Epstein-Barr virus (EBV), a type of oncogenic herpesvirus, is associated with human malignancies. Previous studies have shown that lytic reactivation of EBV in latently-infected cells induces ATM-dependent DNA damage response (DDR). The involvement of ATM activation has been implicated in inducing viral lytic genes transcription to promote lytic reactivation. Its contribution to the formation of replication compartment during lytic reactivation of EBV remains poorly defined. In this study, the role of ATM in viral DNA replication was investigated in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells. We observed that induction of lytic infection of EBV triggers ATM activation and localization of DDR proteins at the viral replication compartments. Suppression of ATM activity using siRNA approach or specific chemical inhibitor profoundly suppressed replication of EBV DNA and production of infectious virion in EBV-infected cells induced to undergo lytic reactivation. We further showed that phosphorylation of Sp1 at Serine-101 residue is essential in promoting the accretion of EBV replication proteins at the replication compartment which is crucial for replication of viral DNA. Knockdown of Sp1 expression by siRNA effectively suppressed replication of viral DNA and localization of EBV replication proteins to the replication compartments. Our study supports an important role of ATM activation in lytic reactivation of EBV in epithelial cells and phosphorylation of Sp1 is an essential process downstream of ATM activation involved in the formation of viral replication compartments. Our study revealed an essential role of ATM-dependent DDR pathway in lytic reactivation of EBV suggesting a potential anti-viral replication strategy using specific DDR inhibitors.
Dyslexia is a polygenic developmental disorder characterized by difficulties in reading and spelling despite normal intelligence, educational backgrounds and perception. Increasing evidences indicated that dyslexia may share similar genetic mechanisms with other speech and language disorders. We proposed that stuttering candidate genes, DRD2 and SLC6A3, might be associated with dyslexia.
Repair of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) by homologous recombination requires 5'-3' resection of the DSB ends. In vertebrates, DSB resection is initiated by the collaborative action of CtIP and the MRE11-RAD50-NBS1 (MRN) complex. However, how this process occurs within the context of chromatin is still not well understood.
Translesion DNA synthesis (TLS) is a universal DNA damage tolerance mechanism conserved from yeast to mammals. A key event in the regulation of TLS is the monoubiquitination of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). Extensive evidence indicates that the RAD6-RAD18 ubiquitin-conjugating/ligase complex specifically monoubiquitinates PCNA and regulates TLS repair. However, the mechanism by which the RAD6-RAD18 complex is targeted to PCNA has remained elusive. In this study, we used an affinity purification approach to isolate the PCNA-containing complex and have identified SIVA1 as a critical regulator of PCNA monoubiquitination. We show that SIVA1 constitutively interacts with PCNA via a highly conserved PCNA-interacting peptide motif. Knockdown of SIVA1 compromised RAD18-dependent PCNA monoubiquitination and Pol? focus formation, leading to elevated ultraviolet sensitivity and mutation. Furthermore, we demonstrate that SIVA1 interacts with RAD18 and serves as a molecular bridge between RAD18 and PCNA, thus targeting the E3 ligase activity of RAD18 onto PCNA. Collectively, our results provide evidence that the RAD18 E3 ligase requires an accessory protein for binding to its substrate PCNA.
The p38 MAPK signal transduction pathway plays an important role in inflammatory and stress responses. MAPKK6 (MKK6), a dual specificity protein kinase, is a p38 activator. Activation of the MKK6-p38 pathway is kept in check by multiple layers of regulations, including autoinhibition, dimerization, scaffold proteins, and Lys-63-linked polyubiquitination. However, the mechanisms underlying deactivation of MKK6-p38, which is crucial for maintaining the magnitude and duration of signal transduction, are not well understood. Lys-48-linked ubiquitination, which marks substrates for proteasomal degradation, is an important negative posttranslational regulatory machinery for signal pathway transduction. Here we report that the accumulation of F-box only protein 31 (FBXO31), a component of Skp1 · Cul1 · F-box protein E3 ligase, negatively regulated p38 activation in cancer cells upon genotoxic stresses. Our results show that FBXO31 binds to MKK6 and mediates its Lys-48-linked polyubiquitination and degradation, thereby functioning as a negative regulator of MKK6-p38 signaling and protecting cells from stress-induced cell apoptosis. Taken together, our findings uncover a new mechanism of deactivation of MKK6-p38 and substantiate a novel regulatory role of FBXO31 in stress response.
