Osteoclasts are highly specialized cells that are derived from the monocyte/macrophage lineage of the bone marrow. Their unique ability to resorb both the organic and inorganic matrices of bone means that they play a key role in regulating skeletal remodeling. Together, osteoblasts and osteoclasts are responsible for the dynamic coupling process that involves both bone resorption and bone formation acting together to maintain the normal skeleton during health and disease. As the principal bone-resorbing cell in the body, changes in osteoclast differentiation or function can result in profound effects in the body. Diseases associated with altered osteoclast function can range in severity from lethal neonatal disease due to failure to form a marrow space for hematopoiesis, to more commonly observed pathologies such as osteoporosis, in which excessive osteoclastic bone resorption predisposes to fracture formation. An ability to isolate osteoclasts in high numbers in vitro has allowed for significant advances in the understanding of the bone remodeling cycle and has paved the way for the discovery of novel therapeutic strategies that combat these diseases. Here, we describe a protocol to isolate and cultivate osteoclasts from mouse bone marrow that will yield large numbers of osteoclasts.
In the last decade there has been a rapid expansion in clinical trials using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) from a variety of tissues. However, despite similarities in morphology, immunophenotype and differentiation behavior in vitro, MSCs sourced from distinct tissues do not necessarily have equivalent biological properties. We performed a genome-wide methylation, transcription and in vivo evaluation of MSCs from human bone marrow (BM), white adipose tissue, umbilical cord and skin cultured in humanized media. Surprisingly, only BM-derived MSCs spontaneously formed a bone marrow cavity through a vascularized cartilage intermediate in vivo that was progressively replaced by hematopoietic tissue and bone. Only BM-derived MSCs exhibited a chondrogenic transcriptional program with hypomethylation and increased expression of RUNX3, RUNX2, BGLAP, MMP13 and ITGA10 consistent with a latent and primed skeletal developmental potential. The humanized MSC-derived microenvironment permitted homing and maintenance of long-term murine SLAM(+) hematopoietic stem cells (HSCs) as well as human CD34(+)/CD38(-)/CD90(+)/CD45RA(+) HSCs after cord blood transplantation. These studies underscore the profound differences in developmental potential between MSC sources independent of donor age with implications for their clinical use. We also demonstrate a tractable human niche model for studying homing and engraftment of human hematopoietic cells in normal and neoplastic states.
Current methods for the isolation of fibroblasts require extended ex vivo manipulation in cell culture. As a consequence, prior studies investigating fibroblast biology may fail to adequately represent cellular phenotypes in vivo. To overcome this problem, we describe a detailed protocol for the isolation of fibroblasts from the dorsal dermis of mice that bypasses the need for cell culture thereby preserving the physiologic transcriptional and proteomic profiles of each cell. Using the described protocol we characterized the transcriptional programs and the surface expression of 176 CD markers in cultured vs. uncultured fibroblasts. The differential expression patterns we observed highlight the importance of a live harvest for investigations of fibroblast biology.
Chronic wounds are a major source of morbidity for patients and represent a significant health burden. Implementing noninvasive techniques that accelerate healing of these wounds would provide great benefit. Ultrasound appears to be an effective modality for the treatment of chronic wounds in humans. MIST Therapy is a noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound treatment delivered through a saline mist. A variety of mechanisms have been proposed to explain the efficacy of ultrasound therapy, but the underlying molecular and cellular pathways impacted by this technique remain unclear. The in vivo effect of noncontact, low-frequency ultrasound was therefore examined in a humanized excisional wound model.
Following radiation therapy, skin becomes fibrotic and can present a difficult problem for reconstructive surgeons. There is an increasing belief that fat grafting under irradiated skin can reverse the damage caused by radiation. The present study evaluated the effect of fat grafting on irradiated skin, along with fat graft quality and retention rates in irradiated tissue.
Effective skin regeneration therapies require a successful interface between progenitor cells and biocompatible delivery systems. We previously demonstrated the efficiency of a biomimetic pullulan-collagen hydrogel scaffold for improving bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cell survival within ischemic skin wounds by creating a "stem cell niche" that enhances regenerative cytokine secretion. Adipose-derived mesenchymal stem cells (ASCs) represent an even more appealing source of stem cells because of their abundance and accessibility, and in this study we explored the utility of ASCs for hydrogel-based therapies. To optimize hydrogel cell seeding, a rapid, capillary force-based approach was developed and compared with previously established cell seeding methods. ASC viability and functionality following capillary hydrogel seeding were then analyzed in vitro and in vivo. In these experiments, ASCs were seeded more efficiently by capillary force than by traditional methods and remained viable and functional in this niche for up to 14 days. Additionally, hydrogel seeding of ASCs resulted in the enhanced expression of multiple stemness and angiogenesis-related genes, including Oct4, Vegf, Mcp-1, and Sdf-1. Moving in vivo, hydrogel delivery improved ASC survival, and application of both murine and human ASC-seeded hydrogels to splinted murine wounds resulted in accelerated wound closure and increased vascularity when compared with control wounds treated with unseeded hydrogels. In conclusion, capillary seeding of ASCs within a pullulan-collagen hydrogel bioscaffold provides a convenient and simple way to deliver therapeutic cells to wound environments. Moreover, ASC-seeded constructs display a significant potential to accelerate wound healing that can be easily translated to a clinical setting.
Although fat grafting can address many soft-tissue deficits, results remain inconsistent. In this study, the authors compared physical properties of fat following injection using an automated, low-shear device or the modified Coleman technique.
The skin is a complex organ involved in thermoregulation, gas exchange, protection against pathogens, and barrier function to maintain proper hydration. When dry, the ability for skin to execute these tasks becomes impaired. Dry skin affects almost everyone as we age, but it is also dependent on external factors, such as dry climate, colder temperatures, and repeated washing. In addition, increasing evidence has shown racial variability in the physiological properties of skin, which directly impacts water content of the stratum corneum and sensitivity to exogenously applied agents. A multitude of products have been developed to treat dry skin, and as a group, moisturizers have been designed to either impart or restore hydration in the stratum corneum. Given the large number of moisturizers presently available, depending on individual components, several different mechanisms may be employed to promote skin hydration. As there exists dramatic racial variability in skin properties, certain moisturizers may thus be more effective in some and less effective in others to treat the common condition of dry skin.
Adipose tissue represents an abundant and easily accessible source of multipotent cells that may serve as an excellent building block for tissue engineering. However, adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) are a heterogeneous group and subpopulations may be identified with enhanced osteogenic potential.
The requirement and influence of the peripheral nervous system on tissue replacement in mammalian appendages remain largely undefined. To explore this question, we have performed genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells of mouse hind limb tissues devoid of nerve supply during regeneration of the digit tip, normal maintenance, and cutaneous wound healing. We show that cellular turnover, replacement, and cellular differentiation from presumed tissue stem/progenitor cells within hind limb tissues remain largely intact independent of nerve and nerve-derived factors. However, regenerated digit tips in the absence of nerves displayed patterning defects in bone and nail matrix. These nerve-dependent phenotypes mimic clinical observations of patients with nerve damage resulting from spinal cord injury and are of significant interest for translational medicine aimed at understanding the effects of nerves on etiologies of human injury.
