pyridyl-S-cysteine functionalized bombesin derivative labeled with the (99m)Tc(CO)3(+) core.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Bombesin is a neuropeptide widely studied due to its ability to target various types of cancers. Technetium-99m on the other hand is ideal for diagnostic tumor targeting. The aim of the present study is the investigation of the coupling of the ligand (S)-(2-(2-pyridyl)ethyl)-d,l-cysteine with the BN-peptide Gln-Arg-Leu-Gly-Asn-Gln-Trp-Ala-Val-Gly-His-Leu-Met(CONH2) through the spacer aminohexanoic acidand the labeling of the resulting derivative MBN with the synthon [M(CO)3(H2O)3](+) (M=(99m)Tc, Re). The peptide was synthesized according to the SPPS method, purified and characterized by ESI-MS. The new (99m)Tc-labeled biomolecule was stable in vitro, showed high affinity for the human GRP receptor expressed in PC3 cells and the rate of internalization was found to be time-dependent tissue distribution of the radiopeptide was evaluated in normal mice and in prostate cancer experimental models and significant radioactivity uptake was observed in the pancreas of normal mice as well as in PC3 tumors. Dynamic studies of the radiopeptide showed satisfactory tumor images.
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Inflammatory neovascularization during graft-versus-host disease is regulated by ?v integrin and miR-100.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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Acute graft-versus-host disease (GvHD) is a complex process involving endothelial damage and neovascularization. Better understanding of the pathophysiology of neovascularization during GvHD could help to target this process while leaving T-cell function intact. Under ischemic conditions, neovascularization is regulated by different micro RNAs (miRs), which potentially play a role in inflamed hypoxic GvHD target organs. We observed strong neovascularization in the murine inflamed intestinal tract (IT) during GvHD. Positron emission tomography imaging demonstrated abundant ?v?3 integrin expression within intestinal neovascularization areas. To interfere with neovascularization, we targeted ?v integrin-expressing endothelial cells, which blocked their accumulation in the IT and reduced GvHD severity independent of immune reconstitution and graft-versus-tumor effects. Additionally, enhanced neovascularization and ?v integrin expression correlated with GvHD severity in humans. Expression analysis of miRs in the inflamed IT of mice developing GvHD identified miR-100 as significantly downregulated. Inactivation of miR-100 enhanced GvHD indicating a protective role for miR-100 via blocking inflammatory neovascularization. Our data from the mouse model and patients indicate that inflammatory neovascularization is a central event during intestinal GvHD that can be inhibited by targeting ?v integrin. We identify negative regulation of GvHD-related neovascularization by miR-100, which indicates common pathomechanistic features of GvHD and ischemia.
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Radiopeptide imaging and therapy in Europe.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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Receptor targeting with radiolabeled peptides has become an important topic, particularly in nuclear oncology. Strong research efforts are under way in radiopharmaceutical science laboratories and in nuclear medicine departments in Europe. The target receptors belong to the large family of G-protein-coupled receptors. The prototypes of these radiopeptides are based on analogs of somatostatin targeting somatostatin receptor-positive tumors, particularly well-differentiated neuroendocrine tumors. These radiopeptides have an important impact not only on diagnosis but also on targeted radionuclide therapy of these tumors. Besides the registered radiopeptide (111)In-pentetreotide, efficient SPECT tracers labeled with (99m)Tc and PET agents based on generator-produced (68)Ga have been developed and used in the clinic. In parallel to the development of diagnostic agents, radiopeptides labeled with the ?(-) emitters (90)Y and (177)Lu are also widely used. Because the same chelators and therefore the same conjugates can be used in diagnosis and therapy, they constitute ideal theranostic pairs. This progress is driven not only by scientists and clinicians but also by patient interest groups. New radiopeptides targeting other G-protein-coupled receptors are entering the clinic, among them glucagon-like peptide 1 receptor-targeting molecules. This receptor is overexpressed on literally all benign insulinomas. (111)In-labeled derivatives of the insulinotropic 39-mer peptide exendin-4 were beneficial in the pre- and perioperative localization of these benign lesions. In contrast, lack of localization may indicate malignant insulinoma. The bombesin- and gastrin-releasing peptide receptor family is potentially important because these receptors are overexpressed on major human tumors such as prostate tumors, breast tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and vessels of ovarian cancer. (99m)Tc-labeled peptides for SPECT and (68)Ga-, as well as (64)Cu-labeled agonists or antagonists, have been studied in breast tumors, prostate tumors, gastrointestinal stromal tumors, and gliomas with considerable success. A phase I therapeutic