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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increased CD4+CD25+ regulatory T cells correlate with poor short-term outcomes in hepatitis B virus-related acute-on-chronic liver failure patients.
J Microbiol Immunol Infect
PUBLISHED: 03-15-2015
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The roles of CD4(+)CD25(+) regulatory T cells (Treg) in chronicity of hepatitis B virus (HBV) infection have been confirmed. We aimed to explore alteration of Treg in patients with HBV-related acute-on-chronic liver failure (ACLF).
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Penicibilaenes A and B, Sesquiterpenes with a Tricyclo[6.3.1.0(1,5)]dodecane Skeleton from the Marine Isolate of Penicillium bilaiae MA-267.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Penicibilaenes A (1) and B (2), two sesquiterpenes possessing a tricyclo[6.3.1.0(1,5)]dodecane skeleton, were characterized from Penicillium bilaiae MA-267, a fungus obtained from the rhizospheric soil of the mangrove plant Lumnitzera racemosa. The lack of some key COSY and NOESY correlations made the structure elucidation of compound 1 difficult, which was solved by a X-ray crystallographic study. Compounds 1 and 2 exhibited selective activity against the plant pathogenic fungus Colletotrichum gloeosporioides (MIC = 1.0 and 0.125 ?g/mL, respectively).
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FD&C Yellow No. 5 (Tartrazine) Degradation via Reactive Oxygen Species Triggered by TiO2 and Au/TiO2 Nanoparticles Exposed to Simulated Sunlight.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2014
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When exposed to light, TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) become photoactivated and create electron/hole pairs as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS). We examined ThROS production and degradation of a widely used azo dye, FD&C Yellow No. 5 (tartrazine), triggered by photoactivated TiO2 NPs. Degradation was found to follow pseudo-first order reaction kinetics where the rate constant increased with TiO2 NPs concentration. Depositing Au on the surface of TiO2 largely enhanced electron transfer and ROS generation, which consequently accelerated dye degradation. Alkaline conditions promoted ROS generation and dye degradation. Results from electron spin resonance spin-trap spectroscopy suggested that at pH 7.4, both hydroxyl radical (•OH) and singlet oxygen (1O2) were responsible for dye discoloration, whereas at pH 5, the consumption of 1O2 became dominant. Implications for dye degradation in foods and other consumer products that contain both TiO2 and FD&C Yellow No. 5 as ingredients are discussed.
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Pilot study of inactive polypoidal lesions in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy.
Eur J Ophthalmol
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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This pilot study was conducted to describe the angiographic characteristics of inactive polypoidal lesions that were observed during indocyanine green angiography (ICGA) in polypoidal choroidal vasculopathy (PCV).
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[Effect of tongxie yaofang on intestinal mast cells and cytokine expression of rats with visceral hypersensitivity].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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To observe the effect of Tongxie Yaofang (TY) on the number of mast cells (MCs) and the expression of cytokines in rats with visceral hypersensitivity, and to explore roles of TY in treating visceral hypersensitivity and its possible mechanism.
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[Expression and significance of heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor in paclitaxel-resistant ovarian cancer].
Zhonghua Fu Chan Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To examine the expression of heparin binding-epidermal growth factor-like growth factor (HB- EGF) in paclitaxel- resistant ovarian cancer and elucidate the relationship between HB-EGF and the resistance of ovarian cancer to paclitaxel.
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[Results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer: prevalence in 4 690 asymptomatic participants].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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To report the results of low-dose computed tomography (LDCT) screening for early lung cancer in 4 690 asymptomatic participants at the Cancer Hospital, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences between July 2007 and June 2012.
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Construct and assess multimodal mouse brain connectomes via joint modeling of multi-scale DTI and neuron tracer data.
Med Image Comput Comput Assist Interv
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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Mapping the neuronal wiring diagrams in the brain at multiple spatial scales has been one of the major brain mapping objectives. Macro-scale medical imaging modalities such as diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) and meso-scale biological imaging such as serial two-photon tomography have emerged as the prominent tools to reveal structural connectivity patterns at multiple scales. However, a significant gap that whether/how DTI data and microscopic data are correlated with each other for the s ame species of mammalian brains,e.g., mouse brains, has been rarely explored. To bridge this knowledge gap, this work aims to construct multi-modal mouse brain connectomes via joint modeling of macro-scale DTI data and meso-scale neuronal tracing data. Specifically, the high-resolution DTI data and its streamline tractography result are mapped to the Allen Mouse Brain Atlas, in which the high-density axonal projections were already mapped by microscopic serial two-photon tomography. Then, multi-modal connectomes were constructed and the multi-view spectral clustering method is employed to assess consistent and discrepant connectivity patterns across the multi-scale multi-modal connectomes. Experimental results demonstrated the importance of fusing multimodal, multi-scale imaging modalities for structural connectivity and connectome mapping.
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Myrosin Idioblast Cell Fate and Development Are Regulated by the Arabidopsis Transcription Factor FAMA, the Auxin Pathway, and Vesicular Trafficking.
Plant Cell
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
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Crucifer shoots harbor a glucosinolate-myrosinase system that defends against insect predation. Arabidopsis thaliana myrosinase (thioglucoside glucohydrolase [TGG]) accumulates in stomata and in myrosin idioblasts (MIs). This work reports that the basic helix-loop-helix transcription factor FAMA that is key to stomatal development is also expressed in MIs. The loss of FAMA function abolishes MI fate as well as the expression of the myrosinase genes TGG1 and TGG2. MI cells have previously been reported to be located in the phloem. Instead, we found that MIs arise from the ground meristem rather than provascular tissues and thus are not homologous with phloem. Moreover, MI patterning and morphogenesis are abnormal when the function of the ARF-GEF gene GNOM is lost as well as when auxin efflux and vesicular trafficking are chemically disrupted. Stomata and MI cells constitute part of a wider system that reduces plant predation, the so-called "mustard oil bomb," in which vacuole breakage in cells harboring myrosinase and glucosinolate yields a brew toxic to many animals, especially insects. This identification of the gene that confers the fate of MIs, as well as stomata, might facilitate the development of strategies for engineering crops to mitigate predation.
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Inhibitory effects of transcription factor Ikaros on the expression of liver cancer stem cell marker CD133 in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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CD133 is a cellular surface glycoprotein that has been reported as a marker for the enrichment of cancer stem cells (CSCs). However, the regulatory mechanism of CD133 remains unknown. CSCs have been proposed to contribute to radioresistance and multi-drug resistance. The elucidation of key regulators of CD133 and CSCs is critical for the development of CSC-targeted therapy. In this study, we showed that Ikarosinhibited the expression of CD133 via direct binding to the CD133 P1 promoter and repressed the tumorigenic and self-renewal capacity of CD133+ cancer stem-like cells in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). We found that Ikaros interacted with CtBP as a transcription repressor complex, which inhibited CD133 expression in HCC. We also demonstrated that Ikaros expression was up-regulated by ETS1 which activity was regulated by MAPKs pathway. Furthermore, decreased expression of Ikaroswas significantly associated with poor survival in HCC patients. Overall, our study identifies that Ikaros plays a role as a transcription repressor in HCC and is a new reactivated therapeutic target for the treatment of HCC. Meanwhile, our findings provide evidence that Ikaros could be an attractive inhibitor of the target gene CD133, which reactivates anticancer mechanisms in targeted CSC therapy.
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The role of tiopronin for the prevention of chemotherapy-related liver toxicity in advanced colorectal cancer patients treated with mFOLFOX7: a prospective analysis.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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Aims and background. Chemotherapy-related hepatotoxicity is a limitation for the continuation of chemotherapy in patients with advanced colorectal cancer (CRC). This prospective study determined the efficacy of tiopronin infusion in chemotherapy-induced hepatoxicity. Methods and study design. One hundred and fifty patients having advanced CRC treated with first-line palliative chemotherapy were included, of whom 86 were treated with mFOLFOX7 plus supplementation of tiopronin and 64 were treated with the same regimen without tiopronin. Aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), total bilirubin (TBIL), gamma-glutamyl transferase (?-GT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and albumin (ALB) were recorded before treatment and during every therapy cycle. In addition, course discontinuations, dose reductions, and chemotherapy efficacy were evaluated. Results. The age and gender of the two groups were comparable (P >0.05). The proportions of abnormal mean ALT (P = 0.042), AST (P = 0.045), TBIL (P = 0.044) and ALB (P = 0.043) were significantly lower in the tiopronin group than the control group. Course discontinuations (P = 0.002), dose reductions (P = 0.005) and efficacy (P = 0.012) were significantly different between the two groups. Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the hepatoprotective drug played an important role in clinical outcome (OR = 6.837; 95% CI, 1.845 to 25.333; P = 0.004). Conclusions. Tiopronin tends to decrease the incidence of chemotherapy-induced hepatoxicity, enhance patients' tolerance to mFOLFOX7 treatment, and even benefit the efficacy of chemotherapy.