Cell-lineage tracing has revealed a complex heterogeneity present in postnatal tissue and adult progenitors. Chau et al. (2014) and Long et al. (2014) provide further evidence for this among adipocytes, and their findings underscore the importance of cellular ontogeny not just for development but also for potential treatment of disease.
Scarring represents a significant biomedical burden in clinical medicine. Mechanomodulation has been linked to scarring through inflammation, but until now a systematic approach to attenuate mechanical force and reduce scarring has not been possible.
Significance: In early gestation, fetal skin wounds undergo regeneration and healing without a scar. This phenomenon is intrinsic to early fetal skin but disappears during late gestation. Adult wounds undergo repair via a fibroproliferative response that leads to incomplete regeneration of the original tissue and a resultant scar. This outcome can have devastating effects for patients and is a significant financial burden to the healthcare system. Recent Advances: Studies have demonstrated the possible role of several stem cells in wound healing. In particular, epidermal stem cells and mesenchymal stem cells have been implicated in wound repair and regeneration. Recently, stem cells with adult epidermal stem cell markers have been found in fetal skin dermis. These cells are thought to play a role in scarless fetal wound healing. Critical Issues: Despite numerous studies on scarless fetal wound healing, the exact mechanism is still largely unknown. Although inflammation is greatly reduced, the stem cell profile of regenerating fetal skin wounds remains unknown. Without a detailed understanding of stem cell differences between fetal and adult wounds, the ability to prevent or treat both normal and pathologic excessive scarring, in the form of keloids and hypertrophic scars, is limited. Future Directions: Further studies on differences between fetal and adult skin-specific stem cells may elucidate the mechanism of scarless wound healing in the early fetus. With this knowledge, the potential to reduce scarring in adult wounds may be achieved.
Diabetic vascular pathology is largely attributable to impairments in tissue recovery from hypoxia. Circulating progenitor cells have been postulated to play a role in ischemic recovery, and deficiencies in these cells have been well described in diabetic patients. Here, we examine bone marrow-derived mesenchymal progenitor cells (BM-MPCs) that have previously been shown to be important for new blood vessel formation and demonstrate significant deficits in the context of diabetes. Further, we determine that this dysfunction is attributable to intrinsic defects in diabetic BM-MPCs that are not correctable by restoring glucose homeostasis. We identify two transcriptionally distinct subpopulations that are selectively depleted by both type 1 and type 2 diabetes, and these subpopulations have provasculogenic expression profiles, suggesting that they are vascular progenitor cells. These results suggest that the clinically observed deficits in progenitor cells may be attributable to selective and irreversible depletion of progenitor cell subsets in patients with diabetes.
Cutaneous scarring is a major source of morbidity and current therapies to mitigate scar formation remain ineffective. Although wound fibrosis and inflammation are highly linked, only recently have mechanical forces been implicated in these pathways. Our group has developed a topical polymer device that significantly reduces post-injury scar formation via the manipulation of mechanical forces. Here we extend these studies to examine the genomewide transcriptional effects of mechanomodulation during scar formation using a validated large animal model, the red Duroc pig. We demonstrate that mechanical loading of incisional wounds upregulates expression of genes associated with inflammatory and fibrotic pathways, and that device-mediated offloading of these wounds reverses these effects. Validation studies are needed to clarify the clinical significance of these findings.
Stem cells are attractive candidates for the development of novel therapies, targeting indications that involve functional restoration of defective tissue. Although most stem cell therapies are new and highly experimental, there are clinics around the world that exploit vulnerable patients with the hope of offering supposed stem cell therapies, many of which operate without credible scientific merit, oversight, or other patient protection.
The exact nature of the immune response elicited by autologous-induced pluripotent stem cell (iPSC) progeny is still not well understood. Here we show in murine models that autologous iPSC-derived endothelial cells (iECs) elicit an immune response that resembles the one against a comparable somatic cell, the aortic endothelial cell (AEC). These cells exhibit long-term survival in vivo and prompt a tolerogenic immune response characterized by elevated IL-10 expression. In contrast, undifferentiated iPSCs elicit a very different immune response with high lymphocytic infiltration and elevated IFN-?, granzyme-B and perforin intragraft. Furthermore, the clonal structure of infiltrating T cells from iEC grafts is statistically indistinguishable from that of AECs, but is different from that of undifferentiated iPSC grafts. Taken together, our results indicate that the differentiation of iPSCs results in a loss of immunogenicity and leads to the induction of tolerance, despite expected antigen expression differences between iPSC-derived versus original somatic cells.
Fat grafting has become increasingly popular for the correction of soft-tissue deficits at many sites throughout the body. Long-term outcomes, however, depend on delivery of fat in the least traumatic fashion to optimize viability of the transplanted tissue. In this study, the authors compare the biological properties of fat following injection using two methods.
The mechanism and magnitude by which the mammalian kidney generates and maintains its proximal tubules, distal tubules, and collecting ducts remain controversial. Here, we use long-term in vivo genetic lineage tracing and clonal analysis of individual cells from kidneys undergoing development, maintenance, and regeneration. We show that the adult mammalian kidney undergoes continuous tubulogenesis via expansions of fate-restricted clones. Kidneys recovering from damage undergo tubulogenesis through expansions of clones with segment-specific borders, and renal spheres developing in vitro from individual cells maintain distinct, segment-specific fates. Analysis of mice derived by transfer of color-marked embryonic stem cells (ESCs) into uncolored blastocysts demonstrates that nephrons are polyclonal, developing from expansions of singly fated clones. Finally, we show that adult renal clones are derived from Wnt-responsive precursors, and their tracing in vivo generates tubules that are segment specific. Collectively, these analyses demonstrate that fate-restricted precursors functioning as unipotent progenitors continuously maintain and self-preserve the mouse kidney throughout life.
Early fetuses heal wounds without the formation of a scar. Many studies have attempted to explain this remarkable phenomenon. However, the exact mechanism remains unknown. Herein, we examine the predominant cell types of the epidermis and dermis--the keratinocyte and fibroblast--during different stages of fetal development to better understand the changes that lead to scarring wound repair versus regeneration.
Improvements in medical care, nutrition and social care are resulting in a commendable change in world population demographics with an ever increasing skew towards an aging population. As the proportion of the world's population that is considered elderly increases, so does the incidence of osteodegenerative disease and the resultant burden on healthcare. The increasing demand coupled with the limitations of contemporary approaches, have provided the impetus to develop novel tissue regeneration therapies. The use of stem cells, with their potential for self-renewal and differentiation, is one potential solution. Adipose-derived stem cells (ASCs), which are relatively easy to harvest and readily available have emerged as an ideal candidate. In this review, we explore the potential for ASCs to provide tangible therapies for craniofacial and long bone skeletal defects, outline key signaling pathways that direct these cells and describe how the developmental signaling program may provide clues on how to guide these cells in vivo. This review also provides an overview of the importance of establishing an osteogenic microniche using appropriately customized scaffolds and delineates some of the key challenges that still need to be overcome for adult stem cell skeletal regenerative therapy to become a clinical reality.
