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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Catabolic Signaling and Muscle Wasting After Acute Ischemic Stroke in Mice: Indication for a Stroke-Specific Sarcopenia.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Muscle wasting is a common complication accompanying stroke. Although it is known to impair poststroke recovery, the mechanisms of subacute catabolism after stroke have not been investigated in detail. The aim of this study is to investigate mechanisms of local and systemic catabolism and muscle wasting (sarcopenia) in a model of ischemic stroke systematically.
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Increased catabolic state in spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 patients.
Cerebellum
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2014
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Autosomal dominant spinocerebellar ataxia type 1 (SCA1) is a genetic movement disorder with neuronal loss in the cerebellum, brainstem, and other cerebral regions. The course of SCA1 is accompanied with progressive weight loss and amyotrophia-the causes for that remain, however, unclear. We tested the hypothesis that an imbalance between energy intake and expenditure contributes to weight loss in SCA1 patients. Anthropometric measures, energy intake (food records), and resting (calorimetry) and free-living (accelerometry) energy expenditure were determined in 10 patients with genetically proven SCA1 and 10 healthy controls closely matched for age, sex, and body composition. At rest, energy expenditure per kilogram fat-free mass was 22 % and fat oxidation rate 28 % higher in patients vs. controls indicating an increased catabolic state. Under free-living conditions, total energy expenditure and daily step counts were significantly lower in patients vs. controls. However, most patients were able to maintain energy intake and expenditure in a balanced state. Resting energy expenditure, fat oxidation, and activity energy expenditure per step count are higher, whereas 24-h total energy expenditure is lower in SCA1 patients vs. healthy controls. An altered autonomic nervous system activity, gait ataxia, and a decreased physical activity might contribute to this outcome.
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Inflammation-induced acute phase response in skeletal muscle and critical illness myopathy.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Systemic inflammation is a major risk factor for critical-illness myopathy (CIM) but its pathogenic role in muscle is uncertain. We observed that interleukin 6 (IL-6) and serum amyloid A1 (SAA1) expression was upregulated in muscle of critically ill patients. To test the relevance of these responses we assessed inflammation and acute-phase response at early and late time points in muscle of patients at risk for CIM.
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Long-lasting improvements in liver fat and metabolism despite body weight regain after dietary weight loss.
Diabetes Care
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
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Weight loss reduces abdominal and intrahepatic fat, thereby improving metabolic and cardiovascular risk. Yet, many patients regain weight after successful diet-induced weight loss. Long-term changes in abdominal and liver fat, along with liver test results and insulin resistance, are not known.
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Resting energy expenditure and the effects of muscle wasting in patients with chronic heart failure: results from the Studies Investigating Comorbidities Aggravating Heart Failure (SICA-HF).
J Am Med Dir Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2013
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Muscle wasting is common in patients with chronic heart failure (HF) and worsens functional status. Protein catabolism is characteristic of muscle wasting and contributes to resting energy expenditure (REE). Glucagonlike peptide 1 (GLP-1) is linked to REE in healthy individuals. We aimed to evaluate (1) whether REE is elevated in patients with HF with muscle wasting, and (2) whether basal GLP-1 levels are linked to REE in HF.
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Increased catabolic activity in adipose tissue of patients with chronic heart failure.
Eur. J. Heart Fail.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2013
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Patients with chronic heart failure (CHF) have an increased catabolic state that affects both muscle and adipose tissue (AT), and may ultimately result in cardiac cachexia. Increased plasma levels of ANP might contribute to increased lipid mobilization and oxidation in CHF. We tested the hypothesis that increased plasma ANP levels are associated with an increased catabolic (lipolytic) state of white AT in patients with CHF.