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Double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector with phase shift.
Anal. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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A double input capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (DIC(4)D) device which gets higher sensitivity has been described in this paper. The detector consists of two input electrodes and one output electrode. When two alternating current (AC) voltages with the same amplitude and different phases are imposed on each input electrode, the equivalent resistance of the output electrode is reduced because of the interference of the two signals with different phase angles. For a capacitively coupled contactless conductivity detector (C(4)D), the ratio of the response of KCl solution to that of distilled water is 1.6. However, for DIC(4)D, the ratio is 1.55 at a phase difference of 0° and increases to 1.8 at the phase difference of 170°, respectively. For C(4)D, the response of KCl solution is a linear function of the logarithm of concentrations from 10(-5) M to 10(-2) M, and the slope is 5.58. However, the slope of the response increases to 7.13 in DIC(4)D, and the limit of detection (LOD) of DIC(4)D is estimated to be 5 × 10(-8) M. The slope of the three-way DIC(4)D is increased to 69.78. A flow injection device is employed for the evaluation of the applicability of DIC(4)D with the same range, and good reproducibility is confirmed through flow injection of the same solution 10 times. The relative standard deviation (RSD) is 0.7%, which demonstrates a promising application to capillary electrophoresis (CE).
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Advanced oxygen reduction reaction catalyst based on nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene in alkaline medium.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
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A novel nitrogen and sulfur co-doped graphene (N-S-G) catalyst for oxygen reduction reaction (ORR) has been prepared by pyrolysing graphite oxide and poly[3-amino-5-mercapto-1,2,4-triazole] composite (PAMTa). The atomic percentage of nitrogen and sulfur for the prepared N-S-G can be adjusted by controlling the pyrolysis temperature. Furthermore, the catalyst pyrolysed at 1000 °C, denoted N-S-G 1000, exhibits the highest catalytic activity for ORR, which displays the highest content of graphitic-N and thiophene-S among all the pyrolysed samples. The electrocatalytic performance of N-S-G 1000 is significantly better than that of PAMTa and reduced graphite oxide composite. Remarkably, the N-S-G 1000 catalyst is comparable with Pt/C in terms of the onset and half-wave potentials, and displays larger kinetic limiting current density and better methanol tolerance and stability than Pt/C for ORR in an alkaline medium.
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Two new ionone glycosides from the roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch.
Nat. Prod. Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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Two new ionone glycosides, named frehmaglutoside G (1) and frehmaglutoside H (2), together with six known compounds, rehmapicroside (3), sec-hydroxyaeginetic acid (4), dihydroxy-?-ionone (5), trihydroxy-?-ionone (6), rehmaionoside A (7) and rehmaionoside C (8), were isolated from the 95% EtOH extract of the dried roots of Rehmannia glutinosa Libosch. Their structures were determined on the basis of extensive spectroscopic analyses, including HR-ESI-MS, UV, IR, 1D and 2D NMR ((1)H-(1)H COSY, HSQC, HMBC and NOESY) methods. The absolute configurations were confirmed via the circular dichroism spectra.
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[Study of fast pretreatment method in detection of melamine in liquid milk using liquid chromatography and Raman spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The present paper proposed for the first time the flocculation-filtration method for separation of interfering substances in milk, such as fat. In this method only two steps were carried out. Firstly, aluminum chloride (PAC, Al2 (OH)nCl6-n,) is used to flocculate the milk; Secondly, water filter was used to filter the mixture. Then the clear filtrate could be used for the detection of melamine. The whole preprocessing would not take more than one minute. The pretreatment process was optimized. Experiments show that the adding proportion of PAC should be about 2%-3% for best filtration efficiency, and that it would have the best flocculation effect when the mixture was mildly alkaline. High performance liquid chromatography experiments show that the melamine recovery of this method is more than 90%. Samples pretreated by the flocculation--filtration method were clearer and the baselines of spectral curve obtained by sensitizing Raman method were more smooth which means better purification compared to those samples pretreated by centrifugal pretreatment method. The pretreatment method proposed can be used in HPLC and Raman spectroscopy methods for rapid detecting melamine in liquid milk. This method shows better separation effect, simpler operation, and lower time and money cost than those pretreatment processes in the existing standard melamine detection method for milk. By use of this pretreatment method, the melamine rapid detection efficiency would be greatly improved.
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Relationship Between Procalcitonin Serum Levels and Functional Outcome in Stroke Patients.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To determine whether serum procalcitonin (PCT) levels at admission were associated with short-term functional outcome after acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in a cohort Chinese sample. We prospectively studied 378 patients with AIS who were admitted within 24 h after the onset of symptoms. PCT and NIH stroke scale (NIHSS) were measured at the time of admission. Short-term functional outcome was measured by modified Rankin scale (mRS) 90 days after admission. The results indicated that the serum PCT levels were significantly higher in AIS patients as compared to normal controls (P < 0.0001). In the 114 patients with an unfavorable functional outcome, serum PCT levels were higher compared with those in patients with a favorable outcome (2.40 (IQR, 1.10-3.69) ng/mL and 0.42 (IQR, 0.10-1.05) ng/mL, respectively, P < 0.001). PCT was an independent prognostic marker of functional outcome [odds ratio (OR) 3.45 (2.29-4.77), adjusted for the NIHSS and other possible confounders] in patients with ischemic stroke, added significant additional predictive value to the clinical NIHSS score. In receiver operating characteristic curve analysis, the prognostic accuracy of PCT was higher compared to Hs-CRP and NIHSS score. PCT is an independent predictor of short-term functional outcome after ischemic stroke in Chinese sample even after correcting for possible confounding factors.
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[Effects of different intensity exercise on blood glucose, adolescent obesity rats insulin sensitivity and RBP4].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To discuss the effects of different intensity exercise on blood glucose, adolescent obesity rats insulin sensitivity and RBP4.
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pH dependent catalytic activities of platinum nanoparticles with respect to the decomposition of hydrogen peroxide and scavenging of superoxide and singlet oxygen.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Recently, platinum (Pt) nanoparticles (NPs) have received increasing attention in the field of catalysis and medicine due to their excellent catalytic activity. To rationally design Pt NPs for these applications, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms underlying their catalytic and biological activities. This article describes a systematic study on the Pt NP-catalyzed decomposition of hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) and scavenging of superoxide (O2?(-)) and singlet oxygen ((1)O2) over a physiologically relevant pH range of 1.12-10.96. We demonstrated that the catalytic activities of Pt NPs can be modulated by the pH value of the environment. Our results suggest that Pt NPs possess peroxidase-like activity of decomposing H2O2 into ?OH under acidic conditions, but catalase-like activity of producing H2O and O2 under neutral and alkaline conditions. In addition, Pt NPs exhibit significant superoxide dismutase-like activity of scavenging O2?(-) under neutral conditions, but not under acidic conditions. The (1)O2 scavenging ability of Pt NPs increases with the increase in the pH of the environment. The study will provide useful guidance for designing Pt NPs with desired catalytic and biological properties.