Significance: Poor wound healing remains a significant health issue for a large number of patients in the United States. The physiologic response to local wound hypoxia plays a critical role in determining the success of the normal healing process. Hypoxia-inducible factor-1 (HIF-1), as the master regulator of oxygen homeostasis, is an important determinant of healing outcomes. HIF-1 contributes to all stages of wound healing through its role in cell migration, cell survival under hypoxic conditions, cell division, growth factor release, and matrix synthesis throughout the healing process. Recent Advances: Positive regulators of HIF-1, such as prolyl-4-hydroxylase inhibitors, have been shown to be beneficial in enhancing diabetic ischemic wound closure and are currently undergoing clinical trials for treatment of several human-ischemia-based conditions. Critical Issues: HIF-1 deficiency and subsequent failure to respond to hypoxic stimuli leads to chronic hypoxia, which has been shown to contribute to the formation of nonhealing ulcers. In contrast, overexpression of HIF-1 has been implicated in fibrotic disease through its role in increasing myofibroblast differentiation leading to excessive matrix production and deposition. Both positive and negative regulators of HIF-1 therefore provide important therapeutic targets that can be used to manipulate HIF-1 expression where an excess or deficiency in HIF-1 is known to correlate with pathogenesis. Future Directions: Targeting HIF-1 during wound healing has many important clinical implications for tissue repair. Counteracting the detrimental effects of excessive or deficient HIF-1 signaling by modulating HIF-1 expression may improve future management of poorly healing wounds.
Wound healing is a highly evolved defense mechanism against infection and further injury. It is a complex process involving multiple cell types and biological pathways. Mammalian adult cutaneous wound healing is mediated by a fibroproliferative response leading to scar formation. In contrast, early to mid-gestational fetal cutaneous wound healing is more akin to regeneration and occurs without scar formation. This early observation has led to extensive research seeking to unlock the mechanism underlying fetal scarless regenerative repair. Building upon recent advances in biomaterials and stem cell applications, tissue engineering approaches are working towards a recapitulation of this phenomenon. In this review, we describe the elements that distinguish fetal scarless and adult scarring wound healing, and discuss current trends in tissue engineering aimed at achieving scarless tissue regeneration.
Scarring and tissue fibrosis represent a significant source of morbidity in the United States. Despite considerable research focused on elucidating the mechanisms underlying cutaneous scar formation, effective clinical therapies are still in the early stages of development. A thorough understanding of the various signaling pathways involved is essential to formulate strategies to combat fibrosis and scarring. While initial efforts focused primarily on the biochemical mechanisms involved in scar formation, more recent research has revealed a central role for mechanical forces in modulating these pathways. Mechanotransduction, which refers to the mechanisms by which mechanical forces are converted to biochemical stimuli, has been closely linked to inflammation and fibrosis and is believed to play a critical role in scarring. This review provides an overview of our current understanding of the mechanisms underlying scar formation, with an emphasis on the relationship between mechanotransduction pathways and their therapeutic implications.
Fibrocytes are a unique population of circulating cells reported to exhibit characteristics of both hematopoietic and mesenchymal cells, and play an important role in wound healing. However, putative fibrocytes have been found to lose expression of hematopoietic surface markers such as CD45 during differentiation, making it difficult to track these cells in vivo with conventional methodologies. In this study, to distinguish hematopoietic and nonhematopoietic cells without surface markers, we took advantage of the gene vav 1, which is expressed solely on hematopoietic cells but not on other cell types, and established a novel transgenic mouse, in which hematopoietic cells are irreversibly labeled with green fluorescent protein and nonhematopoietic cells with red fluorescent protein. Use of single-cell transcriptional analysis in this mouse model revealed two discrete types of collagen I (Col I) expressing cells of hematopoietic lineage recruited into excisional skin wounds. We confirmed this finding on a protein level, with one subset of these Col I synthesizing cells being CD45+ and CD11b+, consistent with the traditional definition of a fibrocyte, while another was CD45- and Cd11b-, representing a previously unidentified population. Both cell types were found to initially peak, then reduce posthealing, consistent with a disappearance from the wound site and not a loss of identifying surface marker expression. Taken together, we have unambiguously identified two cells of hematopoietic origin that are recruited to the wound site and deposit collagen, definitively confirming the existence and natural time course of fibrocytes in cutaneous healing.
Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1?, part of the heterodimeric transcription factor that mediates the cellular response to hypoxia, is critical for the expression of multiple angiogenic growth factors, cell motility, and the recruitment of endothelial progenitor cells. Inhibition of the oxygen-dependent negative regulator of HIF-1?, prolyl hydroxylase domain-2 (PHD-2), leads to increased HIF-1? and mimics various cellular and physiological responses to hypoxia. The roles of PHD-2 in the epidermis and dermis have not been clearly defined in wound healing.
Smooth muscle cells (SMCs) and endothelial cells (ECs) are typically derived separately, with low efficiencies, from human pluripotent stem cells (hPSCs). The concurrent generation of these cell types might lead to potential applications in regenerative medicine to model, elucidate, and eventually treat vascular diseases. Here we report a robust two-step protocol that can be used to simultaneously generate large numbers of functional SMCs and ECs from a common proliferative vascular progenitor population via a two-dimensional culture system. We show here that coculturing hPSCs with OP9 cells in media supplemented with vascular endothelial growth factor, basic fibroblast growth factor, and bone morphogenetic protein 4 yields a higher percentage of CD31(+)CD34(+) cells on day 8 of differentiation. Upon exposure to endothelial differentiation media and SM differentiation media, these vascular progenitors were able to differentiate and mature into functional endothelial cells and smooth muscle cells, respectively. Furthermore, we were able to expand the intermediate population more than a billionfold to generate sufficient numbers of ECs and SMCs in parallel for potential therapeutic transplantations.
Microorganisms living throughout the body comprise the human "microbiota" and play an important role in health and disease. Recent research suggests that alterations in the skin microbiota may underlie chronic wound pathology. Probiotics are bacteria or yeast that confer a health benefit on the host and may have a role in preventing and treating nonhealing wounds by modulating host-microbe interactions.
Normal wound healing mechanisms can be overwhelmed in the setting of complex acute and chronic tissue injury. Biological therapies are designed to augment and/or restore the bodys natural wound healing abilities. There are a variety of available and emerging technologies utilizing this approach that have demonstrated the ability to augment wound healing.
