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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Yeast On-Target Lysis (YOTL), a Procedure for Making Auxiliary Mass Spectrum Data Sets for Clinical Routine Identification of Yeasts.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS)-based species identification has become a reliable and fast tool for use in clinical diagnostics, including in mycology. To identify yeasts in the MALDI Biotyper system, a multistep extraction protocol, which is also used to generate the reference spectra, is recommended. Sample preparation by on-target lysis (OTL) requires significantly less hands-on time and is therefore highly desirable, but it results in too-low MALDI Biotyper log score values to allow automated species identification. To overcome this problem, we developed a procedure for generating and validating an OTL spectrum data set for the most relevant and frequently occurring yeast species in clinical specimens. The performance was evaluated against a set of OTL spectra derived during clinical routine procedures and from a set of closely related yeasts. In the diagnostic setting, the OTL procedure significantly decreased the workload but allowed species identification with high specificity and sensitivity. False identifications were not observed. The use of in-house-generated OTL reference spectra can highly accelerate MALDI-TOF MS-based yeast species identification using the MALDI Biotyper.
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Prevalence and antifungal susceptibility of Cryptococcus neoformans isolated from pigeon excreta in Chon Buri Province, Eastern Thailand.
Med Mycol J
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2013
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 The prevalence of cerebral meningitis caused by Cryptococcus neoformans in HIV-infected patients in Eastern Thailand is high. However, little is known about the occurrence of this pathogenic yeast in the environment of this region.  The aim of our study was to characterize the prevalence of C. neoformans, its serotypes and antifungal drug susceptibilities in environmental isolates from Chon Buri, Eastern Thailand.  C. neoformans was isolated from 10% of fifty pigeon excreta examined from this province. All C. neoformans isolates were of serotype A and although the isolates displayed slightly decreased susceptibility towards fluconazole, all tested sensitive to amphotericin B, fluconazole and itraconazole. This study is the first report of the occurrence of C. neoformans in pigeon excreta in eastern Thailand.
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Discrimination of multilocus sequence typing-based Campylobacter jejuni subgroups by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
BMC Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Campylobacter jejuni, the most common bacterial pathogen causing gastroenteritis, shows a wide genetic diversity. Previously, we demonstrated by the combination of multi locus sequence typing (MLST)-based UPGMA-clustering and analysis of 16 genetic markers that twelve different C. jejuni subgroups can be distinguished. Among these are two prominent subgroups. The first subgroup contains the majority of hyperinvasive strains and is characterized by a dimeric form of the chemotaxis-receptor Tlp7m+c. The second has an extended amino acid metabolism and is characterized by the presence of a periplasmic asparaginase (ansB) and gamma-glutamyl-transpeptidase (ggt).
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cyp51A-Based mechanisms of Aspergillus fumigatus azole drug resistance present in clinical samples from Germany.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2013
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Since the mid-1990s, a steady increase in the occurrence of itraconazole-resistant Aspergillus fumigatus isolates has been observed in clinical contexts, leading to therapeutic failure in the treatment of aspergillosis. This increase has been predominantly linked to a single allele of the cyp51A gene, termed TR/L98H, which is thought to have arisen through the use of agricultural azoles. Here, we investigated the current epidemiology of triazole-resistant A. fumigatus and underlying cyp51A mutations in clinical samples in Germany. From a total of 527 samples, 17 (3.2%) showed elevated MIC0 values (the lowest concentrations with no visible growth) for at least one of the three substances (itraconazole, voriconazole, and posaconazole) tested. The highest prevalence of resistant isolates was observed in cystic fibrosis patients (5.2%). Among resistant isolates, the TR/L98H mutation in cyp51A was the most prevalent, but isolates with the G54W and M220I substitutions and the novel F219C substitution were also found. The isolate with the G54W substitution was highly resistant to both itraconazole and posaconazole, while all others showed high-level resistance only to itraconazole. For the remaining six isolates, no mutations in cyp51A were found, indicating the presence of other mechanisms. With the exception of the strains carrying the F219C and M220I substitutions, many itraconazole-resistant strains also showed cross-resistance to voriconazole and posaconazole with moderately increased MIC0 values. In conclusion, the prevalence of azole-resistant A. fumigatus in our clinical test set is lower than that previously reported for other countries. Although the TR/L98H mutation frequently occurs among triazole-resistant strains in Germany, it is not the only resistance mechanism present.