study with a (177)Lu-labeled agonist has been completed. There are not enough clinical data available to reveal the significance of these new modalities in patient care, but several phase I studies are under way in larger patient cohorts using PET agents. Another G-protein-coupled receptor with high overexpression on human tumors is the gastrin/cholecystokinin-2 receptor. It is overexpressed in more than 90% of cases of medullary thyroid cancer, in small cell lung cancer, and in a subgroup of neuroendocrine tumors. Correlating with in vitro receptor localization using autoradiography of 27 patients with metastasized medullary thyroid cancer, SPECT or planar imaging of these patients resulted in a 95% sensitivity of tumor localization. Finally, another G-protein-coupled receptor is found in brain tumors and peritumoral vessels. Literally all cases of glioblastoma multiforme overexpress the neurokinin type 1 receptor; the natural ligand is substance P, which was metabolically stabilized, labeled with (90)Y and (213)Bi, and injected into resection cavities or directly into tumors, which were critically located via a catheter system. The major advantage of this approach appeared to be the facilitated resectability of tumors, particularly in those patients who had been treated up front with the locoregional approach. It appears that neoadjuvant treatment before resection is a valid concept. Finally, another peptide family, the arginine-glycine-aspartate-based radiotracers, has made it to the clinic labeled with a variety of radioisotopes for monitoring the integrins ?(v)?(3) overexpressed during tumor angiogenesis.
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Bombesin antagonist-based radioligands for translational nuclear imaging of gastrin-releasing peptide receptor-positive tumors.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2011
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Bombesin receptors are overexpressed on a variety of human tumors. In particular, the gastrin-releasing peptide receptor (GRPr) has been identified on prostate and breast cancers and on gastrointestinal stromal tumors. The current study aims at developing clinically translatable bombesin antagonist-based radioligands for SPECT and PET of GRPr-positive tumors.
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Evaluation of 177Lu-DOTA-sst2 antagonist versus 177Lu-DOTA-sst2 agonist binding in human cancers in vitro.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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Somatostatin receptor targeting of neuroendocrine tumors using radiolabeled somatostatin agonists is today an established method to image and treat cancer patients. However, in a study using an animal tumor model, somatostatin receptor antagonists were shown to label sst(2)- and sst(3)-expressing tumors in vivo better than agonists, with comparable affinity even though they are not internalized into the tumor cell. In the present study, we evaluated the in vitro binding of the antagonist (177)Lu-DOTA-pNO(2)-Phe-c (DCys-Tyr-DTrp-Lys-Thr-Cys) DTyrNH(2) ((177)Lu-DOTA-BASS) or the (177)Lu-DOTATATE agonist to sst(2)-expressing human tumor samples.
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First clinical evidence that imaging with somatostatin receptor antagonists is feasible.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2011
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Preclinical studies have indicated that somatostatin receptor (sst)-expressing tumors demonstrate higher uptake of radiolabeled sst antagonists than of sst agonists. In this study, we evaluated whether imaging with sst antagonists was feasible in patients.
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Novel (64)Cu- and (68)Ga-labeled RGD conjugates show improved PET imaging of ?(?)?(3) integrin expression and facile radiosynthesis.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2011
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PET with (18)F-labeled arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) peptides can visualize and quantify ?(?)?(3) integrin expression in patients, but radiolabeling is complex and image contrast is limited in some tumor types. The development of (68)Ga-RGD peptides would be of great utility given the convenience of (68)Ga production and radiolabeling, and (64)Cu-RGD peptides allow for delayed imaging with potentially improved tumor-to-background ratios.
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PET of somatostatin receptor-positive tumors using 64Cu- and 68Ga-somatostatin antagonists: the chelate makes the difference.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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Somatostatin-based radiolabeled peptides have been successfully introduced into the clinic for targeted imaging and radionuclide therapy of somatostatin receptor (sst)-positive tumors, especially of subtype 2 (sst2). The clinically used peptides are exclusively agonists. Recently, we showed that radiolabeled antagonists may be preferable to agonists because they showed better pharmacokinetics, including higher tumor uptake. Factors determining the performance of radioantagonists have only scarcely been studied. Here, we report on the development and evaluation of four (64)Cu or (68)Ga radioantagonists for PET of sst2-positive tumors.