In vivo wound healing experiments remain the most predictive models for studying human wound healing, allowing an accurate representation of the complete wound healing environment including various cell types, environmental cues, and paracrine interactions. Small animals are economical, easy to maintain, and allow researchers to take advantage of the numerous transgenic strains that have been developed to investigate the specific mechanisms involved in wound healing and regeneration. Here we describe three reproducible murine wound healing models that recapitulate the human wound healing process.
This chapter broadly reviews the use of stem cells as a means to accelerate wound healing, focusing first on the properties of stem cells that make them attractive agents to influence repair, both alone and as vehicles for growth factor delivery. Major stem cell reservoirs are described, including adult, embryonic, and induced pluripotent cell sources, outlining the advantages and limitations of each source as wound healing agents, as well as the possible mechanisms responsible for wound healing acceleration. Finally, the chapter includes a materials and methods section that provides an in-depth description of adult tissue harvest techniques.
Harvesting adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) for tissue engineering is frequently done through liposuction. However, several different techniques exist. Although third-generation ultrasound-assisted liposuction has been shown to not have a negative effect on ASCs, the impact of laser-assisted liposuction on the quality and differentiation potential of ASCs has not been studied. Therefore, ASCs were harvested from laser-assisted lipoaspirate and suction-assisted lipoaspirate. Next, in vitro parameters of cell yield, cell viability and proliferation, surface marker phenotype, osteogenic differentiation, and adipogenic differentiation were performed. Finally, in vivo bone formation was assessed using a critical-sized cranial defect in athymic nude mice. Although ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate and laser-assisted lipoaspirate both successfully underwent osteogenic and adipogenic differentiation, the cell yield, viability, proliferation, and frequency of ASCs (CD34(+)CD31(-)CD45(-)) in the stromal vascular fraction were all significantly less with laser-assisted liposuction in vitro (p < .05). In vivo, quantification of osseous healing by micro-computed tomography revealed significantly more healing with ASCs isolated from suction-assisted lipoaspirate relative to laser-assisted lipoaspirate at the 4-, 6-, and 8-week time points (p < .05). Therefore, as laser-assisted liposuction appears to negatively impact the biology of ASCs, cell harvest using suction-assisted liposuction is preferable for tissue-engineering purposes.
Many breast cancer patients are plagued by the disabling complication of upper limb lymphedema after axillary surgery. Conservative treatments using massage and compression therapy do not offer a lasting relief, as they fail to address the chronic transformation of edema into excess adipose tissue. Liposuction to address the adipose nature of the lymphedema has provided an opportunity for a detailed analysis of the stromal fraction of lymphedema-associated fat to clarify the molecular mechanisms for this adipogenic transformation.
Tissue regeneration using progenitor cell-based therapy has the potential to aid in the healing of a diverse range of pathologies, ranging from short-gut syndrome to spinal cord lesions. However, there are numerous hurdles to be overcome prior to the widespread application of these cells in the clinical setting. One of the primary barriers to effective stem cell therapy is the hostile environment that progenitor cells encounter in the clinical injury wound setting. In order to promote cellular survival, stem cell differentiation, and participation in tissue regeneration, relevant cells and delivery scaffolds must be paired with strategies to prevent cell death to ensure that these cells can survive to form de novo tissue. The Bcl-2 protein is a prosurvival member of a family of proteins that regulate the mitochondrial pathway of apoptosis. Using several strategies to overexpress the Bcl-2 protein, we demonstrated a decrease in the mediators of apoptosis in vitro and in vivo. This was shown through the use of two different clinical tissue repair models. Cells overexpressing Bcl-2 not only survived within the wound environment at a statistically significantly higher rate than control cells, but also increased tissue regeneration. Finally, we used a nonintegrating minicircle technology to achieve this in a potentially clinically applicable strategy for stem cell therapy.
Age-related fatty degeneration of the bone marrow contributes to delayed fracture-healing and osteoporosis-related fractures in the elderly. The mechanisms underlying this fatty change are unknown, but they may relate to the level of Wnt signaling within the aged marrow cavity.
Organs are composites of tissue types with diverse developmental origins, and they rely on distinct stem and progenitor cells to meet physiological demands for cellular production and homeostasis. How diverse stem cell activity is coordinated within organs is not well understood. Here we describe a lineage-restricted, self-renewing common skeletal progenitor (bone, cartilage, stromal progenitor; BCSP) isolated from limb bones and bone marrow tissue of fetal, neonatal, and adult mice. The BCSP clonally produces chondrocytes (cartilage-forming) and osteogenic (bone-forming) cells and at least three subsets of stromal cells that exhibit differential expression of cell surface markers, including CD105 (or endoglin), Thy1 [or CD90 (cluster of differentiation 90)], and 6C3 [ENPEP glutamyl aminopeptidase (aminopeptidase A)]. These three stromal subsets exhibit differential capacities to support hematopoietic (blood-forming) stem and progenitor cells. Although the 6C3-expressing subset demonstrates functional stem cell niche activity by maintaining primitive hematopoietic stem cell (HSC) renewal in vitro, the other stromal populations promote HSC differentiation to more committed lines of hematopoiesis, such as the B-cell lineage. Gene expression analysis and microscopic studies further reveal a microenvironment in which CD105-, Thy1-, and 6C3-expressing marrow stroma collaborate to provide cytokine signaling to HSCs and more committed hematopoietic progenitors. As a result, within the context of bone as a blood-forming organ, the BCSP plays a critical role in supporting hematopoiesis through its generation of diverse osteogenic and hematopoietic-promoting stroma, including HSC supportive 6C3(+) niche cells.
Human skin is a remarkably plastic organ that sustains insult and injury throughout life. Its ability to expeditiously repair wounds is paramount to survival and is thought to be regulated by wound components such as differentiated cells, stem cells, cytokine networks, extracellular matrix, and mechanical forces. These intrinsic regenerative pathways are integrated across different skin compartments and are being elucidated on the cellular and molecular levels. Recent advances in bioengineering and nanotechnology have allowed researchers to manipulate these microenvironments in increasingly precise spatial and temporal scales, recapitulating key homeostatic cues that may drive regeneration. The ultimate goal is to translate these bench achievements into viable bedside therapies that address the growing global burden of acute and chronic wounds. In this review, we highlight current concepts in cutaneous wound repair and propose that many of these evolving paradigms may underlie regenerative processes across diverse organ systems.
Wound healing is a complex biological process involving the interaction of many cell types to replace lost or damaged tissue. Although the biology of wound healing has been extensively investigated, few studies have focused on the role of mast cells. In this study, we investigated the possible role of mast cells in wound healing by analyzing aspects of cutaneous excisional wound healing in three types of genetically mast cell-deficient mice. We found that C57BL/6-Kit(W-sh/W-sh), WBB6F1-Kit(W/W-v), and Cpa3-Cre; Mcl-1(fl/fl) mice re-epithelialized splinted excisional skin wounds at rates very similar to those in the corresponding wild type or control mice. Furthermore, at the time of closure, scars were similar in the genetically mast cell-deficient mice and the corresponding wild type or control mice in both quantity of collagen deposition and maturity of collagen fibers, as evaluated by Massons Trichrome and Picro-Sirius red staining. These data indicate that mast cells do not play a significant non-redundant role in these features of the healing of splinted full thickness excisional cutaneous wounds in mice.