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Gene expression profiling of key genes in hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis of rare minnow Gobiocypris rarus in response to EE2.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The 17?-ethinylestradiol (EE2), which could induce estrogenic effects, is found in different aquatic systems. The current study aimed to assess in vivo effects of short-term EE2 exposure on the transcriptional activity of genes in the brain and gonad tissues in order to characterize the mode of action of EE2 on the hypothalamus-pituitary-gonad axis in rare minnow (Gobiocypris rarus). The full length cDNAs of fsh?, lh?, fshr and lhr were first characterized in G. rarus. The homology and phylogenetic analyses of the amino acid sequences revealed that these four genes share high identity in cyprinid fish. The tissue distribution analysis by qRT-PCR showed that fsh? and lh? were mainly expressed in the brain and fshr and lhr were mainly expressed in gonads. Adult G. rarus was exposed to EE2 at 1, 5, 25 and 125 ng/L for 3 and 6 days and the expression of brain cyp19a1b, fsh? and lh?, estrogen receptors (esr1, esr2a, and esr2b) and gonadal fshr, lhr and cyp19a1a were assessed. Cyp19a1b was significantly up-regulated in the brains of female exposed to EE2 at 1-125 ng/L for 6 days. The brain lh?, but not fsh? was strongly suppressed in most EE2 exposure groups of both sexes. The brain esr2b was inhibited in both sexes exposed to EE2 at all of the four concentrations for 6 days. Esr2a was up-regulated in the females by 6-day EE2 treatment at 1 and 25 ng/L. The high responsiveness of brain lh? and esr2s to EE2 and their significant correlation in both sexes suggested that the transcriptional activity of Esr2s could play key roles in modulation of lh? expression via direct action on gonadotropic cells in response to EE2. In gonads, fshr was strongly inhibited by EE2 in males, while lhr was significantly stimulated by EE2 in females. Cyp19a1a was inhibited by EE2 in both sexes. The positive correlations of gene expressions of both fshr and lhr with cyp19a1a in testes suggest that the suppression of 17?-estradiol (E2) synthesis in testis by exogenous estrogen could mediate via both Fsh/Fshr and Lh/Lhr signaling in male G. rarus.
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Protocadherin 9 inhibits epithelial-mesenchymal transition and cell migration through activating GSK-3? in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Protocadherin 9 (PCDH9) was found frequently lost in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). Here we investigated the role of PCDH9 in the development of HCC. We confirmed that PCDH9 was down-regulated in HCC tissues and cell lines compared with the adjacent non-tumor tissues. PCDH9 downregulation was significantly associated with malignant portal vein invasion of HCC patients. Gain- and loss-of-function studies revealed that downregulation of PCDH9 facilitated tumor cell migration and epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT). We identified PCDH9 as a novel regulator of EMT by increasing the activity of GSK-3? and inhibiting Snail1, indicating its potential therapeutic value for reducing metastasis of HCC.
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NLR-associating transcription factor bHLH84 and its paralogs function redundantly in plant immunity.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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In plants and animals, nucleotide-binding and leucine-rich repeat domain containing (NLR) immune receptors are utilized to detect the presence or activities of pathogen-derived molecules. However, the mechanisms by which NLR proteins induce defense responses remain unclear. Here, we report the characterization of one basic Helix-loop-Helix (bHLH) type transcription factor (TF), bHLH84, identified from a reverse genetic screen. It functions as a transcriptional activator that enhances the autoimmunity of NLR mutant snc1 (suppressor of npr1-1, constitutive 1) and confers enhanced immunity in wild-type backgrounds when overexpressed. Simultaneously knocking out three closely related bHLH paralogs attenuates RPS4-mediated immunity and partially suppresses the autoimmune phenotypes of snc1, while overexpression of the other two close paralogs also renders strong autoimmunity, suggesting functional redundancy in the gene family. Intriguingly, the autoimmunity conferred by bHLH84 overexpression can be largely suppressed by the loss-of-function snc1-r1 mutation, suggesting that SNC1 is required for its proper function. In planta co-immunoprecipitation revealed interactions between not only bHLH84 and SNC1, but also bHLH84 and RPS4, indicating that bHLH84 associates with these NLRs. Together with previous finding that SNC1 associates with repressor TPR1 to repress negative regulators, we hypothesize that nuclear NLR proteins may interact with both transcriptional repressors and activators during immune responses, enabling potentially faster and more robust transcriptional reprogramming upon pathogen recognition.
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High-density genetic linkage map construction and identification of fruit-related QTLs in pear using SNP and SSR markers.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2014
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Pear (Pyrus spp) is an important fruit crop, grown in all temperate regions of the world, with global production ranked after grape and apples among deciduous tree crops. A high-density linkage map is a valuable tool for fine mapping quantitative trait loci (QTL) and map-based gene cloning. In this study, we firstly constructed a high-density linkage map of pear using SNPs integrated with SSRs, developed by the rapid and robust technology of restriction-associated DNA sequencing (RADseq). The linkage map consists of 3143 SNP markers and 98 SSRs, 3241 markers in total, spanning 2243.4 cM, with an average marker distance of 0.70 cM. Anchoring SSRs were able to anchor seventeen linkage groups to their corresponding chromosomes. Based on this high-density integrated pear linkage map and two years of fruit phenotyping, a total of 32 potential QTLs for 11 traits, including length of pedicel (LFP), single fruit weight (SFW), soluble solid content (SSC), transverse diameter (TD), vertical diameter (VD), calyx status (CS), flesh colour (FC), juice content (JC), number of seeds (NS), skin colour (SC), and skin smooth (SS), were identified and positioned on the genetic map. Among them, some important fruit-related traits have for the first time been identified, such as calyx status, length of pedicel, and flesh colour, and reliable localization of QTLs were verified repeatable. This high-density linkage map of pear is a worthy reference for mapping important fruit traits, QTL identification, and comparison and combination of different genetic maps.
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Dissociation of glutamate and cortical thickness is restricted to regions subserving trait but not state markers in major depressive disorder.
J Affect Disord
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The anterior cingulate cortex (ACC) plays an important role in the neuropathology of major depressive disorder (MDD). So far, the effect of local cortical alteration on metabolites in multiple subdivisions of ACC has not been studied. We aimed to investigate structural and biochemical changes and their relationship in the pregenual ACC (pgACC), dorsal ACC (dACC) in MDD.
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Concentrations and distribution of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) in soils and plants from a Deca-BDE manufacturing factory in China.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Residues of polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs), including eight PBDE congeners, were investigated in soils and plants from a deca-BDE manufacturing factory located in the Shandong province of China to evaluate and discuss their pollution level and distribution. Total concentrations in topsoil ranged from 17.0 to 146 ?g g(-1) dry weight (dw) with a mean value of 58.7 ?g g(-1) dw. BDE-209 was the dominant congener in soils, accounting for 55.63-99.27 % of the total PBDEs. Concentrations and congener patterns in soils varied among different soil depths. Concentration levels in topsoil are high and the heavy accumulation in deep soil also can be observed, even for some sites, the concentrations in 50-100 cm depth are higher than in topsoil. In plant samples, total PBDE concentrations and the proportion of BDE-209 were high (69.92-99.10 %). The extent of pollution by PBDEs in the deca-BDE production factory was higher than in other regions, and the environmental risk caused by the production of deca-BDE is of concern. This is the first study to report pollution of PBDEs in soils and plants from the vicinity of a deca-BDE manufacturing factory.
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Cross-reacting material 197, a heparin-binding EGF-like growth factor inhibitor, reverses the chemoresistance in human cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer.
Anticancer Drugs
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Cross-reacting material 197 (CRM197), a specific HB-EGF inhibitor, has been proven to be a promising antitumor agent for ovarian cancer therapy. Our previous studies have shown that CRM197 has potent antitumor activity in human cisplatin-resistant ovarian cancer. However, the relationship between CRM197 and the resistance to cisplatin remains unclear. Here, we report that CRM197 significantly reverses the resistance to cisplatin in cisplatin-resistant ovarian carcinoma cell line (A2780/CDDP). We established xenograft nude mice models with A2780 and A2780/CDDP cells. Notably, we observed that CRM197 suppresses the expression of HB-EGF and epidermal growth factor receptor in A2780/CDDP cells and xenografts harboring the overexpression of HB-EGF and epidermal growth factor receptor. Experiments conducted in vitro and in vivo suggest that CRM197 markedly downregulates the expression of excision repair cross-complementing group 1 (P = 0.002) and DNA repair capacity in A2780/CDDP tumor (P < 0.001) by inactivation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase signaling, providing novel possible mechanisms for the ability of CRM197 to restore drug sensitivity. These results suggest that CRM197 as an HB-EGF inhibitor might be a cisplatin-chemosensitizing agent for the treatment of ovarian carcinoma with resistance to cisplatin.
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Changes in Sleep Characteristics and Airway Obstruction in OSAHS Patients with Multi-Level Obstruction following Simple UPPP, UPPP-GA, or UPPP-TBA: A Prospective, Single-Center, Parallel Group Study.
ORL J. Otorhinolaryngol. Relat. Spec.