Ubiquitylation plays key roles in DNA damage signal transduction. The current model envisions that lysine63-linked ubiquitin chains, via the concerted action of E3 ubiquitin ligases RNF8-RNF168, are built at DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) to effectively assemble DNA damage-repair factors for proper checkpoint control and DNA repair. We found that RNF168 is a short-lived protein that is stabilized by the deubiquitylating enzyme USP34 in response to DNA damage. In the absence of USP34, RNF168 is rapidly degraded, resulting in attenuated DSB-associated ubiquitylation, defective recruitment of BRCA1 and 53BP1 and compromised cell survival after ionizing radiation. We propose that USP34 promotes a feed-forward loop to enforce ubiquitin signaling at DSBs and highlight critical roles of ubiquitin dynamics in genome stability maintenance.
BRCA1 carboxyl-terminal (BRCT) motifs are present in a number of proteins involved in DNA repair and/or DNA damage signaling pathways. The BRCT domain-containing protein BRCTx has been shown to interact physically with RAD18, an E3 ligase involved in postreplication repair and homologous recombination repair. However, the physiological relevance of the interaction between RAD18 and BRCTx is largely unknown. In this study, we showed that RAD18 interacts with BRCTx in a phosphorylation-dependent manner and that this interaction, mediated via highly conserved serine residues on the RAD18 C terminus, is required for BRCTx accumulation at DNA damage sites. Furthermore, we uncovered critical roles of the RAD18-BRCTx module in UV-induced DNA damage repair but not PCNA mono-ubiquitination or homologous recombination. Thus, our results suggest that RAD18 has an additional function in the surveillance of the UV-induced DNA damage response signal.
Pairing of a given E3 ubiquitin ligase with different E2s allows synthesis of ubiquitin conjugates of different topologies. While this phenomenon contributes to functional diversity, it remains largely unknown how a single E3 ubiquitin ligase recognizes multiple E2s, and whether identical structural requirements determine their respective interactions. The E3 ubiquitin ligase RNF8 that plays a critically important role in transducing DNA damage signals, interacts with E2s UBCH8 and UBC13, and catalyzes both K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chains. Interestingly, we report here that a single-point mutation (I405A) on the RNF8 polypeptide uncouples its ability in catalyzing K48- and K63-linked ubiquitin chain formation. Accordingly, while RNF8 interacted with E2s UBCH8 and UBC13, its I405A mutation selectively disrupted its functional interaction with UBCH8, and impaired K48-based poly-ubiquitylation reactions. In contrast, RNF8 I405A preserved its interaction with UBC13, synthesized K63-linked ubiquitin chains, and assembled BRCA1 and 53BP1 at sites of DNA breaks. Together, our data suggest that RNF8 regulates K48- and K63-linked poly-ubiquitylation via differential RING-dependent interactions with its E2s UBCH8 and UBC13, respectively.
MCPH1 is especially important for linking chromatin remodeling to DNA damage response. It contains three BRCT (BRCA1-carboxyl terminal) domains. The N-terminal region directly binds with chromatin remodeling complex SWI-SNF, and the C-terminal BRCT2-BRCT3 domains (tandem BRCT domains) are involved in cellular DNA damage response. The MCPH1 gene associates with evolution of brain size, and its variation can cause primary microcephaly. In this study we solve the crystal structures of MCPH1 natural variant (A761) C-terminal tandem BRCT domains alone as well as in complex with ?H2AX tail. Compared with other structures of tandem BRCT domains, the most significant differences lie in phosphopeptide binding pocket. Additionally, fluorescence polarization assays demonstrate that MCPH1 tandem BRCT domains show a binding selectivity on pSer +3 and prefer to bind phosphopeptide with free COOH-terminus. Taken together, our research provides new structural insights into BRCT-phosphopeptide recognition mechanism.
Amplification of 3q26 is one of the most frequent genetic alterations in many human malignancies. Recently, we isolated a novel oncogene eIF-5A2 within the 3q26 region. Functional study has demonstrated the oncogenic role of eIF-5A2 in the initiation and progression of human cancers. In the present study, we aim to investigate the physiological and pathological effect of eIF-5A2 in an eIF-5A2 transgenic mouse model.