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[68Ga]NODAGA-RGD for imaging ?v?3 integrin expression.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2011
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A molecular target involved in the angiogenic process is the ?(v)?(3) integrin. It has been demonstrated in preclinical as well as in clinical studies that radiolabelled RGD peptides and positron emission tomography (PET) allow noninvasive monitoring of ?(v)?(3) expression. Here we introduce a (68)Ga-labelled NOTA-conjugated RGD peptide ([(68)Ga]NODAGA-RGD) and compare its imaging properties with [(68)Ga]DOTA-RGD using small animal PET.
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Radiolabeled bicyclic somatostatin-based analogs: a novel class of potential radiotracers for SPECT/PET of neuroendocrine tumors.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2010
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A variety of radiolabeled somatostatin analogs have been developed for targeting of somatostatin receptor (sst)-positive tumors. Bicyclic somatostatin-based radiopeptides have not been studied yet. Hypothesizing that the introduction of conformational constraints may lead to receptor subtype selectivity or may help to delineate structural features determining pansomatostatin potency, we developed and evaluated first examples of this new class of potential radiotracers for imaging or therapy of neuroendocrine tumors.
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Development of new folate-based PET radiotracers: preclinical evaluation of ??Ga-DOTA-folate conjugates.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2010
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A number of (111)In- and (99m)Tc-folate-based tracers have been evaluated as diagnostic agents for imaging folate receptor (FR)-positive tumours. A (68)Ga-folate-based radiopharmaceutical would be of great interest, combining the advantages of PET technology and the availability of (68)Ga from a generator. The aim of the study was to develop a new (68)Ga-folate-based PET radiotracer.
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In vitro characterization of (177)Lu-radiolabelled chimeric anti-CD20 monoclonal antibody and a preliminary dosimetry study.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2009
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(131)I- and (90)Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibodies have been shown to be effective in the treatment of low-grade, B-cell non-Hodgkins lymphoma (NHL). However, the most appropriate radionuclide in terms of high efficiency and low toxicity has not yet been established. In this study we evaluated an immunoconjugate formed by the anti-CD20 antibody rituximab and the chelator DOTA (1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetraacetic acid). DOTA-rituximab was prepared as a kit formulation and can be labelled in a short time (<20 min) with either (177)Lu or (90)Y.
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Comprehensive evaluation of a somatostatin-based radiolabelled antagonist for diagnostic imaging and radionuclide therapy.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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Targeting of tumours positive for somatostatin receptors (sst) with radiolabelled peptides is of interest for tumour localization, staging, therapy follow-up and targeted radionuclide therapy. The peptides used clinically are exclusively agonists, but recently we have shown that the radiolabelled somatostatin-based antagonist (111)In-DOTA-sst2-ANT may be preferable to agonists. However, a comprehensive study of this radiolabelled antagonist to determine its significance was lacking. The present report describes the evaluation of this novel antagonist labelled with (111)In and (177)Lu in three different tumour models.
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Unexpected sensitivity of sst2 antagonists to N-terminal radiometal modifications.