The mammalian skull vault, a product of a unique and tightly regulated evolutionary process, in which components of disparate embryonic origin are integrated, is an elegant model with which to study osteoblast biology. Our laboratory has demonstrated that this distinct embryonic origin of frontal and parietal bones confer differences in embryonic and postnatal osteogenic potential and skeletal regenerative capacity, with frontal neural crest derived osteoblasts benefitting from greater osteogenic potential. We outline how this model has been used to elucidate some of the molecular mechanisms which underlie these differences and place these findings into the context of our current understanding of the key, highly conserved, pathways which govern the osteoblast lineage including FGF, BMP, Wnt and TGF? signaling. Furthermore, we explore recent studies which have provided a tantalizing insight into way these pathways interact, with evidence accumulating for certain transcription factors, such as Runx2, acting as a nexus for cross-talk.
Neural crest-derived (FOb) and mesoderm-derived (POb) calvarial osteoblasts are characterized by distinct differences in their osteogenic potential. We have previously demonstrated that enhanced activation of endogenous FGF and Wnt signaling confers greater osteogenic potential to FOb. Apoptosis, a key player in bone formation, is the main focus of this study. In the current work, we have investigated the apoptotic activity of FOb and POb cells during differentiation. We found that lower apoptosis, as measured by caspase-3 activity is a major feature of neural crest-derived osteoblast which also have higher osteogenic capacity. Further investigation indicated TGF-? signaling as main positive regulator of apoptosis in these two populations of calvarial osteoblasts, while BMP and canonical Wnt signaling negatively regulate the process. By either inducing or inhibiting these signaling pathways we could modulate apoptotic events and improve the osteogenic potential of POb. Taken together, our findings demonstrate that integration of multiple signaling pathways contribute to imparting greater osteogenic potential to FOb by decreasing apoptosis.
Hair follicle stem cells (bulge cells) are essential for hair regeneration and early epidermal repair after wounding. Here we show that Brg1, a key enzyme in the chromatin-remodeling machinery, is dynamically expressed in bulge cells to control tissue regeneration and repair. In mice, sonic hedgehog (Shh) signals Gli to activate Brg1 in bulge cells to begin hair regeneration, whereas Brg1 recruits NF-?B to activate Shh in matrix cells to sustain hair growth. Such reciprocal Brg1-Shh interaction is essential for hair regeneration. Moreover, Brg1 is indispensable for maintaining the bulge cell reservoir. Without Brg1, bulge cells are depleted over time, partly through the ectopic expression of the cell-cycle inhibitor p27(Kip1). Also, bulge Brg1 is activated by skin injury to facilitate early epidermal repair. Our studies demonstrate a molecular circuit that integrates chromatin remodeling (Brg1), transcriptional regulation (NF-?B, Gli), and intercellular signaling (Shh) to control bulge stem cells during tissue regeneration.
Stem cell-based bone tissue engineering with adipose-derived stromal cells (ASCs) has shown great promise for revolutionizing treatment of large bone deficits. However, there is still a lack of consensus on cell surface markers identifying osteoprogenitors. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting has identified a subpopulation of CD105(low) cells with enhanced osteogenic differentiation. The purpose of the present study was to compare the ability of CD90 (Thy-1) to identify osteoprogenitors relative to CD(105).
The potential for stem cells to serve as cellular building blocks for reconstruction of complex defects has prompted significant enthusiasm in the field of regenerative medicine. Clinical application, however, is still limited, as implantation of cells into hostile wound environments may greatly hinder their tissue forming capacity. To circumvent this obstacle, novel approaches have been developed to manipulate both the stem cell itself and its surrounding environmental niche. By understanding this paradigm of seed and soil optimization, innovative strategies may thus be developed to harness the true promise of stem cells for tissue regeneration.
Familial hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is a prevalent hereditary cardiac disorder linked to arrhythmia and sudden cardiac death. While the causes of HCM have been identified as genetic mutations in the cardiac sarcomere, the pathways by which sarcomeric mutations engender myocyte hypertrophy and electrophysiological abnormalities are not understood. To elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development, we generated patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell cardiomyocytes (iPSC-CMs) from a ten-member family cohort carrying a hereditary HCM missense mutation (Arg663His) in the MYH7 gene. Diseased iPSC-CMs recapitulated numerous aspects of the HCM phenotype including cellular enlargement and contractile arrhythmia at the single-cell level. Calcium (Ca(2+)) imaging indicated dysregulation of Ca(2+) cycling and elevation in intracellular Ca(2+) ([Ca(2+)](i)) are central mechanisms for disease pathogenesis. Pharmacological restoration of Ca(2+) homeostasis prevented development of hypertrophy and electrophysiological irregularities. We anticipate that these findings will help elucidate the mechanisms underlying HCM development and identify novel therapies for the disease.
Although autologous fat grafting has revolutionized the field of soft tissue reconstruction and augmentation, long-term maintenance of fat grafts is unpredictable. Recent studies have reported survival rates of fat grafts to vary anywhere between 10% and 80% over time. The present study evaluated the long-term viability of human fat grafts in a murine model using a novel imaging technique allowing for in vivo volumetric analysis.
During the first month of life, the murine posterior-frontal suture (PF) of the cranial vault closes through endochondral ossification, while other sutures remain patent. These processes are tightly regulated by canonical Wnt signaling. Low levels of active canonical Wnt signaling enable endochondral ossification and therefore PF-suture closure, whereas constitutive activation of canonical Wnt causes PF-suture patency. We therefore sought to test this concept with a knockout mouse model. PF-sutures of Axin2(-/-) mice, which resemble a state of constantly activated canonical Wnt signaling, were investigated during the physiological time course of PF-suture closure and compared in detail with wild type littermates. Histological analysis revealed that the architecture in Axin2(-/-) PF-sutures was significantly altered in comparison to wild type. The distance between the endocranial layers was dramatically increased and suture closure was significantly delayed. Moreover, physiological endochondral ossification did not occur, rather an ectopic cartilage appeared between the endocranial and ectocranial bone layers at P7 which eventually involutes at P13. Quantitative PCR analysis showed the lack of Col10?1 upregulation in Axin2(-/-) PF-suture. Immunohistochemistry and gene expression analysis also revealed high levels of type II collagen as compared to type I collagen and absence of Mmp-9 in the cartilage of Axin2(-/-) PF-suture. Moreover, TUNEL staining showed a high percentage of apoptotic chondrocytes in Axin2(-/-) PF-sutures at P9 and P11 as compared to wild type. These data indicated that Axin2(-/-) PF-sutures lack physiological endochondral ossification, contain ectopic cartilage and display delayed suture closure.