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Adhesins in human fungal pathogens: glue with plenty of stick.
Eukaryotic Cell
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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Understanding the pathogenesis of an infectious disease is critical for developing new methods to prevent infection and diagnose or cure disease. Adherence of microorganisms to host tissue is a prerequisite for tissue invasion and infection. Fungal cell wall adhesins involved in adherence to host tissue or abiotic medical devices are critical for colonization leading to invasion and damage of host tissue. Here, with a main focus on pathogenic Candida species, we summarize recent progress made in the field of adhesins in human fungal pathogens and underscore the importance of these proteins in establishment of fungal diseases.
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Soybean toxin (SBTX) impairs fungal growth by interfering with molecular transport, carbohydrate/amino acid metabolism and drug/stress responses.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Soybean toxin (SBTX) is an antifungal protein from soybeans with broad inhibitory activity against the growth and filamentation of many fungi, including human and plant pathogenic species such as Candida albicans, Candida parapsilosis, Aspergillus niger, Penicillium herquei, Cercospora sojina and Cercospora kikuchii. Understanding the mechanism by which SBTX acts on fungi and yeasts may contribute to the design of novel antifungal drugs and/or the development of transgenic plants resistant to pathogens. To this end, the polymorphic yeast C. albicans was chosen as a model organism and changes in the gene expression profile of strain SC5314 upon exposure to SBTX were examined. Genes that were differentially regulated in the presence of SBTX were involved in glucose transport and starvation-associated stress responses as well as in the control of both the induction and repression of C. albicans hyphal formation. Transmission electron microscopy showed that C. albicans cells exposed to SBTX displayed severe signs of starvation and were heavily granulated. Our data were indicative of C. albicans cell starvation despite sufficient nutrient availability in the medium; therefore, it can be speculated that SBTX blocks nutrient uptake systems. Because neither the starvation signal nor the alkaline response pathway lead to the induction of hyphae, we hypothesise that conflicting signals are transmitted to the complex regulatory network controlling morphogenesis, eventually preventing the filamentation signal from reaching a significant threshold.
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Mucormycosis in paediatric patients: demographics, risk factors and outcome of 12 contemporary cases.
Mycoses
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2011
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Mucormycosis is associated with high morbidity and mortality and is perceived as an emerging fungal infection. However, contemporary paediatric data are limited. We present a series of paediatric cases of mucormycosis reported from Germany and Austria collected within a voluntary epidemiological survey through standardised, anonymized case report forms. Twelve cases were reported between January 2004 and December 2008 (six men; mean age: 12.6 years, range: 0.1-17 years). Mucormycosis was proven in nine, and probable in three cases. Isolates included Lichtheimia (syn. Absidia pro parte, Mycocladus) (five), Rhizopus (three) and Mucor (one) species. Infection was limited to soft tissue in three cases, the lung in two cases, and an infected thrombus in one case; rhinocerebral disease was found in three cases, and pulmonary-mediastinal, pulmonary-cerebral and soft tissue-cerebral involvement in one case each. All three patients with isolated soft tissue infection were cured, whereas seven of the remaining patients died (one patient without follow-up). The overall mortality rate was 67%. While these data cannot provide conclusive data on incidence and disease burden of mucormycosis in paediatric patients, they reflect the continuing threat of these infections to immunocompromised patients and the need for improved diagnosis and management.