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mTOR and regulation of energy homeostasis in humans.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Patients treated with the mammalian or mechanistic target of rapamycin (mTOR) inhibitor everolimus in order to slow progression of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) showed a significant reduction of body weight. Although the detailed mechanism of how mTOR inhibition interferes with body weight regulation is rather unclear, present data suggest that this effect is mediated by both central and peripheral mechanisms. These findings in ADPKD patients are in contrast to well-documented effects of hypothalamic mTOR on regulation of energy homeostasis and eating behavior in rodents. In a number of rodent models, the mTOR inhibitor rapamycin induces increased food intake, which is accompanied by increased body weight. However, animal data are inconsistent. This review highlights some of the regulatory signals and key mechanisms that are important for balancing energy intake and energy expenditure with a special focus on adipose tissue-derived adipokines and their interaction with mTOR regarding local regulation of tissue perfusion and metabolism and overall systemic energy homeostasis. Specifically, clinical aspects of an impaired mTOR signaling pathway regarding the development of obesity and type-2 diabetes mellitus will be discussed.
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Fatty acid binding protein 4 predicts left ventricular mass and longitudinal function in overweight and obese women.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2013
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To explore whether increased adipocyte-derived serum fatty acid binding protein 4 (FABP4) predisposes to cardiac remodelling and left ventricular dysfunction in human obesity.
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Immune cells control skin lymphatic electrolyte homeostasis and blood pressure.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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The skin interstitium sequesters excess Na+ and Cl- in salt-sensitive hypertension. Mononuclear phagocyte system (MPS) cells are recruited to the skin, sense the hypertonic electrolyte accumulation in skin, and activate the tonicity-responsive enhancer-binding protein (TONEBP, also known as NFAT5) to initiate expression and secretion of VEGFC, which enhances electrolyte clearance via cutaneous lymph vessels and increases eNOS expression in blood vessels. It is unclear whether this local MPS response to osmotic stress is important to systemic blood pressure control. Herein, we show that deletion of TonEBP in mouse MPS cells prevents the VEGFC response to a high-salt diet (HSD) and increases blood pressure. Additionally, an antibody that blocks the lymph-endothelial VEGFC receptor, VEGFR3, selectively inhibited MPS-driven increases in cutaneous lymphatic capillary density, led to skin Cl- accumulation, and induced salt-sensitive hypertension. Mice overexpressing soluble VEGFR3 in epidermal keratinocytes exhibited hypoplastic cutaneous lymph capillaries and increased Na+, Cl-, and water retention in skin and salt-sensitive hypertension. Further, we found that HSD elevated skin osmolality above plasma levels. These results suggest that the skin contains a hypertonic interstitial fluid compartment in which MPS cells exert homeostatic and blood pressure-regulatory control by local organization of interstitial electrolyte clearance via TONEBP and VEGFC/VEGFR3-mediated modification of cutaneous lymphatic capillary function.
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Epigallocatechin-3-gallate: a useful, effective and safe clinical approach for targeted prevention and individualised treatment of neurological diseases?
EPMA J
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2013
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Neurodegenerative disorders show an increasing prevalence in a number of highly developed countries. Often, these diseases require life-long treatment mostly with drugs which are costly and mostly accompanied by more or less serious side-effects. Their heterogeneous manifestation, severity and outcome pose the need for individualised treatment options. There is an intensive search for new strategies not only for treating but also for preventing these diseases. Green tea and green tea extracts seem to be such a promising and safe alternative. However, data regarding the beneficial effects and possible underlying mechanism, specifically in clinical trials, are rare and rather controversial or non-conclusive. This review outlines the existing evidence from preclinical studies (cell and tissue cultures and animal models) and clinical trials regarding preventive and therapeutic effects of epigallcatechin-3-gallate in neurodegenerative diseases and considers antioxidative vs. pro-oxidative properties of the tea catechin important for dosage recommendations.
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Altered expression of cyclin A 1 in muscle of patients with facioscapulohumeral muscle dystrophy (FSHD-1).
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Cyclin A1 regulates cell cycle activity and proliferation in somatic and germ-line cells. Its expression increases in G1/S phase and reaches a maximum in G2 and M phases. Altered cyclin A1 expression might contribute to clinical symptoms in facioscapulohumeral muscular dystrophy (FSHD).