Marfan syndrome (MFS) is a heritable connective tissue disorder caused by mutations in the gene coding for FIBRILLIN-1 (FBN1), an extracellular matrix protein. MFS is inherited as an autosomal dominant trait and displays major manifestations in the ocular, skeletal, and cardiovascular systems. Here we report molecular and phenotypic profiles of skeletogenesis in tissues differentiated from human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent stem cells that carry a heritable mutation in FBN1. We demonstrate that, as a biological consequence of the activation of TGF-? signaling, osteogenic differentiation of embryonic stem cells with a FBN1 mutation is inhibited; osteogenesis is rescued by inhibition of TGF-? signaling. In contrast, chondrogenesis is not perturbated and occurs in a TGF-? cell-autonomous fashion. Importantly, skeletal phenotypes observed in human embryonic stem cells carrying the monogenic FBN1 mutation (MFS cells) are faithfully phenocopied by cells differentiated from induced pluripotent-stem cells derived independently from MFS patient fibroblasts. Results indicate a unique phenotype uncovered by examination of mutant pluripotent stem cells and further demonstrate the faithful alignment of phenotypes in differentiated cells obtained from both human embryonic stem cells and induced pluripotent-stem cells, providing complementary and powerful tools to gain further insights into human molecular pathogenesis, especially of MFS.
An urgent need exists in clinical medicine for suitable alternatives to available techniques for bone tissue repair. Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) represent a readily available, autogenous cell source with well-documented in vivo osteogenic potential. In this article, we manipulated Noggin expression levels in hASCs using lentiviral and nonintegrating minicircle short hairpin ribonucleic acid (shRNA) methodologies in vitro and in vivo to enhance hASC osteogenesis. Human ASCs with Noggin knockdown showed significantly increased bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling and osteogenic differentiation both in vitro and in vivo, and when placed onto a BMP-releasing scaffold embedded with lentiviral Noggin shRNA particles, hASCs more rapidly healed mouse calvarial defects. This study therefore suggests that genetic targeting of hASCs combined with custom scaffold design can optimize hASCs for skeletal regenerative medicine.
Nanoparticles (NPs) are small entities that consist of a hydroxyapatite core, which can bind ions, proteins, and other organic molecules from the surrounding environment. These small conglomerations can influence environmental calcium levels and have the potential to modulate calcium homeostasis in vivo. Nanoparticles have been associated with various calcium-mediated disease processes, such as atherosclerosis and kidney stone formation. We hypothesized that nanoparticles could have an effect on other calcium-regulated processes, such as wound healing. In the present study, we synthesized pH-sensitive calcium-based nanoparticles and investigated their ability to enhance cutaneous wound repair.
Cleft palate represents the second most common birth defect and carries substantial physiologic and social challenges for affected patients, as they often require multiple surgical interventions during their lifetime. A number of genes have been identified to be associated with the cleft palate phenotype, but etiology in the majority of cases remains elusive. In order to better understand cleft palate and both surgical and potential tissue engineering approaches for repair, we have performed an in-depth literature review into cleft palate development in humans and mice, as well as into molecular pathways underlying these pathologic developments. We summarize the multitude of pathways underlying cleft palate development, with the transforming growth factor beta superfamily being the most commonly studied. Furthermore, while the majority of cleft palate studies are performed using a mouse model, studies focusing on tissue engineering have also focused heavily on mouse models. A paucity of human randomized controlled studies exists for cleft palate repair, and so far, tissue engineering approaches are limited. In this review, we discuss the development of the palate, explain the basic science behind normal and pathologic palate development in humans as well as mouse models and elaborate on how these studies may lead to future advances in palatal tissue engineering and cleft palate treatments.
Clinically available sources of bone for repair and reconstruction are limited by the accessibility of autologous grafts, infectious risks of cadaveric materials, and durability of synthetic substitutes. Cell-based approaches for skeletal regeneration can potentially fill this need, and adipose tissue represents a promising source for development of such therapies. Here, we enriched for an osteogenic subpopulation of cells derived from human subcutaneous adipose tissue utilizing microfluidic-based single cell transcriptional analysis and fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). Statistical analysis of single cell transcriptional profiles demonstrated that low expression of endoglin (CD105) correlated with a subgroup of adipose-derived cells with increased osteogenic gene expression. FACS-sorted CD105(low) cells demonstrated significantly enhanced in vitro osteogenic differentiation and in vivo bone regeneration when compared with either CD105(high) or unsorted cells. Evaluation of the endoglin pathway suggested that enhanced osteogenesis among CD105(low) adipose-derived cells is likely due to identification of a subpopulation with lower TGF-?1/Smad2 signaling. These findings thus highlight a potential avenue to promote osteogenesis in adipose-derived mesenchymal cells for skeletal regeneration.
Mechanical force significantly modulates both inflammation and fibrosis, yet the fundamental mechanisms that regulate these interactions remain poorly understood. Here we performed microarray analysis to compare gene expression in mechanically loaded wounds vs. unloaded control wounds in an established murine hypertrophic scar (HTS) model. We identified 853 mechanically regulated genes (false discovery rate <2) at d 14 postinjury, a subset of which were enriched for T-cell-regulated pathways. To substantiate the role of T cells in scar mechanotransduction, we applied the HTS model to T-cell-deficient mice and wild-type mice. We found that scar formation in T-cell-deficient mice was reduced by almost 9-fold (P < 0.001) with attenuated epidermal (by 2.6-fold, P < 0.01) and dermal (3.9-fold, P < 0.05) proliferation. Mechanical stimulation was highly associated with sustained T-cell-dependent Th2 cytokine (IL-4 and IL-13) and chemokine (MCP-1) signaling. Further, T-cell-deficient mice failed to recruit systemic inflammatory cells such as macrophages or monocytic fibroblast precursors in response to mechanical loading. These findings indicate that T-cell-regulated fibrogenic pathways are highly mechanoresponsive and suggest that mechanical forces induce a chronic-like inflammatory state through immune-dependent activation of both local and systemic cell populations.
Exuberant fibroproliferation is a common complication after injury for reasons that are not well understood. One key component of wound repair that is often overlooked is mechanical force, which regulates cell-matrix interactions through intracellular focal adhesion components, including focal adhesion kinase (FAK). Here we report that FAK is activated after cutaneous injury and that this process is potentiated by mechanical loading. Fibroblast-specific FAK knockout mice have substantially less inflammation and fibrosis than control mice in a model of hypertrophic scar formation. We show that FAK acts through extracellular-related kinase (ERK) to mechanically trigger the secretion of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 (MCP-1, also known as CCL2), a potent chemokine that is linked to human fibrotic disorders. Similarly, MCP-1 knockout mice form minimal scars, indicating that inflammatory chemokine pathways are a major mechanism by which FAK mechanotransduction induces fibrosis. Small-molecule inhibition of FAK blocks these effects in human cells and reduces scar formation in vivo through attenuated MCP-1 signaling and inflammatory cell recruitment. These findings collectively indicate that physical force regulates fibrosis through inflammatory FAK-ERK-MCP-1 pathways and that molecular strategies targeting FAK can effectively uncouple mechanical force from pathologic scar formation.