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Identification and characterization of four azole-resistant erg3 mutants of Candida albicans.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2010
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Sterol analysis identified four Candida albicans erg3 mutants in which ergosta 7,22-dienol, indicative of perturbations in sterol ?(5,6)-desaturase (Erg3p) activity, comprised >5% of the total sterol fraction. The erg3 mutants (CA12, CA488, CA490, and CA1008) were all resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and clotrimazole under standard CLSI assay conditions (MIC values, ?256, 16, 16, 8, and 1 ?g ml?¹, respectively). Importantly, CA12 and CA1008 retained an azole-resistant phenotype even when assayed in the presence of FK506, a multidrug efflux inhibitor. Conversely, CA488, CA490, and three comparator isolates (CA6, CA14, and CA177, in which ergosterol comprised >80% of the total sterol fraction and ergosta 7,22-dienol was undetectable) all displayed azole-sensitive phenotypes under efflux-inhibited assay conditions. Owing to their ergosterol content, CA6, CA14, and CA177 were highly sensitive to amphotericin B (MIC values, <0.25 ?g ml?¹); CA1008, in which ergosterol comprised <2% of the total sterol fraction, was less sensitive (MIC, 1 ?g ml?¹). CA1008 harbored multiple amino acid substitutions in Erg3p but only a single conserved polymorphism (E266D) in sterol 14?-demethylase (Erg11p). CA12 harbored one substitution (W332R) in Erg3p and no residue changes in Erg11p. CA488 and CA490 were found to harbor multiple residue changes in both Erg3p and Erg11p. The results suggest that missense mutations in ERG3 might arise in C. albicans more frequently than currently supposed and that the clinical significance of erg3 mutants, including those in which additional mechanisms also contribute to resistance, should not be discounted.
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A clinical isolate of Candida albicans with mutations in ERG11 (encoding sterol 14alpha-demethylase) and ERG5 (encoding C22 desaturase) is cross resistant to azoles and amphotericin B.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
PUBLISHED: 06-14-2010
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A clinical isolate of Candida albicans was identified as an erg5 (encoding sterol C22 desaturase) mutant in which ergosterol was not detectable and ergosta 5,7-dienol comprised >80% of the total sterol fraction. The mutant isolate (CA108) was resistant to fluconazole, voriconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and clotrimazole (MIC values, 64, 8, 2, 1, and 2 microg ml(-1), respectively); azole resistance could not be fully explained by the activity of multidrug resistance pumps. When susceptibility tests were performed in the presence of a multidrug efflux inhibitor (tacrolimus; FK506), CA108 remained resistant to azole concentrations higher than suggested clinical breakpoints for C. albicans (efflux-inhibited MIC values, 16 and 4 microg ml(-1) for fluconazole and voriconazole, respectively). Gene sequencing revealed that CA108 was an erg11 erg5 double mutant harboring a single amino acid substitution (A114S) in sterol 14alpha-demethylase (Erg11p) and sequence repetition (10 duplicated amino acids), which nullified C22 desaturase (Erg5p) function. Owing to a lack of ergosterol, CA108 was also resistant to amphotericin B (MIC, 2 microg ml(-1)). This constitutes the first report of a C. albicans erg5 mutant isolated from the clinic.
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The Candida albicans cell wall protein Rhd3/Pga29 is abundant in the yeast form and contributes to virulence.
Yeast
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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The glycosylphosphatidylinositol-modified protein Rhd3/Pga29 of the human pathogen Candida albicans belongs to a family of cell wall proteins that are widespread among Candida species but are not found in other fungi. Pga29 is covalently linked to the beta-1,3-glucan framework of the cell wall via beta-1,6-glucan. It is a small and abundant O-glycosylated protein and requires the protein-O-mannosyl transferase Pmt1 for glycosylation. Furthermore, Pga29 is strongly expressed in yeast cells but is downregulated in hyphae. Removal of the PGA29 gene in C. albicans leads to a significant reduction of cell wall mannan; however, Pga29 does not seem to have a major role in maintaining cell wall integrity. In addition, adhesion capacity and hyphae formation appear normal in pga29 deletion mutants. Importantly, the pga29 deletion mutant is less virulent, and infection of reconstituted human epithelium with the pga29 mutant results in a diminished induction of proinflammatory cytokines, such as GM-CSF, TNF, IL-6 and IL-8. We propose that the reduced virulence of the pga29 mutant is a consequence of altered surface properties, resulting in altered fungal recognition.