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Objective: To investigate changes in S3 sleep and the apnea hypopnea index (AHI), SpO2 desaturation and CT90, and to determine changes in the degree of airway collapse and in the cross-sectional area of the retropalatal and lingual region in obstructive sleep apnea hypopnea syndrome patients. Method: All subjects underwent overnight polysomnography and were evaluated using Müller's test and magnetic resonance imaging at baseline, 3, and 12 months following surgery. Result: The mean S3 scores in patients receiving uvulopalatopharyngoplasty combined with genioglossus advancement (UPPP-GA) or UPPP combined with tongue base advancement using the Repose™ system (UPPP-TBA) noticeably increased. Marked improvement was seen in the mean AHI, LSO2, and CT90 scores 3 and 12 months following surgery compared to baseline. Airway collapsed by 25-50% in the greatest proportion undergoing surgery at the tongue base. Conclusion: UPPP-GA and UPPP-TBA more effectively improve S3 sleep, and mean AHI, LSO2, and CT90 scores. In addition, they effectively alleviate airway obstruction by improving the cross-sectional area of these regions. © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Cell-Imprinted Antimicrobial Bionanomaterials with Tolerable Toxic Side Effects.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Taking advantage of imprinting technology, artificial antibody-microbial imprinted Ag-TiO2 materials are fabricated for microbial inactivation using a facile and green method. Due to the induced shape and size recognition elements, the artificial antibodies specifically recognize and kill target microbes under visible-light irradiation with minimal toxic side effects toward mammalian cells.
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Brocazines A-F, Cytotoxic Bisthiodiketopiperazine Derivatives from Penicillium brocae MA-231, an Endophytic Fungus Derived from the Marine Mangrove Plant Avicennia marina.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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Six new disulfide-bridged diketopiperazine derivatives, brocazines A-F (1-6), along with one known analogue (7), were isolated and identified from the cytotoxic extract of Penicillium brocae MA-231, a fungus obtained from the fresh tissue of the marine mangrove plant Avicennia marina. The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of detailed interpretation of NMR and mass spectroscopic data. X-ray crystallographic analysis confirmed the structure of 1 and established the structure and absolute configuration of 5, while the absolute configurations for compounds 1, 4, and 6 were deduced by comparison of the CD data with those of 5. Compounds 1, 2, 5, and 6 showed cytotoxic activities against several tumor cell lines.
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Chiral metallohelical complexes enantioselectively target amyloid ? for treating Alzheimer's disease.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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Stereochemistry is a very important issue for the pharmaceutical industry and can determine drug efficacy. The design and synthesis of small molecules, especially chiral molecules, which selectively target and inhibit amyloid-? (A?) aggregation, represent valid therapeutic strategies for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Herein we report that two triple-helical dinuclear metallosupramolecular complexes can act as a novel class of chiral amyloid-? inhibitors. Through targeting ?/?-discordant stretches at the early steps of aggregation, these metal complexes can enantioselectively inhibit A? aggregation, which is demonstrated using fluorescent living cell-based screening and multiple biophysical and biochemical approaches. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of enantioselective inhibition of A? aggregation. Intriguingly, as a promising candidate for AD treatment, the chiral metal complex can cross the blood-brain barrier and have superoxide dismutase activity. It is well-known that chiral discrimination is important for understanding chiral drug action. Generally, one enantiomer is pharmaceutically active while the other is inactive or exerts severe side effects. Chiral discrimination should be important for AD treatment. Our work provides new insights into chiral inhibition of A? aggregation and opens a new avenue for design and screening of chiral agents as A? inhibitors against AD.
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Progress of the synthesis of condensed pyrazole derivatives (from 2010 to mid-2013).
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
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Condensed pyrazole derivatives are important heterocyclic compounds due to their excellent biological activities and have been widely applied in pharmaceutical and agromedical fields. In recent years, numerous condensed pyrazole derivatives have been synthesized and advanced to clinic studies with various biological activities. In this review, we summarized the reported synthesis methods of condensed pyrazole derivatives from 2010 until now. All compounds are divided into three parts according to the rings connected to pyrazole-ring, i.e. [5, 5], [5,F 6], and [5, 7]-condensed pyrazole derivatives. The biological activities and applications in pharmaceutical fields are briefly introduced to offer an orientation for the design and synthesis of condensed pyrazole derivatives with good biological activities.
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Genetic Characterization of a Natural Reassortant H3N8 Avian Influenza Virus Isolated from Domestic Geese in Guangxi, Southern China.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2014
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A H3N8 subtype of avian influenza virus, A/goose/Guangxi/020G/2009(H3N8) (GX020G), was isolated from the Guangxi Province of China in 2009. All eight gene segments of the GX020G strain were sequenced. Sequence analysis indicated that this H3N8 virus is a novel reassortant strain. The genome sequences provide useful information for understanding the epidemiology and molecular characteristics of the H3N8 subtype of influenza virus in southern China.
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Fundamental studies of novel zwitterionic hybrid membranes: kinetic model and mechanism insights into strontium removal.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2014
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A series of zwitterionic hybrid membranes were prepared via the ring opening of 1,3-propanesultone with the amine groups in the chains of TMSPEDA and a subsequent sol-gel process. Their kinetic models for strontium removal were investigated using three two-parameter kinetic equations (i.e., Lagergren pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order, and Elovich models). Adsorption mechanism was evaluated using intraparticle diffusion model, diffusion-chemisorption model, and Boyd equation. It was found that the adsorption of strontium ions on these zwitterionic hybrid membranes fitted well with the Lagergren pseudo-second order model. Mechanism insights suggested that diffusion-chemisorption was one of the main adsorption mechanisms. Boyd equation exhibited that film-diffusion mechanism might be the control process during the starting period. These findings are very useful in strontium removal from the stimulated radioactive wastewater.
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[Comparative analysis of the correlation between HRCT image features and histopathologic characteristics of cyst-like lung adenocarcinoma].
Zhonghua Zhong Liu Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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To evaluate the high resolution CT (HRCT) features of cyst-like lung adenocarcinoma, explore the correlation between HRCT image features and histopathological characteristics, and observe the pathological basis of air-containing space.
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The combination of high Q factor and chirality in twin cavities and microcavity chain.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Chirality in microcavities has recently shown its bright future in optical sensing and microsized coherent light sources. The key parameters for such applications are the high quality (Q) factor and large chirality. However, the previous reported chiral resonances are either low Q modes or require very special cavity designs. Here we demonstrate a novel, robust, and general mechanism to obtain the chirality in circular cavity. By placing a circular cavity and a spiral cavity in proximity, we show that ultra-high Q factor, large chirality, and unidirectional output can be obtained simultaneously. The highest Q factors of the non-orthogonal mode pairs are almost the same as the ones in circular cavity. And the co-propagating directions of the non-orthogonal mode pairs can be reversed by tuning the mode coupling. This new mechanism for the combination of high Q factor and large chirality is found to be very robust to cavity size, refractive index, and the shape deformation, showing very nice fabrication tolerance. And it can be further extended to microcavity chain and microcavity plane. We believe that our research will shed light on the practical applications of chirality and microcavities.
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Astragalus Polysaccharide Suppresses Doxorubicin-Induced Cardiotoxicity by Regulating the PI3k/Akt and p38MAPK Pathways.
Oxid Med Cell Longev
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Background. Doxorubicin, a potent chemotherapeutic agent, is associated with acute and chronic cardiotoxicity, which is cumulatively dose-dependent. Astragalus polysaccharide (APS), the extract of Astragalus membranaceus with strong antitumor and antiglomerulonephritis activity, can effectively alleviate inflammation. However, whether APS could ameliorate chemotherapy-induced cardiotoxicity is not understood. Here, we investigated the protective effects of APS on doxorubicin-induced cardiotoxicity and elucidated the underlying mechanisms of the protective effects of APS. Methods. We analyzed myocardial injury in cancer patients who underwent doxorubicin chemotherapy and generated a doxorubicin-induced neonatal rat cardiomyocyte injury model and a mouse heart failure model. Echocardiography, reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, TUNEL, DNA laddering, and Western blotting were performed to observe cell survival, oxidative stress, and inflammatory signal pathways in cardiomyocytes. Results. Treatment of patients with the chemotherapeutic drug doxorubicin led to heart dysfunction. Doxorubicin reduced cardiomyocyte viability and induced C57BL/6J mouse heart failure with concurrent elevated ROS generation and apoptosis, which, however, was attenuated by APS treatment. In addition, there was profound inhibition of p38MAPK and activation of Akt after APS treatment. Conclusions. These results demonstrate that APS could suppress oxidative stress and apoptosis, ameliorating doxorubicin-mediated cardiotoxicity by regulating the PI3k/Akt and p38MAPK pathways.