In this study, we examined the capacity of a biomimetic pullulan-collagen hydrogel to create a functional biomaterial-based stem cell niche for the delivery of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) into wounds. Murine bone marrow-derived MSCs were seeded into hydrogels and compared to MSCs grown in standard culture conditions. Hydrogels induced MSC secretion of angiogenic cytokines and expression of transcription factors associated with maintenance of pluripotency and self-renewal (Oct4, Sox2, Klf4) when compared to MSCs grown in standard conditions. An excisonal wound healing model was used to compare the ability of MSC-hydrogel constructs versus MSC injection alone to accelerate wound healing. Injection of MSCs did not significantly improve time to wound closure. In contrast, wounds treated with MSC-seeded hydrogels showed significantly accelerated healing and a return of skin appendages. Bioluminescence imaging and FACS analysis of luciferase+/GFP+ MSCs indicated that stem cells delivered within the hydrogel remained viable longer and demonstrated enhanced engraftment efficiency than those delivered via injection. Engrafted MSCs were found to differentiate into fibroblasts, pericytes and endothelial cells but did not contribute to the epidermis. Wounds treated with MSC-seeded hydrogels demonstrated significantly enhanced angiogenesis, which was associated with increased levels of VEGF and other angiogenic cytokines within the wounds. Our data suggest that biomimetic hydrogels provide a functional niche capable of augmenting MSC regenerative potential and enhancing wound healing.
Cutaneous scarring is an enormous medical problem with approximately 100 million patients acquiring scars each year. Scar prevention/reduction represents a significant, and largely unmet, clinical need. Research into the prophylactic modulation of scar outcome differs from research into other disease processes as the scar is not present at the start of the study; measurements of changes from baseline are impossible. Final scar morphology is influenced by many variables. A fundamental principle that should be observed in the prospective evaluation of scar prevention/reduction therapies is that, if left untreated, wounds in treatment and control groups should have healed with identical scars. Observation of this principle will allow the detection of true treatment effects. The many variables that influence scar morphology mean that the evaluation of potential pharmaceutical products for this indication favors the use of self-controlled designs in clinical trials. In this article, we review variables that affect scar morphology and recommend the self-controlled design for clinical trials aiming to establish proof of efficacy of scar prevention and reduction pharmaceuticals. With no pharmaceutical products currently licensed for this indication, this represents a new therapeutic area. The principles discussed will also have direct relevance to the wider fields of wound healing and regenerative medicine.
Given the diversity of species from which adipose-derived stromal cells are derived and studied, the authors set out to delineate the differences in the basic cell biology that may exist across species. Briefly, the authors found that significant differences exist with regard to proliferation and osteogenic potentials of adipose-derived stromal cells across species.
Human skin is a highly specialized mechanoresponsive interface separating our bodies from the external environment. It must constantly adapt to dynamic physical cues ranging from rapid expansion during embryonic and early postnatal development to ubiquitous external forces throughout life. Despite the suspected role of the physical environment in cutaneous processes, the fundamental molecular mechanisms responsible for how skin responds to force remain unclear. Intracellular pathways convert mechanical cues into biochemical responses (in a process known as mechanotransduction) via complex mechanoresponsive elements that often blur the distinction between physical and chemical signaling. For example, cellular focal adhesion components exhibit dual biochemical and scaffolding functions that are critically modulated by force. Moreover, the extracellular matrix itself is increasingly recognized to mechanically regulate the spatiotemporal distribution of soluble and matrix-bound ligands, underscoring the importance of bidirectional crosstalk between cells and their physical environment. It seems likely that a structural hierarchy exists to maintain both cells and matrix in mechanical homeostasis and that dysregulation of this architectural integrity may underlie or contribute to various skin disorders. An improved understanding of these interactions will facilitate the development of novel biophysical materials and mechanomodulatory approaches to augment wound repair and regeneration.
Human adipose-derived stem cells (hASCs) are known for their capability to promote bone healing when applied to bone defects. For bone tissue regeneration, both sufficient angiogenesis and osteogenesis is desirable. Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) has the potential to promote differentiation of common progenitor cells to both lineages. To test this hypothesis, the effects of VEGFA on hASCs during osteogenic differentiation were tested in vitro. In addition, hASCs were seeded in murine critical-sized calvarial defects locally treated with VEGFA. Our results suggest that VEGFA improves osteogenic differentiation in vitro as indicated by alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis. Moreover, local application of VEGFA to hASCs significantly improved healing of critical-sized calvarial defects in vivo. This repair was accompanied by a striking enhancement of angiogenesis. Both paracrine and, to a lesser degree, cell-autonomous effects of VEGFA-treated hASCs were accountable for angiogenesis. These data were confirmed by using CD31(-) /CD45(-) mouse ASCs(GFP+) cells. In summary, we demonstrated that VEGFA increased osteogenic differentiation of hASCS in vitro and in vivo, which was accompanied by an enhancement of angiogenesis. Additionally, we showed that during bone regeneration, the increase in angiogenesis of hASCs on treatment with VEGFA was attributable to both paracrine and cell-autonomous effects. Thus, locally applied VEGFA might prove to be a valuable growth factor that can mediate both osteogenesis and angiogenesis of multipotent hASCs in the context of bone regeneration.
Del1 is a secreted protein that is expressed in the endothelium during development and can stimulate angiogenesis through integrin binding and signaling. We were interested in the specific effects of del1 on endothelial cell biology to gain insight into its biologic role during angiogenesis.
The regrowth of amputated limbs and the distal tips of digits represent models of tissue regeneration in amphibians, fish and mice. For decades it had been assumed that limb regeneration derived from the blastema, an undifferentiated pluripotent cell population thought to be derived from mature cells via dedifferentiation. Here we show that a wide range of tissue stem/progenitor cells contribute towards the restoration of the mouse distal digit. Genetic fate mapping and clonal analysis of individual cells revealed that these stem cells are lineage restricted, mimicking digit growth during development. Transplantation of cyan-fluorescent-protein-expressing haematopoietic stem cells, and parabiosis between genetically marked mice, confirmed that the stem/progenitor cells are tissue resident, including the cells involved in angiogenesis. These results, combined with those from appendage regeneration in other vertebrate subphyla, collectively demonstrate that tissue stem cells rather than pluripotent blastema cells are an evolutionarily conserved cellular mode for limb regeneration after amputation.