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Left ventricular mass and function with reduced-fat or reduced-carbohydrate hypocaloric diets in overweight and obese subjects.
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2011
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In animals, carbohydrate and fat composition during dietary interventions influenced cardiac metabolism, structure, and function. Because reduced-carbohydrate and reduced-fat hypocaloric diets are commonly used in the treatment of obesity, we investigated whether these interventions differentially affect left ventricular mass, cardiac function, and blood pressure. We randomized 170 overweight and obese subjects (body mass index, 32.9±4.4; range, 26.5-45.4 kg/m(2)) to 6-month hypocaloric diets with either reduced carbohydrate intake or reduced fat intake. We obtained cardiac MRI and ambulatory blood pressure recordings over 24 hours before and after 6 months. Ninety subjects completing the intervention period had a full cardiac MRI data set. Subjects lost 7.3±4.0 kg (7.9±3.8%) with reduced-carbohydrate diet and 6.2±4.2 kg (6.7±4.4%) with reduced-fat diet (P<0.001 within each group; P=not significant between interventions). Caloric restriction led to similar significant decreases in left ventricular mass with low-carbohydrate diets (5.4±5.4 g) or low-fat diets (5.2±4.8 g; P<0.001 within each group; P=not significant between interventions). Systolic and diastolic left ventricular function did not change with either diet. The 24-hour systolic blood pressure decreased similarly with both interventions. Body weight change (?=0.33; P=0.02) and percentage of ingested n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (?=-0.27; P=0.03) predicted changes in left ventricular mass. In conclusion, weight loss induced by reduced-fat diets or reduced-carbohydrate diets similarly improved left ventricular mass in overweight and obese subjects over a 6-month period. However, n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid ingestion may have an independent beneficial effect on left ventricular mass.
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Myocardial steatosis, cardiac remodelling and fitness in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant obese women.
Heart
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2011
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Obesity predisposes to heart failure and premature cardiovascular death, particularly in sedentary women. In animal models and in men with type 2 diabetes mellitus, impaired cardiac function is associated with myocardial triglyceride (MTG) accumulation. Lipotoxic injury from altered myocardial metabolism may be causative. Whether such association also exists in obese, non-diabetic women is unknown.
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Randomized comparison of reduced fat and reduced carbohydrate hypocaloric diets on intrahepatic fat in overweight and obese human subjects.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2011
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Obesity-related hepatic steatosis is a major risk factor for metabolic and cardiovascular disease. Fat reduced hypocaloric diets are able to relieve the liver from ectopically stored lipids. We hypothesized that the widely used low carbohydrate hypocaloric diets are similarly effective in this regard. A total of 170 overweight and obese, otherwise healthy subjects were randomized to either reduced carbohydrate (n = 84) or reduced fat (n = 86), total energy restricted diet (-30% of energy intake before diet) for 6 months. Body composition was estimated by bioimpedance analyses and abdominal fat distribution by magnetic resonance tomography. Subjects were also submitted to fat spectroscopy of liver and oral glucose tolerance testing. In all, 102 subjects completed the diet intervention with measurements of intrahepatic lipid content. Both hypocaloric diets decreased body weight, total body fat, visceral fat, and intrahepatic lipid content. Subjects with high baseline intrahepatic lipids (>5.56%) lost ?7-fold more intrahepatic lipids compared with those with low baseline values (<5.56%) irrespective of diet composition. In contrast, changes in visceral fat mass and insulin sensitivity were similar between subgroups, with low and high baseline intrahepatic lipids.
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Cardiorespiratory fitness and insulin sensitivity in overweight or obese subjects may be linked through intrahepatic lipid content.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2010
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Low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) predisposes one to cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes in part independently of body weight. Given the close relationship between intrahepatic lipid content (IHL) and insulin sensitivity, we hypothesized that the direct relationship between fitness and insulin sensitivity may be explained by IHL.