J. Nucl. Med.
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Chelated somatostatin agonists have been shown to be sensitive to N-terminal radiometal modifications, with Ga-DOTA agonists having significantly higher binding affinity than their Lu-, In-, and Y-DOTA correlates. Recently, somatostatin antagonists have been successfully developed as alternative tracers to agonists. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether chelated somatostatin antagonists are also sensitive to radiometal modifications and how. We have synthesized 3 different somatostatin antagonists, DOTA-p-NO(2)-Phe-c[D-Cys-Tyr-D-Aph(Cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys]-D-Tyr-NH(2), DOTA-Cpa-c[D-Cys-Aph(Hor)-D-Aph(Cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys]-D-Tyr-NH(2) (DOTA-JR11), and DOTA-p-Cl-Phe-c[D-Cys-Tyr-D-Aph(Cbm)-Lys-Thr-Cys]-D-Tyr-NH(2), and added various radiometals including In(III), Y(III), Lu(III), Cu(II), and Ga(III). We also replaced DOTA with 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA) and added Ga(III). The binding affinity of somatostatin receptors 1 through 5 was evaluated in all cases. In all 3 resulting antagonists, the Ga-DOTA analogs were the lowest-affinity radioligands, with a somatostatin receptor 2 binding affinity up to 60 times lower than the respective Y-DOTA, Lu-DOTA, or In-DOTA compounds. Interestingly, however, substitution of DOTA by the NODAGA chelator was able to increase massively its binding affinity in contrast to the Ga-DOTA analog. The 3 NODAGA analogs are antagonists in functional tests. In vivo biodistribution studies comparing (68)Ga-DOTATATE agonist with (68)Ga-DOTA-JR11 and (68)Ga-NODAGA-JR11 showed not only that the JR11 antagonist radioligands were superior to the agonist ligands but also that (68)Ga-NODAGA-JR11 was the tracer of choice and preferable to (68)Ga-DOTA-JR11 in transplantable HEK293-hsst(2) tumors in mice. One may therefore generalize that somatostatin receptor 2 antagonists are sensitive to radiometal modifications and may preferably be coupled with a (68)Ga-NODAGA chelator-radiometal complex.
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In vivo imaging of folate receptor positive tumor xenografts using novel 68Ga-NODAGA-folate conjugates.
Mol. Pharm.
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The overexpression of the folate receptor (FR) in a variety of malignant tumors, along with its limited expression in healthy tissues, makes it an attractive tumor-specific molecular target. Noninvasive imaging of FR using radiolabeled folate derivatives is therefore highly desirable. Given the advantages of positron emission tomography (PET) and the convenience of (68)Ga production, the aim of our study was to develop a new (68)Ga-folate-based radiotracer for clinical application. The chelator 1,4,7-triazacyclononane,1-glutaric acid-4,7-acetic acid (NODAGA) was conjugated to folic acid and to 5,8-dideazafolic acid using 1,2-diaminoethane as a spacer, resulting in two novel conjugates, namely, P3246 and P3238, respectively. Both conjugates were labeled with (68/67)Ga. In vitro internalization, efflux, and saturation binding studies were performed using the FR-positive KB cell line. Biodistribution and small-animal PET imaging studies were performed in nude mice bearing subcutaneous KB xenografts. Both conjugates were labeled with (68)Ga at room temperature within 10 min in labeling yields >95% and specific activity ~30 GBq/?mol. The K(d) values of (68/67)Ga-P3246 (5.61 ± 0.96 nM) and (68/67)Ga-P3238 (7.21 ± 2.46 nM) showed high affinity for the FR. (68/67)Ga-P3246 showed higher cell-associated uptake in vitro than (68/67)Ga-P3238 (approximately 72 and 60% at 4 h, respectively, P < 0.01), while both radiotracers exhibited similar cellular retention up to 4 h (approximately 76 and 71%, respectively). Their biodistribution profile is characterized by high tumor uptake, fast blood clearance, low hepatobiliary excretion, and almost negligible background. Tumor uptake was already high at 1 h for both (68)Ga-P3246 and (68)Ga-P3238 (16.56 ± 3.67 and 10.95 ± 2.12% IA/g, respectively, P > 0.05) and remained at about the same level up to 4 h. Radioactivity also accumulated in the FR-positive organs, such as kidneys (91.52 ± 21.05 and 62.26 ± 14.32% IA/g, respectively, 1 h pi) and salivary glands (9.05 ± 2.03 and 10.39 ± 1.19% IA/g, respectively, 1 h pi). The specificity of the radiotracers for the FR was confirmed by blocking experiments where tumor uptake was reduced by more than 85%, while the uptake in the kidneys and the salivary glands was reduced by more than 90%. Reduction of the kidney uptake was achieved by administration of the antifolate pemetrexed 1 h prior to the injection of the radiotracers, which resulted in an improvement of tumor-to-kidney ratios by more than a factor of 3. In line with the biodistribution results, small-animal PET images showed high uptake in the kidneys, clear visualization of the tumor, accumulation of radioactivity in the salivary glands, and no uptake in the gastrointestinal tract. (68)Ga-P3246 and (68)Ga-P3238 showed very high tumor-to-background contrast in PET images; however, the tumor-to-kidney ratio remained low. The new radiotracers, especially (68)Ga-P3246, are promising as PET imaging probes for clinical application due to their facile preparation and improved in vivo profile as compared to the other folate-based PET radiotracers.