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Decitabine reactivated pathways in platinum resistant ovarian cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Combination therapy with decitabine, a DNMTi and carboplatin resensitized chemoresistant ovarian cancer (OC) to platinum inducing promising clinical activity. We investigated gene-expression profiles in tumor biopsies to identify decitabine-reactivated pathways associated with clinical response. Gene-expression profiling was performed using RNA from paired tumor biopsies before and 8 days after decitabine from 17 patients with platinum resistant OC. Bioinformatic analysis included unsupervised hierarchical-clustering, pathway and GSEA distinguishing profiles of "responders" (progression-free survival, PFS>6 months) and "non-responders" (PFS< 6 months). Functional validation of selected results was performed in OC cells/tumors. Pre-treatment tumors from responders expressed genes associated with enhanced glycosphingolipid biosynthesis, translational misregulation, decreased ABC transporter expression, TGF-? signaling, and numerous metabolic pathways. Analysis of post-treatment biopsies from responders revealed overexpression of genes associated with reduced Hedgehog pathway signaling, reduced DNA repair/replication, and cancer-associated metabolism. GO and GSEA analyses revealed upregulation of genes associated with glycosaminoglycan binding, cell-matrix adhesion, and cell-substrate adhesion. Computational findings were substantiated by experimental validation of expression of key genes involved in two critical pathways affected by decitabine (TGF-? and Hh). Gene-expression profiling identified specific pathways altered by decitabine and associated with platinum-resensitization and clinical benefit in OC. Our data could influence patient stratification for future studies using epigenetic therapies.
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Preparation of organic tofu using organic compatible magnesium chloride incorporated with polysaccharide coagulants.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2014
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Organic tofu using organic compatible coagulants of magnesium chloride and three polysaccharides including carrageenan, guar gum and gum Arabic were generated. For MgCl2 coagulated tofu, carrageenan significantly increased the hardness from 969.5 g to 1210.5 g whereas guar gum (0.6g) decreased the hardness to 505.5 g. Interestingly, gypsum and guar gum (0.6g) increased the yield of tofu significantly. These organic compatible coagulants didn't affect most of 7S and 11S protein subunits. Importantly, the overall-acceptability of organic tofu prepared with MgCl2 combined with guar gum or gypsum was almost the same as conventional tofu made with gymsum while having more beany-flavour. Among these organic coagulants, tofu made from 0.6g guar gum and MgCl2 mixture was the most similar to that coagulated by conventional gypsum. Thus this mixture is promising as coagulant for making organic tofu.
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[Simultaneous analysis of iodate, iodide, bromate and bromide by ion chromatography with ultraviolet detection].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2014
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An analytical method of ion chromatography with ultraviolet detection has been developed and applied for the simultaneous determination of iodate, iodide, bromate and bromide. The separation was performed on a quaternary ammonium type anion exchange column with citric acid and acetonitrile as mobile phase. The effects of the detection wavelength, the kind and concentration of the mobile phase and other parameters on separation and detection of the four ions were investigated. The retention rules were studied and the chromatographic conditions were optimized. Under the conditions of 210 nm as detection wavelength, 0.9 mL/min as flow rate, 40 degrees C as column temperature, and 1.0 mmol/L citric acid-acetonitrile (85:15, v/ v; pH 5.0) as mobile phase, the four ions were completely separated and the system peaks and other common anions didn't interfere with the determination. The detection limits of the four ions (S/N = 3) were 0.07-0.16 mg/L. The relative standard deviations of the retention times and peak areas obtained by determining samples five times continuously were below 1%. The spiked recoveries of the four anions were from 98.0% to 102%. This method has been successfully used to determine ionic liquids synthesized by chemistry laboratory and underground water samples. The results were accurate and reliable.
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Pinocembrin Attenuates 6-OHDA-induced Neuronal Cell Death Through Nrf2/ARE Pathway in SH-SY5Y Cells.
Cell. Mol. Neurobiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Pinocembrin (PB), the most abundant flavonoid in propolis, has been known to display antioxidant activity. However, the mechanism as how PB can induce antioxidant activity remains elusive. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the potential neuroprotective role of PB and to delineate its mechanism of action against the Parkinson's disease-related neurotoxin 6-hydroxydopamine(6-OHDA)-induced cell death in neuroblastoma SH-SY5Y cells. Results indicate that pretreatment with PB for 4 h significantly reduced the 6-OHDA-induced cell viability loss, apoptotic rate and decreased Bcl-2/Bax ratio. In addition, PB inhibited 6-OHDA-induced oxidative stress as measured by the formation of reactive oxygen species, the level of malondialdehyde, mitochondrial membrane potential, and superoxide dismutase. Moreover, we have revealed the PB treatment resulted in an increase in nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) protein levels and subsequent activation of antioxidant response element (ARE) pathway genes of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and ?-glutamylcysteine synthetase (?-GCS) in SH-SY5Y cells. Treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with Nrf2 small interference RNA abolished PB-induced HO-1 and ?-GCS expression and its protective effects. Taken together, these findings suggest that PB can protect the SH-SY5Y cells from 6-OHDA-induced oxidative cell death via Nrf2/ARE pathway. Thus, our study indicates that PB has a partial cytoprotective role in dopaminergic cell culture systems.
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Enrichment of statistical power for genome-wide association studies.
BMC Biol.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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The inheritance of most human diseases and agriculturally important traits is controlled by many genes with small effects. Identifying these genes, while simultaneously controlling false positives, is challenging. Among available statistical methods, the mixed linear model (MLM) has been the most flexible and powerful for controlling population structure and individual unequal relatedness (kinship), the two common causes of spurious associations. The introduction of the compressed MLM (CMLM) method provided additional opportunities for optimization by adding two new model parameters: grouping algorithms and number of groups.
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In vitro and in vivo activities of antimicrobial peptides developed using an amino acid-based activity prediction method.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-30-2014
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To design and discover new antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) with high levels of antimicrobial activity, a number of machine-learning methods and prediction methods have been developed. Here, we present a new prediction method that can identify novel AMPs that are highly similar in sequence to known peptides but offer improved antimicrobial activity along with lower host cytotoxicity. Using previously generated AMP amino acid substitution data, we developed an amino acid activity contribution matrix that contained an activity contribution value for each amino acid in each position of the model peptide. A series of AMPs were designed with this method. After evaluating the antimicrobial activities of these novel AMPs against both Gram-positive and Gram-negative bacterial strains, DP7 was chosen for further analysis. Compared to the parent peptide HH2, this novel AMP showed broad-spectrum, improved antimicrobial activity, and in a cytotoxicity assay it showed lower toxicity against human cells. The in vivo antimicrobial activity of DP7 was tested in a Staphylococcus aureus infection murine model. When inoculated and treated via intraperitoneal injection, DP7 reduced the bacterial load in the peritoneal lavage solution. Electron microscope imaging and the results indicated disruption of the S. aureus outer membrane by DP7. Our new prediction method can therefore be employed to identify AMPs possessing minor amino acid differences with improved antimicrobial activities, potentially increasing the therapeutic agents available to combat multidrug-resistant infections.
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[Determination of drug antibody ratio in an antibody-drug conjugate].
Yao Xue Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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This paper reports the determination of the drug antibody ratio in an antibody-drug conjugate with two methods, i.e. LC-MS and UV/VIS, and to provide a reliable method to scientifically evaluate and effectively control the drug antibody ratio. Deglycosylated sample was analyzed with C4 column followed by MS, and the number of conjugated drugs in the antibody was determined by the molecular weight increase due to the addition of different number of drugs to the antibody, and then drug antibody ratio was calculated by weighted average of different number of drugs conjugated to the antibody. Optical density at 252 and 280 nm was measured with UV/VIS, and due to the difference of extinction coefficients between the antibody and the drug, the drug antibody ratio was calculated from linear equation with two unknowns. The drug antibody ratio was 3.21 and 3.25 respectively measured by the two methods, and the results were similar with the two methods. Our study indicated that both methods, LC-MS and UV/VIS, could be applied to the analysis of drug antibody ratio of the antibody drug conjugate.
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Conjugated polymer nanoparticles for cell membrane imaging.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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The outstanding optical properties and biocompatibility of fluorescent conjugated polymer nanoparticles (CPNs) make them favorable for bioimaging application. However, few CPNs could achieve stable cell membrane labeling due to cell endocytosis. In this work, conjugated polymer nanoparticles (PFPNP-PLE) encapsulated with PFP and PLGA-PEG-N3 in the matrix and functionalized with the small-molecule drug plerixafor (PLE) on the surface were prepared by a mini-emulsion method. PFPNP-PLE exhibits excellent photophysical properties, low cytotoxicity, and specific cytomembrane location, which makes it a potential cell membrane labeling reagent with blue fluorescence emission, an important component for multilabel/multicolor bioimaging.