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Gross karyotypic and phenotypic alterations among different progenies of the Candida glabrata CBS138/ATCC2001 reference strain.
PLoS ONE
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Genomic plasticity is a mechanism for adaptation to environmental cues such as host responses and antifungal drug pressure in many fungi including the human pathogenic yeast Candida glabrata. In this study we evaluated the phenotypic and genotypic stability of the world-wide used C. glabrata reference strain CBS138/ATCC2001 under laboratory conditions. A set of ten lineages of this wild type strain and genetically modified progenies were obtained from different scientific laboratories, and analyzed for genotypic and phenotypic alterations. Even though the derivates were indistinguishable by multi locus sequence typing, different phenotypic groups that correlated with specific karyotypic changes were observed. In addition, modifications in the adherence capacity to plastic surface emerged that were shown to correlate with quantitative changes in adhesin gene expression rather than subtelomeric gene loss or differences in the number of macrosatellite repeats within adhesin genes. These results confirm the genomic plasticity of C. glabrata and show that chromosomal aberrations and functional adaptations may occur not only during infection and under antimicrobial therapy, but also under laboratory conditions without extreme selective pressures. These alterations can significantly affect phenotypic properties such as cell surface attributes including adhesion and the cell wall carbohydrate composition and therefore, if unnoticed, may adulterate the outcome of genetic studies.
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Glycosylation of Candida albicans cell wall proteins is critical for induction of innate immune responses and apoptosis of epithelial cells.
PLoS ONE
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C. albicans is one of the most common fungal pathogen of humans, causing local and superficial mucosal infections in immunocompromised individuals. Given that the key structure mediating host-C. albicans interactions is the fungal cell wall, we aimed to identify features of the cell wall inducing epithelial responses and be associated with fungal pathogenesis. We demonstrate here the importance of cell wall protein glycosylation in epithelial immune activation with a predominant role for the highly branched N-glycosylation residues. Moreover, these glycan moieties induce growth arrest and apoptosis of epithelial cells. Using an in vitro model of oral candidosis we demonstrate, that apoptosis induction by C. albicans wild-type occurs in early stage of infection and strongly depends on intact cell wall protein glycosylation. These novel findings demonstrate that glycosylation of the C. albicans cell wall proteins appears essential for modulation of epithelial immunity and apoptosis induction, both of which may promote fungal pathogenesis in vivo.
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Two clinical isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B both harbor mutations in ERG2.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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Two novel isolates of Candida glabrata exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B (MIC, 8 ?g ml(-1)) were found to be ERG2 mutants, wherein ?(8)-sterol intermediates comprised >90% of the total cellular sterol fraction. Both harbored an alteration at Thr(121) in ERG2; the corresponding residue (Thr(119)) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae is essential for sterol ?8-?7 isomerization. This constitutes the first report of C. glabrata harboring mutations in ERG2 and exhibiting reduced sensitivity to amphotericin B.
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Rapid discrimination of Salmonella enterica serovar Typhi from other serovars by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.
PLoS ONE
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Systemic infections caused by Salmonella enterica are an ongoing public health problem especially in Sub-Saharan Africa. Essentially typhoid fever is associated with high mortality particularly because of the increasing prevalence of multidrug-resistant strains. Thus, a rapid blood-culture based bacterial species diagnosis including an immediate sub-differentiation of the various serovars is mandatory. At present, MALDI-TOF based intact cell mass spectrometry (ICMS) advances to a widely used routine identification tool for bacteria and fungi. In this study, we investigated the appropriateness of ICMS to identify pathogenic bacteria derived from Sub-Saharan Africa and tested the potential of this technology to discriminate S. enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhi (S. Typhi) from other serovars. Among blood culture isolates obtained from a study population suffering from febrile illness in Ghana, no major misidentifications were observed for the species identification process, but serovars of Salmonella enterica could not be distinguished using the commercially available Biotyper database. However, a detailed analysis of the mass spectra revealed several serovar-specific biomarker ions, allowing the discrimination of S. Typhi from others. In conclusion, ICMS is able to identify isolates from a sub-Saharan context and may facilitate the rapid discrimination of the clinically and epidemiologically important serovar S. Typhi and other non-S. Typhi serovars in future implementations.