Derivation of patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cells (iPSCs) opens a new avenue for future applications of regenerative medicine. However, before iPSCs can be used in a clinical setting, it is critical to validate their in vivo fate following autologous transplantation. Thus far, preclinical studies have been limited to small animals and have yet to be conducted in large animals that are physiologically more similar to humans. In this study, we report the first autologous transplantation of iPSCs in a large animal model through the generation of canine iPSCs (ciPSCs) from the canine adipose stromal cells and canine fibroblasts of adult mongrel dogs. We confirmed pluripotency of ciPSCs using the following techniques: (i) immunostaining and quantitative PCR for the presence of pluripotent and germ layer-specific markers in differentiated ciPSCs; (ii) microarray analysis that demonstrates similar gene expression profiles between ciPSCs and canine embryonic stem cells; (iii) teratoma formation assays; and (iv) karyotyping for genomic stability. Fate of ciPSCs autologously transplanted to the canine heart was tracked in vivo using clinical positron emission tomography, computed tomography, and magnetic resonance imaging. To demonstrate clinical potential of ciPSCs to treat models of injury, we generated endothelial cells (ciPSC-ECs) and used these cells to treat immunodeficient murine models of myocardial infarction and hindlimb ischemia.
Human adipose-derived stromal cells (hASCs) have a proven capacity to aid in osseous repair of calvarial defects. However, the bone defect microenvironment necessary for osseous healing is not fully understood. In this study, we postulated that the cell-cell interaction between engrafted ASCs and host dura mater (DM) cells is critical for the healing of calvarial defects. hASCs were engrafted into critical sized calvarial mouse defects. The DM-hASC interaction was manipulated surgically by DM removal or by insertion of a semipermeable or nonpermeable membrane between DM and hASCs. Radiographic, histologic, and gene expression analyses were performed. Next, the hASC-DM interaction is assessed by conditioned media (CM) and coculture assays. Finally, bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling from DM was investigated in vivo using novel BMP-2 and anti-BMP-2/4 slow releasing scaffolds. With intact DM, osseous healing occurs both from host DM and engrafted hASCs. Interference with the DM-hASC interaction dramatically reduced calvarial healing with abrogated BMP-2-Smad-1/5 signaling. Using CM and coculture assays, mouse DM cells stimulated hASC osteogenesis via BMP signaling. Through in vivo manipulation of the BMP-2 pathway, we found that BMP-2 plays an important role in DM stimulation of hASC osteogenesis in the context of calvarial bone healing. BMP-2 supplementation to a defect with disrupted DM allowed for bone formation in a nonhealing defect. DM is an osteogenic cell type that both participates in and stimulates osseous healing in a hASC-engrafted calvarial defect. Furthermore, DM-derived BMP-2 paracrine stimulation appears to play a key role for hASC mediated repair.
Bone regeneration is a complex event that requires the interaction of numerous growth factors. Fibroblast growth factor (Fgf)-ligands have been previously described for their importance in osteogenesis during development. In the current study, we investigated the role of Fgf-18 during bone regeneration. By utilizing a unicortical tibial defect model, we revealed that mice haploinsufficient for Fgf-18 have a markedly reduced healing capacity as compared with wild-type mice. Reduced levels of Runx2 and Osteocalcin but not Vegfa accompanied the impaired bone regeneration. Interestingly, our data indicated that upon injury angiogenesis was not impaired in Fgf-18(+/-) mice. Moreover, other Fgf-ligands and Bmp-2 could not compensate for the loss of Fgf-18. Finally, application of FGF-18 protein was able to rescue the impaired healing in Fgf-18(+/-) mice. Thus, we identified Fgf-18 as an important mediator of bone regeneration, which is required during later stages of bone regeneration. This study provides hints on how to engineering efficiently programmed bony tissue for long bone repair.
Cell-based therapies for wound repair are limited by inefficient delivery systems that fail to protect cells from the acute inflammatory environment. Here, a biomimetic hydrogel system is described that is based on the polymer pullulan, a carbohydrate glucan known to exhibit potent antioxidant capabilities. It is shown that pullulan hydrogels are an effective cell delivery system and improve mesenchymal stem cell survival and engraftment in high-oxidative-stress environments. The results suggest that glucan hydrogel systems may prove beneficial for progenitor-cell-based approaches to skin regeneration.
Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of cranial suture, is a pathologic condition that affects 1/2000 live births. Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is a genetic condition characterized by craniosynostosis. The Saethre-Chotzen syndrome, which is defined by loss-of-function mutations in the TWIST gene, is the second most prevalent craniosynostosis. Although much of the genetics and phenotypes in craniosynostosis syndromes is understood, less is known about the underlying ossification mechanism during suture closure. We have previously demonstrated that physiological closure of the posterior frontal suture occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, we revealed that antagonizing canonical Wnt-signaling in the sagittal suture leads to endochondral ossification of the suture mesenchyme and sagittal synostosis, presumably by inhibiting Twist1. Classic Saethre-Chotzen syndrome is characterized by coronal synostosis, and the haploinsufficient Twist1(+/-) mice represents a suitable model for studying this syndrome. Thus, we seeked to understand the underlying ossification process in coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1(+/-) mice. Our data indicate that coronal suture closure in Twist1(+/-) mice occurs between postnatal day 9 and 13 by endochondral ossification, as shown by histology, gene expression analysis, and immunohistochemistry. In conclusion, this study reveals that coronal craniosynostosis in Twist1(+/-) mice occurs through endochondral ossification. Moreover, it suggests that haploinsufficiency of Twist1 gene, a target of canonical Wnt-signaling, and inhibitor of chondrogenesis, mimics conditions of inactive canonical Wnt-signaling leading to craniosynostosis.
The function of Glycogen Synthase Kinases 3? (GSK-3?) has previously been shown to be necessary for normal secondary palate development. Using GSK-3ß null mouse embryos, we examine the potential coordinate roles of Wnt and Hedgehog signaling on palatal ossification.
Diabetic wounds remain a major medical challenge with often disappointing outcomes despite the best available care. An impaired response to tissue hypoxia and insufficient angiogenesis are major factors responsible for poor healing in diabetic wounds. Here we show that the antimycotic drug ciclopirox olamine (CPX) can induce therapeutic angiogenesis in diabetic wounds. Treatment with CPX in vitro led to upregulation of multiple angiogenic genes and increased availability of HIF-1?. Using an excisional wound splinting model in diabetic mice, we showed that serial topical treatment with CPX enhanced wound healing compared to vehicle control treatment, with significantly accelerated wound closure, increased angiogenesis, and increased dermal cellularity. These findings offer a promising new topical pharmacologic therapy for the treatment of diabetic wounds.
A comprehensive knowledge of the molecular biology underlying osteogenic differentiation in a controlled, laboratory setting may promise optimization of future cell-based tissue engineering strategies for clinical problems. The scope of this review encompasses a discussion of the methodology utilized to perform such studies. Our laboratory routinely performs both in vitro and in vivo assays underlying osteogenic differentiation, and the widespread use of singular methodology across multiple investigators and institutions promises great advancements for the skeletal tissue engineering community.
Related JoVE Video
Journal of Visualized Experiments
What is Visualize?
JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.
How does it work?
We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.
Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...
In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.