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Edaravone protects neurons in the rat substantia nigra against 6-hydroxydopamine-induced oxidative stress damage.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2014
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To investigate the mechanism of the neuroprotective effect of edaravone in substantia nigra (SN) of the 6-OHDA-induced rat model of Parkinson's disease. Animal model of Parkinson's disease was induced in male Sprague-Dawley rats by injecting 6-OHDA into the left medial forebrain bundle. Subsequently, rats were intraperitoneally injected with 0.3, 1, or 3 mg/kg of edaravone for 14 days or with 3 mg/kg edaravone for 14 days followed by 14 days of no treatment. We evaluated the effect of edaravone on the rotational and normal behavior of the rats, and on the number of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH)-positive cells, the amount of Nissl bodies, and the levels of glutathione (GSH), and malondialdehyde (MDA) in the SN. Edaravone treatment at 3 mg/kg significantly reduced apomorphine-induced rotational behavior (P < 0.01), improved the spontaneous behavior, prevented the decrease in the levels of TH-positive cells, Nissl bodies and GSH, and inhibited the increase in the levels of MDA (P < 0.05) in SN of rats with 6-OHDA-induced PD. Edaravone exerted a long-term neuroprotective effects in 6-OHDA-induced PD animal model by attenuating changes in the levels of GSH and MDA in SN, caused by oxidative stress. Edaravone prevented 6-OHDA-induced behavioral changes and de-pigmentation of SN that results from the loss of dopaminergic neurons.
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Lip segmentation under MAP-MRF framework with automatic selection of local observation scale and number of segments.
IEEE Trans Image Process
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2014
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This paper addresses the problem of segmenting lip region from frontal human face image. Supposing each pixel of the target image has an optimal local scale from the segmentation viewpoint, we treat the lip segmentation problem as a combination of observation scale selection and observed data classification. Accordingly, we propose a hierarchical multiscale Markov random field (MRF) model to represent the membership map of each input pixel to a specific segment and local-scale map simultaneously. Subsequently, lip segmentation can be formulated as an optimal problem in the maximum a posteriori (MAP)-MRF framework. Then, we present a rival-penalized iterative algorithm to implement the segmentation, which is independent of the number of predefined segments. The proposed method mainly features two aspects: 1) its performance is independent of the predefined number of segments, and 2) it takes into account the local optimal observation scale for each pixel. Finally, we conduct the experiments on four benchmark databases, i.e. AR, CVL, GTAV, and VidTIMIT. Experimental results show that the proposed method is robust to the segment number that changes with a speaker's appearance, and can enhance the segmentation accuracy by taking advantage of the local optimal observation scale information.
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[Elucidation of key genes in sex determination in genetics teaching].
Yi Chuan
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2014
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Sex is an important and complex feature of organisms, which is controlled by the genetic and environmental factors. The genetic factors, i.e., genes, are vital in sex determination. However, not all the related genes play the same roles, and some key genes play a vital role in the sex determination and differentiation. With the development of the modern genetics, a great progress on the key genes has been made in sex determination. In this review, we summarize the mechanism of sex determination and the strategy of how to study the key genes in sex determination. It will help us to understand the mechanism of sex determination better in the teaching of genetics.
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[Genotypes and serotypes of avian infectious bronchitis viruses isolated during 2009-2011 in Guangxi, China].
Bing Du Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2014
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In order to investigate the prevalence and track genetic and antigenic evolutions of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) and their prevalence in Guangxi, China since 1985, gene amplification and sequencing and virus neutralization (VN) test on chicken embryo tracheal organ cultures were used in genotyping and serotyping of 28 IBV isolates during 2009-2011 in Guangxi. The results of N gene sequencing and comparison showed that the 28 isolates and reference strains were classified into three groups, and most isolates belonged to group Ill, while the isolates in 1985-2008 belonged to groups IV and II. The data of VN test indicated that the 28 isolates belonged to 6 serotypes; among them, 71. 4% belonged to serotypes 1, 2, and 3, and 11 (39.3%) shared the same serotype with the current vaccine strains. Given the data of our previous study, it is found that prevalent serotypes and their proportions varied in different areas of Guangxi and during different periods. These data lay a good foundation for developing an oil-emulsified inactivated polyvalent vaccine containing local dominant serotypes for the effective prevention and control of infectious bronchitis.
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Ditopic boronic acid and imine-based naphthalimide fluorescence sensor for copper(II).
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 06-12-2014
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Copper ions are essential for many biological processes. However, high concentrations of copper can be detrimental to the cell or organism. A novel naphthalimide derivative bearing a monoboronic acid group (BNP) was investigated as a Cu(2+) selective fluorescent sensor in living cells. This derivative is one of the rare examples of reversible fluorescent chemosensors for Cu(2+) which uses a boronic acid group for a binding site. Moreover, the adduct BNP-Cu(2+) displays a fluorescence enhancement with fructose. The uptake of this novel compound in HeLa cancer cells was imaged using confocal fluorescence microscopy techniques including two-photon fluorescence lifetime imaging microscopy.
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Biological activities of novel pyrazolyl hydroxamic acid derivatives against human lung cancer cell line A549.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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We synthesized a series of novel pyrazolyl hydroxamic acid derivatives (4a-4l) and investigated their biological activities against human lung cancer cell line A549 in vitro to determine their mechanism of action. The results showed that the majority of derivatives had inhibitory effects on the growth of A549 cancer cells in dose and time-dependent manners, in which the compounds 4b, 4f, 4h and 4j (10 ?M) exerted more effective anti-proliferation activity. However, it should be noted that 4j may result in necrosis at 10 ?M. Furthermore, the three compounds 4b, 4f and 4h induced cell cycle arrest at G1 phase and triggered autophagy, but could not obviously induce apoptosis and necrosis under the stimulatory condition. Therefore, the pyrazolyl hydroxamic acid derivatives 4b, 4f and 4h can be used to investigate the regulatory mechanism of autophagy and offer new approaches to the prevention of lung cancer.
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Protein phosphatase 4 promotes hepatic lipogenesis through dephosphorylating acetyl?CoA carboxylase 1 on serine 79.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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Reversible phosphorylation has a critical role in the regulation of the activity of acetyl?CoA carboxylase 1 (ACC1), which is associated with de novo lipogenesis. It has been shown that AMP?activated protein kinase (AMPK) phosphorylates ACC1 on serine 79 and inhibits its activity; however, the mechanism of ACC1 dephosphorylation remains elusive. Protein phosphatase 4 (PP4), a ubiquitous serine/threonine phosphatase, regulates a variety of cellular functions; however, whether PP4 is involved in lipid metabolism has yet to be elucidated. In the present study, PP4 was identified as a novel regulator of ACC1, which is also involved in hepatic lipogenesis. The expression of PP4 was found to be significantly increased in the livers of db/db mice. Furthermore, pACC1?Ser79/ACC1 levels were observed to be decreased and high triglyceride accumulation was found in the livers of db/db mice. Moreover, PP4 overexpression was observed to lead to a decreased pACC1?Ser79/ACC1 ratio and subsequently an increased intracellular triglyceride content in mouse primary hepatocytes. PP4 was also found to directly interact with pACC1?Ser79 in human HepG2 cells. In conclusion, the present study showed that PP4 may be a novel regulator in hepatic lipogenesis through dephosphorylating ACC1 on serine 79, suggesting that PP4 may be a promising therapeutic target in lipid metabolism disorders.
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Automatic voxel positioning for MRS at 7 T.
MAGMA
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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The purpose of this study was to test, for the first time, whether spectroscopy voxels could be positioned automatically with high accuracy and reproducibility in ultrahigh-field longitudinal magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS) studies.