The EBV-encoded latent membrane protein 1 (LMP1) functions as a constitutive active form of tumor necrosis factor receptor (TNFR) and activates multiple downstream signaling pathways similar to CD40 signaling in a ligand-independent manner. LMP1 expression in EBV-infected cells has been postulated to play an important role in pathogenesis of nasopharyngeal carcinoma. However, variable levels of LMP1 expression were detected in nasopharyngeal carcinoma. At present, the regulation of LMP1 levels in nasopharyngeal carcinoma is poorly understood. Here we show that LMP1 mRNAs are transcribed in an EBV-positive nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) cell line (C666-1) and other EBV-negative nasopharyngeal carcinoma cells stably re-infected with EBV. The protein levels of LMP1 could readily be detected after incubation with proteasome inhibitor, MG132 suggesting that LMP1 protein is rapidly degraded via proteasome-mediated proteolysis. Interestingly, we observed that Id1 overexpression could stabilize LMP1 protein in EBV-infected cells. In contrary, Id1 knockdown significantly reduced LMP1 levels in cells. Co-immunoprecipitation studies revealed that Id1 interacts with LMP1 by binding to the CTAR1 domain of LMP1. N-terminal region of Id1 is required for the interaction with LMP1. Furthermore, binding of Id1 to LMP1 suppressed polyubiquitination of LMP1 and may be involved in stabilization of LMP1 in EBV-infected nasopharyngeal epithelial cells.
Histone ubiquitylation is emerging as an important protective component in cellular responses to DNA damage. The ubiquitin ligases RNF8 and RNF168 assemble ubiquitin chains onto histone molecules surrounding DNA breaks and facilitate retention of DNA repair proteins. Although RNF8 and RNF168 play important roles in repair of DNA double strand breaks, their requirement for cell protection from replication stress is largely unknown. In this study, we uncovered RNF168-independent roles of RNF8 in repair of replication inhibition-induced DNA damage. We showed that RNF8 depletion, but not RNF168 depletion, hyper-sensitized cells to hydroxyurea and aphidicolin treatment. Consistently, hydroxyurea induced persistent single strand DNA lesions and sustained CHK1 activation in RNF8-depleted cells. In line with strict requirement for RAD51-dependent repair of hydroxyurea-stalled replication forks, RNF8 depletion compromised RAD51 accumulation onto single strand DNA lesions, suggesting that impaired replication fork repair may underlie the enhanced cellular sensitivity to replication arrest observed in RNF8-depleted cells. In total, our study highlights the differential requirement for the ubiquitin ligase RNF8 in facilitating repair of replication stress-associated DNA damage.
The mammalian shelterin component TPP1 has essential roles in telomere maintenance and, together with POT1, is required for the repression of DNA damage signaling at telomeres. Here we show that in Mus musculus, the E3 ubiquitin ligase Rnf8 localizes to uncapped telomeres and promotes the accumulation of DNA damage proteins 53Bp1 and ?-H2ax. In the absence of Rnf8, Tpp1 is unstable, resulting in telomere shortening and chromosome fusions through the alternative nonhomologous end-joining (A-NHEJ) repair pathway. The Rnf8 RING-finger domain is essential for Tpp1 stability and retention at telomeres. Rnf8 physically interacts with Tpp1 to generate Ubc13-dependent Lys63 polyubiquitin chains that stabilize Tpp1 at telomeres. The conserved Tpp1 residue Lys233 is important for Rnf8-mediated Tpp1 ubiquitylation and localization to telomeres. Thus, Tpp1 is a newly identified substrate for Rnf8, indicating a previously unrecognized role for Rnf8 in telomere end protection.