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Synthesis and comparative assessment of a labeled RGD peptide bearing two different ??mTc-tricarbonyl chelators for potential use as targeted radiopharmaceutical.
Bioorg. Med. Chem.
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During the past decade radiolabeled RGD-peptides have been extensively studied to develop site-directed targeting vectors for integrins. Integrins are heterodimeric cell-surface adhesion receptors, which are upregulated in cancer cells and neovasculature during tumor angiogenesis and recognize the RGD aminoacid sequence. In the present study, we report the synthesis and development of two derivatives of the N?-Lys derivatized cyclic Arg-Gly-Asp-D-Phe-Lys peptide, namely of cRGDfKHis and cRGDfK-CPA (CPA: 3-L-Cysteine Propionic Acid), radiolabeled via the [(99m)Tc(H(2)O)(3)(CO)(3)](+) metal aquaion at a high yield even at low concentrations of 10-5M (>87%) for cRGDfK-10-5M (>93%) for cRGDfK-CPA. Radiolabeled peptides were characterized with regard to their stability in saline, in His/Cys solutions, as well as in plasma, serum and tissue homogenates and were found to be practically stable. Internalization and efflux assays using ?v?3-receptor-positive MDA-MB 435 breast cancer cells showed a good percentage of quick internalization (29.1 ± 9.8% for (99m)Tc-HiscRGDfK and 37.0 ± 0.7% for (99m)Tc-CPA-cRGDfK at 15 min) and no retention of radioactivity for both derivatives. Their in vivo behavior was assessed in normal mice and pathological SCID mice bearing MDA-MB 435 ???3 positive breast tumors. Both presented fast blood clearance and elimination via both the urinary and hepatobiliary systems, with (99m)Tc-His-cRGDfK remaining for a longer time than (99m)Tc-CPA-cRGDfK in all organs examined. Tumor uptake 30 min pi was higher for (99m)Tc-CPAcRGDfK (4.2 ± 1.5% ID/g) than for (99m)Tc-His-cRGDfK (2.8 ± 1.5% ID/g). Dynamic scintigraphic studies showed that the tumor could be visualized better between 15 and 45 min pi for both radiolabeled compounds but low delineation occurred due to high abdominal background. It was finally noticed that the accumulated activity on the tumor site was depended on the size of the experimental tumor; the smaller the size, the higher was the radioactivity concentration.
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Radiopharmaceutical development of radiolabelled peptides.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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Receptor targeting with radiolabelled peptides has become very important in nuclear medicine and oncology in the past few years. The overexpression of many peptide receptors in numerous cancers, compared to their relatively low density in physiological organs, represents the molecular basis for in vivo imaging and targeted radionuclide therapy with radiolabelled peptide-based probes. The prototypes are analogs of somatostatin which are routinely used in the clinic. More recent developments include somatostatin analogs with a broader receptor subtype profile or with antagonistic properties. Many other peptide families such as bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1)/exendin, arginine-glycine-aspartic acid (RGD) etc. have been explored during the last few years and quite a number of potential radiolabelled probes have been derived from them. On the other hand, a variety of strategies and optimized protocols for efficient labelling of peptides with clinically relevant radionuclides such as (99m)Tc, M(3+) radiometals ((111)In, (86/90)Y, (177)Lu, (67/68)Ga), (64/67)Cu, (18)F or radioisotopes of iodine have been developed. The labelling approaches include direct labelling, the use of bifunctional chelators or prosthetic groups. The choice of the labelling approach is driven by the nature and the chemical properties of the radionuclide. Additionally, chemical strategies, including modification of the amino acid sequence and introduction of linkers/spacers with different characteristics, have been explored for the improvement of the overall performance of the radiopeptides, e.g. metabolic stability and pharmacokinetics. Herein, we discuss the development of peptides as radiopharmaceuticals starting from the choice of the labelling method and the conditions to the design and optimization of the peptide probe, as well as some recent developments, focusing on a selected list of peptide families, including somatostatin, bombesin, cholecystokinin/gastrin, GLP-1/exendin and RGD.
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