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Mild alkali-pretreatment effectively extracts guaiacyl-rich lignin for high lignocellulose digestibility coupled with largely diminishing yeast fermentation inhibitors in Miscanthus.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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In this study, various alkali-pretreated lignocellulose enzymatic hydrolyses were evaluated by using three standard pairs of Miscanthus accessions that showed three distinct monolignol (G, S, H) compositions. Mfl26 samples with elevated G-levels exhibited significantly increased hexose yields of up to 1.61-fold compared to paired samples derived from enzymatic hydrolysis, whereas Msa29 samples with high H-levels displayed increased hexose yields of only up to 1.32-fold. In contrast, Mfl30 samples with elevated S-levels showed reduced hexose yields compared to the paired sample of 0.89-0.98 folds at p<0.01. Notably, only the G-rich biomass samples exhibited complete enzymatic hydrolysis under 4% NaOH pretreatment. Furthermore, the G-rich samples showed more effective extraction of lignin-hemicellulose complexes than the S- and H-rich samples upon NaOH pretreatment, resulting in large removal of lignin inhibitors to yeast fermentation. Therefore, this study proposes an optimal approach for minor genetic lignin modification towards cost-effective biomass process in Miscanthus.
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A steroid receptor coactivator acts as the DNA-binding partner of the methoprene-tolerant protein in regulating juvenile hormone response genes.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2014
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Methoprene-tolerant (Met) protein is a juvenile hormone (JH) receptor in insects. JH-bound Met forms a complex with the ?Ftz-F1-interacting steroid receptor coactivator (FISC) and together they regulate JH response genes in mosquitoes. Both proteins contain basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) and PAS motifs. Here we demonstrated that FISC is the obligatory partner of Met for binding to JH-response elements (JHREs). Met or FISC alone could not bind a previously characterized JHRE, while formation of the Met-FISC complex was necessary and sufficient to bind to the JHRE. This binding required participation of the DNA-binding domains of both Met and FISC. The optimal DNA sequence recognized by Met and FISC contained a core consensus sequence GCACGTG. While formation of the Met-FISC complex in mosquito cells was induced by JH, heterodimerization and DNA binding of bacterially expressed Met and FISC were JH-independent, implying that additional mosquito proteins were required to modulate formation of the receptor complex.
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NF-?B signaling inhibition and anticancer activities of LLDT-246 on human colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells in vitro.
Biomed. Pharmacother.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2014
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Triptolide attracts attention for its anti-inflammatory, immune modulation, anti-proliferative and pro-apoptotic activity, but the clinical application of triptolide is restricted by its serious toxicity. Here, we demonstrate LLDT-246, a new triptolide derivative, exhibited a little more potent activity of NF-?B inhibition and cytotoxicity whether acting alone or in combination with TNF-? on colorectal cancer HCT-116 cells than its maternal compound, and showed low toxic to non-cancer cells. Mechanism study revealed that LLDT-246 inhibited phosphorylation of AKT, p-GSK3? and p-mTOR, however, no significant effects were found on the level of p-ERK and p-JNK, along with HSP70, indicating LLDT-246 indirectly affects NF-?B and suppresses NF-?B signaling largely by interpreting AKT/GSK3?/mTOR pathway. Altogether, LLDT-246 is a promising anticancer derivative of triptolide, further studies in vivo and about detailed mechanism of LLDT-246 is required in the future.
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Emodin opposes chronic unpredictable mild stress induced depressive-like behavior in mice by upregulating the levels of hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor and brain-derived neurotrophic factor.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Emodin, the major active component of Rhubarb, has shown neuroprotective activity. This study is attempted to investigate whether emodin possesses beneficial effects on chronic unpredictable mild stress (CUMS)-induced behavioral deficits (depression-like behaviors) and explore the possible mechanisms. ICR mice were subjected to chronic unpredictable mild stress for 42 consecutive days. Then, emodin and fluoxetine (positive control drug) were administered for 21 consecutive days at the last three weeks of CUMS procedure. The classical behavioral tests: open field test (OFT), sucrose preference test (SPT), tail suspension test (TST) and forced swimming test (FST) were applied to evaluate the antidepressant effects of emodin. Then plasma corticosterone concentration, hippocampal glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were tested to probe the mechanisms. Our results indicated that 6 weeks of CUMS exposure induced significant depression-like behavior, with high, plasma corticosterone concentration and low hippocampal GR and BDNF expression levels. Whereas, chronic emodin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) treatments reversed the behavioral deficiency induced by CUMS exposure. Treatment with emodin normalized the change of plasma corticosterone level, which demonstrated that emodin could partially restore CUMS-induced HPA axis impairments. Besides, hippocampal GR (mRNA and protein) and BDNF (mRNA) expressions were also up-regulated after emodin treatments. In conclusion, emodin remarkably improved depression-like behavior in CUMS mice and its antidepressant activity is mediated, at least in part, by the up-regulating GR and BDNF levels in hippocampus.
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Proline Isomerization of the Immune Receptor-Interacting Protein RIN4 by a Cyclophilin Inhibits Effector-Triggered Immunity in Arabidopsis.
Cell Host Microbe
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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In the absence of pathogen infection, plant effector-triggered immune (ETI) receptors are maintained in a preactivation state by intermolecular interactions with other host proteins. Pathogen effector-induced alterations activate the receptor. In Arabidopsis, the ETI receptor RPM1 is activated via bacterial effector AvrB-induced phosphorylation of the RPM1-interacting protein RIN4 at Threonine 166. We find that RIN4 also interacts with the prolyl-peptidyl isomerase (PPIase) ROC1, which is reduced upon RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation. ROC1 suppresses RPM1 immunity in a PPIase-dependent manner. Consistent with this, RIN4 Pro149 undergoes cis/trans isomerization in the presence of ROC1. While the RIN4(P149V) mutation abolishes RPM1 resistance, the deletion of Pro149 leads to RPM1 activation in the absence of RIN4 phosphorylation. These results support a model in which RPM1 directly senses conformational changes in RIN4 surrounding Pro149 that is controlled by ROC1. RIN4 Thr166 phosphorylation indirectly regulates RPM1 resistance by modulating the ROC1-mediated RIN4 isomerization.
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New insights into Alzheimer's disease amyloid inhibition: nanosized metallo-supramolecular complexes suppress a?-induced biosynthesis of heme and iron uptake in PC12 cells.
Adv Healthc Mater
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2014
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Nanosized metallo-supramolecular compounds, [Ni2 L3 ](4+) and [Fe2 L3 ](4+) , can not only strongly inhibit A? aggregation but also reduce the peroxidase activity of A?-heme. Further studies demonstrate that through blocking the heme-binding site, these two compounds can suppress A?-induced biosynthesis of heme and iron uptake in PC12 cells. This work provides new insights into molecular mechanisms of A? inhibitors on A?-mediated neurotoxicity.
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The effect of patient age on the success of laryngeal reinnervation.
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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The objective of the study was to investigate the influence of patient age on the efficacy of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis in unilateral vocal fold paralysis (UVFP) patients. We retrospectively reviewed 349 consecutive UVFP cases of laryngeal reinnervation with ansa cervicalis to the recurrent laryngeal nerve anastomosis. Preoperative and postoperative videostroboscopy, perceptual evaluation, acoustic analysis, maximum phonation time (MPT) and laryngeal electromyography (EMG) data were collected. Gender, age, preoperative EMG status [preoperative voluntary motor unit recruitment (VMUR)] and denervation duration were analyzed in previous multivariable logistic regression analysis. Stratification analysis was performed on patient age in the present study. All patients were divided into four groups according to their age: Group A included patients with an age less than 30 years; Group B, 30-44 years; Group C, 45-59 years; Group D, ?60 years. Stratification analysis on patient age showed significant differences between Group A and D, Group B and D, Group C and D (P < 0.05), but no significant difference between Group A and B, Group A and C, Group B and C (P > 0.05), respectively, with regard to parameters including glottal closure, overall grade, shimmer, noise-to-harmonics ratio; but there are no significant differences among the four groups with regard to jitter. However, for MPT and postoperative VMUR, there are significant differences among the four groups expect between Group A and B. In addition, glottal closure, perceptual and acoustic parameters, MPT values and VMUR data, were significantly improved postoperatively in each age group (P < 0.01). The data from this study indicate that patient age is an influential factor of the surgical outcome of laryngeal reinnervation for UVFP patients. Laryngeal reinnervation is less effective when patient age is more than 60 years.
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Preparation and characterization of cellulose nanofibers from de-pectinated sugar beet pulp.
Carbohydr Polym
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2014
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Cellulose nanofibers (diameter=10-70 nm) were produced using chemical treatments (alkali treatment and bleaching) and high pressure homogenization from de-pectinated sugar beet pulp (DSBP). Chemical analysis and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) indicated that the chemical treatments greatly removed the hemicellulose and lignin from the DSBP and significantly increased the cellulose content. The crystallinity of the cellulose nanofibers increased from 35.67% to 69.62% after alkali treatment and bleaching. The thermal degradation temperature of DSBP cellulose nanofibers was 271.7 °C which was found to be 47.3 °C higher than that of the untreated DSBP. The DSBP cellulose nanofibers can be preferably used as reinforcement in the biocomposite material at high temperature.