Mequindox, a quinoxaline-N-dioxide derivative that possesses antibacterial properties, has been widely used as a feed additive in the stockbreeding industry in China. While recent pharmacological studies have uncovered potential hazardous effects of mequindox, exactly how mequindox induces pathological changes and the cellular responses associated with its consumption remain largely unexplored. In this study, we investigated the cellular responses associated with mequindox treatment. We report here that mequindox inhibits cell proliferation by arresting cells at the G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Interestingly, this mequindox-associated deleterious effect on cell proliferation was observed in human, pig as well as chicken cells, suggesting that mequindox acts on evolutionarily conserved target(s). To further understand the mequindox-host interaction and the mechanism underlying mequindox-induced cell cycle arrest, we measured the cellular content of DNA damage, which is known to perturb cell proliferation and compromise cell survival. Accordingly, using ?-H2AX as a surrogate marker for DNA damage, we found that mequindox treatment induced cellular DNA damage, which paralleled the chemical-induced elevation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels. Importantly, expression of the antioxidant enzyme catalase partially alleviated these mequindox-associated effects. Taken together, our results suggest that mequindox cytotoxicity is attributable, in part, to its role as a potent inducer of DNA damage via ROS.
Protein p63 is a key regulator in cell proliferation and cell differentiation in stratified squamous epithelium. ?Np63? is the most commonly expressed p63 isoform, which is often overexpressed in human tumor. In the present work we report the potential involvement of ?Np63? in cell cycle regulation. ?Np63? accumulated in mitotic cells but its expression decreased during mitotic exit. Moreover, ?Np63? knockdown promoted mitotic exit. ?Np63? shares a conserved destruction box (D-box) motif with other potential targets of the Anaphase-Promoting Complex/Cyclosome (APC/C). Overexpression of APC/C coactivator Cdh1 destabilized ?Np63?. Our results suggest that ?Np63? level is cell cycle-regulated and may play a role in the regulation of mitotic exit.
The eukaryotic RNA splicing machinery is dedicated to the daunting task of excising intronic sequences on the many nascent RNA transcripts in a cell, and in doing so facilitates proper translation of its transcriptome. Notably, emerging evidence suggests that RNA splicing may also play direct roles in maintaining genome stability. Here we report the identification of the RNA/DNA-binding protein SON as a component of spliceosome that plays pleiotropic roles during mitotic progression. We found that SON is essential for cell proliferation, and that its inactivation triggers a MAD2-dependent mitotic delay. Moreover, SON deficiency is accompanied by defective chromosome congression, compromised chromosome segregation and cytokinesis, which in turn contributes to cellular aneuploidy and cell death. In summary, our study uncovers a specific link between SON and mitosis, and highlights the potential of RNA processing as additional regulatory mechanisms that govern cell proliferation and division.
The ATM kinase orchestrates diverse responses to DNA damage. By simultaneously monitoring transcription and DNA-damage responses in single cells, Shanbhag et al. (2010) now uncover a role of ATM in preventing transcription near DNA double-strand breaks.
The mammalian interphase chromatin responds to DNA damages by altering the compactness of its architecture, thereby permitting local access of DNA repair machineries. Adding to the cellular strategies of chromatin remodeling following DNA damage, our recent work identified the 53BP1-EXPAND1 module in promoting chromatin dynamics in response to DNA double-strand breaks. Endowed with a nucleosome-binding PWWP domain, EXPAND1 tethers to the chromatin where it is involved in maintaining basal chromatin accessibility in unperturbed cells. Interestingly, through its direct interaction with the DNA damage mediator protein 53BP1, EXPAND1 accumulates at the damage-modified chromatin and triggers its further decondensation. These observations, together with the fact that EXPAND 1 promotes cell survival following DNA damage, suggest that the chromatin-bound factor may facilitate DNA repair by regulating the organization of chromatin structure.
53BP1 is a well-known mediator of the cellular response to DNA damage. Two alternative mechanisms have been proposed to explain 53BP1s interaction with DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs), one by binding to methylated histones and the other via an RNF8 E3 ligase-dependent ubiquitylation pathway. The formation of RNF8 and 53BP1 irradiation-induced foci are both dependent on histone H2AX. To evaluate the contribution of the RNF8-dependent pathway to 53BP1 function, we generated RNF8 knockout mice. We report that RNF8 deficiency results in defective class switch recombination (CSR) and accumulation of unresolved immunoglobulin heavy chain-associated DSBs. The CSR DSB repair defect is milder than that observed in the absence of 53BP1 but similar to that found in H2AX(-/-) mice. Moreover, similar to H2AX but different from 53BP1 deficiency, RNF8(-/-) males are sterile, and this is associated with defective ubiquitylation of the XY chromatin. Combined loss of H2AX and RNF8 does not cause further impairment in CSR, demonstrating that the two genes function epistatically. Importantly, although 53BP1 foci formation is RNF8 dependent, its binding to chromatin is preserved in the absence of RNF8. This suggests a two-step mechanism for 53BP1 association with chromatin in which constitutive loading is dependent on interactions with methylated histones, whereas DNA damage-inducible RNF8-dependent ubiquitylation allows its accumulation at damaged chromatin.