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Facultative sterol uptake in an ergosterol-deficient clinical isolate of Candida glabrata harboring a missense mutation in ERG11 and exhibiting cross-resistance to azoles and amphotericin B.
Antimicrob. Agents Chemother.
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We identified a clinical isolate of Candida glabrata (CG156) exhibiting flocculent growth and cross-resistance to fluconazole (FLC), voriconazole (VRC), and amphotericin B (AMB), with MICs of >256, >256, and 32 ?g ml(-1), respectively. Sterol analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) revealed that CG156 was a sterol 14?-demethylase (Erg11p) mutant, wherein 14?-methylated intermediates (lanosterol was >80% of the total) were the only detectable sterols. ERG11 sequencing indicated that CG156 harbored a single-amino-acid substitution (G315D) which nullified the function of native Erg11p. In heterologous expression studies using a doxycycline-regulatable Saccharomyces cerevisiae erg11 strain, wild-type C. glabrata Erg11p fully complemented the function of S. cerevisiae sterol 14?-demethylase, restoring growth and ergosterol synthesis in recombinant yeast; mutated CG156 Erg11p did not. CG156 was culturable using sterol-free, glucose-containing yeast minimal medium ((glc)YM). However, when grown on sterol-supplemented (glc)YM (with ergosta 7,22-dienol, ergosterol, cholestanol, cholesterol, ?(7)-cholestenol, or desmosterol), CG156 cultures exhibited shorter lag phases, reached higher cell densities, and showed alterations in cellular sterol composition. Unlike comparator isolates (harboring wild-type ERG11) that became less sensitive to FLC and VRC when cultured on sterol-supplemented (glc)YM, facultative sterol uptake by CG156 did not affect its azole-resistant phenotype. Conversely, CG156 grown using (glc)YM with ergosterol (or with ergosta 7,22-dienol) showed increased sensitivity to AMB; CG156 grown using (glc)YM with cholesterol (or with cholestanol) became more resistant (MICs of 2 and >64 ?g AMB ml(-1), respectively). Our results provide insights into the consequences of sterol uptake and metabolism on growth and antifungal resistance in C. glabrata.
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Interlaboratory comparison of PCR-based identification of Candida and Aspergillus DNA in spiked blood samples.
Mycoses
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Despite PCR per se being a powerful and sensitive technique, regarding the detection of fungi in patients blood, no consensus for a standardised PCR protocol yet exists. To complement other ongoing or accomplished studies which tackle this problem, the German Reference Center for Systemic Mycoses conducted an interlaboratory comparison starting with blood samples spiked with fungal cell elements. Altogether, six laboratories using in-house PCR-protocols from Germany and Austria participated in the trial. Blood samples were spiked with vital cells of Candida albicans or Aspergillus fumigatus. Candida was used in the yeast form, whereas Aspergillus cells were either spiked as conidia or as very young germlings, also known as smoo cells. Spiked blood samples contained between 10 and 10 000 cells ml(-1). Depending on the techniques used for fungal cell disruption and DNA-amplification, detection quality was variable between laboratories, but also differed within single laboratories in different trials particularly for samples spiked with less than 100 cells ml(-1). Altogether, at least regarding the detection of A. fumigatus, two of six laboratories showed constant reliable test results also with low fungal cell number spiked samples. Protocols used by these labs do not differ substantially from others. However, as particularities, one protocol included a conventional phenol chloroform extraction during the DNA preparation process and the other included a real time PCR-protocol based on FRET probes. Other laboratory comparisons on the basis of clinical samples should follow to further evaluate the procedures. The difficulties and problems of such trials in general are discussed.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.