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Ad-endostatin treatment combined with low-dose irradiation in a murine lung cancer model.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 01-27-2014
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Radiation therapy is a conventional strategy for treating advanced lung cancer yet is accompanied by serious side-effects. Its combination with other strategies, such as antiangiogenesis and gene therapy, has shown excellent prospects. As one of the potent endogenous vascular inhibitors, endostatin has been widely used in the antiangiogenic gene therapy of tumors. In the present study, LL/2 cells were infected with a recombinant adenovirus encoding endostatin (Ad-endostatin) to express endostatin. The results showed that LL/2 cells infected with the Ad-endostatin efficiently and longlastingly expressed endostatin. In order to further explore the role of Ad-endostatin combined with irradiation in the treatment of cancer, a murine lung cancer model was established and treated with Ad-endostatin combined with low-dose irradiation. The results showed that the combination treatment markedly inhibited tumor growth and metastasis, and prolonged the survival time of the tumor-bearing mice. Furthermore, this significant antitumor activity was associated with lower levels of microvessel density and anoxia factors in the Ad-Endo combined with irradiation group, and with an increased apoptotic index of tumor cells. In addition, no serious side-effects were noted in the combination group. Based on our findings, Ad-endostatin combined with low-dose irradiation may be a rational alternative treatment for lung cancer and other solid tumors.
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Sugar-rich sweet sorghum is distinctively affected by wall polymer features for biomass digestibility and ethanol fermentation in bagasse.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Sweet sorghum has been regarded as a typical species for rich soluble-sugar and high lignocellulose residues, but their effects on biomass digestibility remain unclear. In this study, we examined total 63 representative sweet sorghum accessions that displayed a varied sugar level at stalk and diverse cell wall composition at bagasse. Correlative analysis showed that both soluble-sugar and dry-bagasse could not significantly affect lignocellulose saccharification under chemical pretreatments. Comparative analyses of five typical pairs of samples indicated that DP of crystalline cellulose and arabinose substitution degree of non-KOH-extractable hemicelluloses distinctively affected lignocellulose crystallinity for high biomass digestibility. By comparison, lignin could not alter lignocellulose crystallinity, but the KOH-extractable G-monomer predominately determined lignin negative impacts on biomass digestions, and the G-levels released from pretreatments significantly inhibited yeast fermentation. The results also suggested potential genetic approaches for enhancing soluble-sugar level and lignocellulose digestibility and reducing ethanol conversion inhibition in sweet sorghum.
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Effective inhibition of melanoma tumorigenesis and growth via a new complex vaccine based on NY-ESO-1-alum-polysaccharide-HH2.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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A safe and effective adjuvant plays an important role in the development of a vaccine. However, adjuvants licensed for administration in humans remain limited. Here, for the first time, we developed a novel combination adjuvant alum-polysaccharide-HH2 (APH) with potent immunomodulating activities, consisting of alum, polysaccharide of Escherichia coli and the synthetic cationic innate defense regulator peptide HH2.
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Ionic liquids as precursors for highly luminescent, surface-different nitrogen-doped carbon dots used for label-free detection of Cu2+/Fe3+ and cell imaging.
Anal. Chim. Acta
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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Carbon nanodots (C-Dots) have attracted much attention in recent years due to their low cost, ready scalability, excellent chemical stability, biocompatibility and multicolor luminescence. Here, we report a facile strategy for producing highly luminescent, surface-different nitrogen-doped carbon dots (C-Dots) by using different ionic liquids (ILs). Intriguingly, the surface-different C-Dots show different selectivity for Cu(2+) and Fe(3+). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first example which shows that ILs are excellent precursors for producing luminescent nanomaterial used for detection of different metal ions. The resultant nitrogen-doped C-Dots are highly photoluminescent and can be used for multicolor bioimaging. Most notable, by taking different ILs as precursors, we obtain surface-different C-Dots, which can be directly used for selective detection of Cu(2+) and Fe(3+) without any modification. These C-Dots based sensors exhibit high sensitivity and selectivity and the sensing process can be easily accomplished with one-step rapid operation. More importantly, compared with other method using QDs, organic dyes and organic solvent, this strategy is much more eco-friendly. This work may offer a new approach for developing low cost and sensitive C-Dots-based sensors for biological and environmental applications.
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Characterization of the lipoxygenase (LOX) gene family in the Chinese white pear (Pyrus bretschneideri) and comparison with other members of the Rosaceae.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Lipoxygenases (LOXs), a type of non-haem iron-containing dioxygenase, are ubiquitous enzymes in plants and participate in the formation of fruit aroma which is a very important aspect of fruit quality. Amongst the various aroma volatiles, saturated and unsaturated alcohols and aldehydes provide the characteristic aroma of the fruit. These compounds are formed from unsaturated fatty acids through oxidation, pyrolysis and reduction steps. This biosynthetic pathway involves at least four enzymes, including LOX, the enzyme responsible for lipid oxidation. Although some studies have been conducted on the LOX gene family in several species including Arabidopsis, soybean, cucumber and apple, there is no information from pear; and the evolutionary history of this gene family in the Rosaceae is still not resolved.
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Helicobacter pylori eradication for preventing gastric cancer.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
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Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection is a major risk factor for gastric cancer (GC) development, which is one of the most challenging malignant diseases worldwide with limited treatments. In the multistep pathogenesis of GC, H. pylori infection slowly induces chronic active gastritis, which progresses through the premalignant stages of atrophic gastritis, intestinal metaplasia, and dysplasia, and then finally to GC. Although eradication of H. pylori is a reasonable approach for the prevention of GC, there have been some contradictory reports, with only some long-term follow-up data showing efficacy of this approach. The inconsistencies are likely due to the insufficient number of participants, relatively short follow-up periods, poor quality of study designs, and the degree and extent of preneoplastic changes at the time of H. pylori eradication. This review analyzes recent high-quality studies to resolve the discrepancies regarding the eradication of H. pylori for GC prevention. The relationship between H. pylori eradication and GC/precancerous lesions/metachronous GC is examined, and the cost-effectiveness of this strategy in the prevention of GC is assessed. Although it is assumed that eradication of H. pylori has the potential to prevent GC, the feasibility and appropriate timing of this strategy for cancer prevention remain to be determined. As a result, additional well-designed trials with longer follow-up periods are needed to clarify this issue.
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New types of wheat chromosomal structural variations in derivatives of wheat-rye hybrids.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Chromosomal rearrangements induced by wheat-rye hybridization is a very well investigated research topic. However, the structural alterations of wheat chromosomes in wheat-rye hybrids are seldom reported.
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Suppression of peritoneal tumorigenesis by placenta-derived mesenchymal stem cells expressing endostatin on colorectal cancer.
Int J Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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MSCs-based therapy for cancer is a relatively new but rapidly growing area of research. Human term placenta, an attractive source of MSCs (PMSCs), appears to have great advantage due to its easy access without invasive procedures, its lack of ethical issues and its high-throughput and young age. In the present study, we isolated MSCs from placenta and characterized their morphology and differentiation capacities. We next investigated the underlying antitumor effects and the potential mechanism of PMSCs to express endostatin using adenoviral transduction (Ad-Endo) in a colorectal peritoneal carcinomatosis (CRPC) mouse model. For in vitro experiments, the migratory potential of Ad-Endo-PMSCs towards tumor cells was demonstrated using a double-chamber assay, and the anti-angiogenesis ability of endostatin from engineered PMSCs was evaluated using the tube formation assay. For the in vivo study, mice harboring CT26 colorectal cancer indicated a significant reduction in tumor nodules and a prolongation of survival following Ad-Endo-PMSCs therapy. These observations were associated with significantly decreased tumor cell proliferation and blood vessel counts as well as increased tumor cell apoptosis. These data suggested the potential of PMSCs-based gene therapy for the targeted delivery of therapeutic proteins in cancer.
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Bonding of resin cement to zirconia with high pressure primer coating.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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To investigate the effect of air-drying pressure during ceramic primer coating on zirconia/resin bonding and the surface characteristics of the primed zirconia.
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[Abnormal dendritic cells mediated immune response in a rat model of visceral hypersensitivity].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To explore the role of altered characteristics of intestinal dendritic cell (DC) in the induction of visceral hyperalgesia through the activation of mast cells in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS).
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.