Dynamic changes of chromatin structure facilitate diverse biological events, including DNA replication, repair, recombination, and gene transcription. Recent evidence revealed that DNA damage elicits alterations to the chromatin to facilitate proper checkpoint activation and DNA repair. Here we report the identification of the PWWP domain-containing protein EXPAND1/MUM1 as an architectural component of the chromatin, which in response to DNA damage serves as an accessory factor to promote cell survival. Depletion of EXPAND1/MUM1 or inactivation of its PWWP domain resulted in chromatin compaction. Upon DNA damage, EXPAND1/MUM1 rapidly concentrates at the vicinity of DNA damage sites via its direct interaction with 53BP1. Ablation of this interaction impaired damage-induced chromatin decondensation, which is accompanied by sustained DNA damage and hypersensitivity to genotoxic stress. Collectively, our study uncovers a chromatin-bound factor that serves an accessory role in coupling damage signaling with chromatin changes in response to DNA damage.
The breast and ovarian cancer type 1 susceptibility protein (BRCA1) has pivotal roles in the maintenance of genome stability. Studies support that BRCA1 exerts its tumour suppression function primarily through its involvement in cell cycle checkpoint control and DNA damage repair. In addition, recent proteomic and genetic studies have revealed the presence of distinct BRCA1 complexes in vivo, each of which governs a specific cellular response to DNA damage. Thus, BRCA1 is emerging as the master regulator of the genome through its ability to execute and coordinate various aspects of the DNA damage response.
Targeted gene repair directed by single-stranded oligodeoxynucleotides (ssODNs) offers a promising tool for biotechnology and gene therapy. However, the methodology is currently limited by its low frequency of repair events, variability, and low viability of "corrected" cells. In this study, we showed that during ssODN-mediated gene repair reaction, a significant population of corrected cells failed to divide, and were much more prone to undergo apoptosis, as marked by processing of caspases and PARP-1. In addition, we found that apoptotic cell death triggered by ssODN-mediated gene repair was largely independent of the ATM/ATR kinase. Furthermore, we examined the potential involvement of the mismatch repair (MMR) proteins in this "correction reaction-induced" cell death. Result showed that while defective MMR greatly enhanced the efficiency of gene correction, compromising the MMR system did not yield any viable corrected clone, indicating that the MMR machinery, although plays a critical role in determining ssODN-directed repair, was not involved in the observed cellular genotoxic responses.
PALB2 is an integral component of the BRCA complex important for recombinational DNA repair. However, exactly how this activity is regulated in vivo remains unexplored. Here we provide evidence to show that MRG15 is a novel PALB2-associated protein that ensures regulated recombination events. We found that the direct interaction between MRG15 and PALB2 is mediated by an evolutionarily conserved region on PALB2. Intriguingly, although damage-induced RAD51 foci formation and mitomycin C sensitivity appeared normal in MRG15-binding defective PALB2 mutants, these cells exhibited a significant increase in gene conversion rates. Consistently, we found that abrogation of the PALB2-MRG15 interaction resulted in elevated sister chromatid exchange frequencies. Our results suggest that loss of the PALB2-MRG15 interaction relieved the cells with the suppression of sister chromatid exchange and therefore led to a hyper-recombination phenotype in the gene conversion assay. Together, our study indicated that although PALB2 is required for proficient homologous recombination, it could also govern the choice of templates used in homologous recombination repair.
The remarkably coordinated nature of the DNA damage response pathway relies on numerous mechanisms that facilitate the assembly of checkpoint and repair factors at DNA breaks. Post-translational modifications on and around chromatin have critical roles in allowing the timely and sequential assembly of DNA damage responsive elements at the vicinity of DNA breaks. Notably, recent advances in forward genetics and proteomics-based approaches have enabled the identification of novel components within the DNA damage response pathway, providing a more comprehensive picture of the molecular network that assists in the detection and propagation of DNA damage signals.
Maintenance of genomic stability ensures faithful transmission of genetic information and helps suppress neoplastic transformation and tumorigenesis. Although recent progress has advanced our understanding of DNA damage checkpoint regulations, little is known as to how DNA repair, especially the RAD51-dependent homologous recombination repair pathway, is executed in vivo. Here, we reveal novel properties of the BRCA2-associated protein PALB2 in the assembly of the recombinational DNA repair machinery at DNA damage sites. Although the chromatin association of PALB2 is a prerequisite for subsequent BRCA2 and RAD51 loading, the focal accumulation of the PALB2 x BRCA2 x RAD51 complex at DSBs occurs independently of known DNA damage checkpoint and repair proteins. We provide evidence to support that PALB2 exists as homo-oligomers and that PALB2 oligomerization is essential for its focal accumulation at DNA breaks in vivo. We propose that both PALB2 chromatin association and its oligomerization serve to secure the BRCA2 x RAD51 repair machinery at the sites of DNA damage. These attributes of PALB2 are likely instrumental for proficient homologous recombination DNA repair in the cell.
Mutations in breast cancer susceptibility gene 1 and 2 (BRCA1 and BRCA2) predispose individuals to breast and ovarian cancer development. We previously reported an in vivo interaction between BRCA1 and BRCA2. However, the biological significance of their association is thus far undefined. Here, we report that PALB2, the partner and localizer of BRCA2, binds directly to BRCA1, and serves as the molecular scaffold in the formation of the BRCA1-PALB2-BRCA2 complex. The association between BRCA1 and PALB2 is primarily mediated via apolar bonding between their respective coiled-coil domains. More importantly, BRCA1 mutations identified in cancer patients disrupted the specific interaction between BRCA1 and PALB2. Consistent with the converging functions of the BRCA proteins in DNA repair, cells harboring mutations with abrogated BRCA1-PALB2 interaction resulted in defective homologous recombination (HR) repair. We propose that, via its direct interaction with PALB2, BRCA1 fine-tunes recombinational repair partly through its modulatory role in the PALB2-dependent loading of BRCA2-RAD51 repair machinery at DNA breaks. Our findings uncover PALB2 as the molecular adaptor between the BRCA proteins, and suggest that impaired HR repair is one of the fundamental causes for genomic instability and tumorigenesis observed in patients carrying BRCA1, BRCA2, or PALB2 mutations.
Histone ubiquitination participates in multiple cellular processes, including the DNA damage response. However, the molecular mechanisms involved are not clear. Here, we have identified that RAP80/UIMC1 (ubiquitin interaction motif containing 1), a functional partner of BRCA1, recognizes ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2B. The interaction between RAP80 and ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2B is increased following DNA damage. Since RAP80 facilitates BRCA1s translocation to DNA damage sites, our results indicate that ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2B could be upstream partners of the BRCA1/RAP80 complex in the DNA damage response. Moreover, we have found that RNF8 (ring finger protein 8), an E3 ubiquitin ligase, regulates ubiquitination of both histones H2A and H2B. In RNF8-deficient mouse embryo fibroblasts, ubiquitination of both histones H2A and H2B is dramatically reduced, which abolishes the DNA damage-induced BRCA1 and RAP80 accumulation at damage lesions on the chromatin. Taken together, our results suggest that ubiquitinated histones H2A and H2B may recruit the BRCA1 complex to DNA damage lesions on the chromatin.
To maintain genome stability, cells respond to DNA damage by activating signalling pathways that govern cell-cycle checkpoints and initiate DNA repair. Cell-cycle checkpoint controls should connect with DNA repair processes, however, exactly how such coordination occurs in vivo is largely unknown. Here we describe a new role for the E3 ligase RAD18 as the integral component in translating the damage response signal to orchestrate homologous recombination repair (HRR). We show that RAD18 promotes homologous recombination in a manner strictly dependent on its ability to be recruited to sites of DNA breaks and that this recruitment relies on a well-defined DNA damage signalling pathway mediated by another E3 ligase, RNF8. We further demonstrate that RAD18 functions as an adaptor to facilitate homologous recombination through direct interaction with the recombinase RAD51C. Together, our data uncovers RAD18 as a key factor that orchestrates HRR through surveillance of the DNA damage signal.
Ubiquitin adducts surrounding DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) have emerged as molecular platforms important for the assembly of DNA damage mediator and repair proteins. Central to these chromatin modifications lies the E2 UBC13, which has been implicated in a bipartite role in priming and amplifying lys63-linked ubiquitin chains on histone molecules through coupling with the E3 RNF8 and RNF168. However, unlike the RNF8-UBC13 holoenyzme, exactly how RNF168 work in concert with UBC13 remains obscure. To provide a structural perspective for the RNF168-UBC13 complex, we solved the crystal structure of the RNF168 RING domain. Interestingly, while the RNF168 RING adopts a typical RING finger fold with two zinc ions coordinated by several conserved cystine and histine residues arranged in a C3HC4 "cross-brace" manner, structural superimposition of RNF168 RING with other UBC13-binding E3 ubiquitin ligases revealed substantial differences at its corresponding UBC13-binding interface. Consistently, and in stark contrast to that between RNF8 and UBC13, RNF168 did not stably associate with UBC13 in vitro or in vivo. Moreover, domain-swapping experiments indicated that the RNF8 and RNF168 RING domains are not functionally interchangeable. We propose that RNF8 and RNF168 operate in different modes with their cognate E2 UBC13 at DSBs.
The induction of DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) elicits a plethora of responses that redirect many cellular functions to the vital task of repairing the injury, collectively known as the DNA damage response (DDR). We have found that, in the absence of DNA damage, the DSB repair factors RNF8 and BRCA1 are associated with the nucleolus. Shortly after exposure of cells to ?-radiation, RNF8 and BRCA1 translocated from the nucleolus to damage foci, a traffic that was reverted several hours after the damage. RNF8 interacted through its FHA domain with the ribosomal protein RPSA, and knockdown of RPSA caused a depletion of nucleolar RNF8 and BRCA1, suggesting that the interaction of RNF8 with RPSA is critical for the nucleolar localization of these DDR factors. Knockdown of RPSA or RNF8 impaired bulk protein translation, as did ?-irradiation, the latter being partially countered by overexpression of exogenous RNF8. Our results suggest that RNF8 and BRCA1 are anchored to the nucleolus through reversible interactions with RPSA and that, in addition to its known functions in DDR, RNF8 may play a role in protein synthesis, possibly linking the nucleolar exit of this factor to the attenuation of protein synthesis in response to DNA damage.
Ubiquitin signals emanating from DNA double-strand breaks (DSBs) trigger the ordered assembly of DNA damage mediator and repair proteins. This highly orchestrated process is accomplished, in part, through the concerted action of the RNF8 and RNF168 E3 ligases, which have emerged as core signaling intermediates that promote DSB-associated ubiquitylation events. In this study, we report the identification of RNF169 as a negative regulator of the DNA damage signaling cascade. We found that RNF169 interacted with ubiquitin structures and relocalized to DSBs in an RNF8/RNF168-dependent manner. Moreover, ectopic expression of RNF169 attenuated ubiquitin signaling and compromised 53BP1 accumulation at DNA damage sites, suggesting that RNF169 antagonizes RNF168 functions at DSBs. Our study unveils RNF169 as a component in DNA damage signal transduction and adds to the complexity of regulatory ubiquitylation in genome stability maintenance.
The Fanconi anemia (FA) pathway participates in interstrand cross-link (ICL) repair and the maintenance of genomic stability. The FA core complex consists of eight FA proteins and two Fanconi anemia-associated proteins (FAAP24 and FAAP100). The FA core complex has ubiquitin ligase activity responsible for monoubiquitination of the FANCI-FANCD2 (ID) complex, which in turn initiates a cascade of biochemical events that allow processing and removal of cross-linked DNA and thereby promotes cell survival following DNA damage. Here, we report the identification of a unique component of the FA core complex, namely, FAAP20, which contains a RAD18-like ubiquitin-binding zinc-finger domain. Our data suggest that FAAP20 promotes the functional integrity of the FA core complex via its direct interaction with the FA gene product, FANCA. Indeed, somatic knockout cells devoid of FAAP20 displayed the hallmarks of FA cells, including hypersensitivity to DNA cross-linking agents, chromosome aberrations, and reduced FANCD2 monoubiquitination. Taking these data together, our study indicates that FAAP20 is an important player involved in the FA pathway.
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