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LMNA mutations, skeletal muscle lipid metabolism, and insulin resistance.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2010
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Type 2 familial partial lipodystrophy (FPLD) is an autosomal-dominant lamin A/C-related disease associated with exercise intolerance, muscular pain, and insulin resistance. The symptoms may all be explained by defective metabolism; however, metabolism at the tissue level has not been investigated.
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[Effects of fasting and endurance training on energy metabolism and physical fitness in obese patients].
Forsch Komplementmed
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2009
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Buchinger therapeutic fasting, based on a low caloric (<500 kcal/d) fluid diet (juice-broth), is a traditional natural-healing strategy to reduce body weight and cure cardiometabolic complications in obese patients. Although there are some anecdotal reports about a serious protein loss during this type of fasting, there are no validated data that support this claim.
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Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV inhibition augments postprandial lipid mobilization and oxidation in type 2 diabetic patients.
J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Dipeptidyl-peptidase-IV (DPP-4) inhibition increases endogenous GLP-1 activity, resulting in improved glycemic control in patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus. The metabolic response may be explained in part by extrapancreatic mechanisms.
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Grade of adiposity affects the impact of fat mass on resting energy expenditure in women.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2009
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Body fat mass (FM) adds to the variance in resting energy expenditure (REE). However, the nature and extent of this relationship remains unclear. Using a database of 1306 women and a linear regression model, we systematically analysed the contribution of FM to the total variance in REE at different grades of adiposity (ranges of body %FM). After adjusting for age, the relative contribution of FM on REE variance increased from low (10- 30- 40- # 50 %FM) and very high (>50 %FM) grades of adiposity according to the ratio between regression coefficients. These data suggest that the specific metabolic rate of fat tissue is reduced at high adiposity. This should be considered when REE is normalized for FM in obesity.
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Increasing sodium intake from a previous low or high intake affects water, electrolyte and acid-base balance differently.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2009
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Contrasting data are published on the effects of high salt intake (between 300 and 660 mmol/d) on Na balance and fluid retention. In some studies high levels of NaCl intake (400, 440, 550 and 660 mmol/d) led to positive Na balances without fluid retention. To test the relevance of different baseline NaCl intake levels on changes in metabolic water, Na, K, chloride and acid-base balance, a 28 d clinical trial (Salty Life 6) was carried out in a metabolic ward. Nine healthy male volunteers (aged 25.7 (SD 3.1) years; body mass (BM) 71.4 (SD 4.0) kg) participated in the present study. Four consecutive levels of NaCl intake: low (6 d, 0.7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), average normal (6 d, 2.8 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), high (10 d, 7.7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d), and low again (6 d, 0.7 mmol NaCl/kg BM per d) were tested. Urine osmolality, extracellular volume (ECV) and plasma volume (PV), cumulative metabolic Na, K, chloride and fluid balances, mRNA expression of two glycosaminoglycan (GAG) polymerisation genes, capillary blood pH, bicarbonate and base excess were measured. During average normal NaCl intake, 193 (SEM 19) mmol Na were retained and ECV (+2.02 (SEM 0.31) litres; P<0.001) and PV (+0.57 (SEM 0.13) litres; P<0.001) increased. During high NaCl intake, 244 (SEM 77) mmol Na were retained but ECV did not increase (ECV -0.54 (SEM 0.30) litres, P=0.+89; PV +0.27 (SEM 0.25) litres, P=0.283). mRNA expression of GAG polymerisation genes increased with rise in NaCl intake, while pH (P<0.01) and bicarbonate (P<0.001) levels decreased. We conclude that a high NaCl intake may increase GAG synthesis; this might play a role in osmotically inactive Na retention in humans.
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Energy metabolism in human renin-gene transgenic rats: does renin contribute to obesity?
Hypertension
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2009
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Renin initiates angiotensin II formation and has no other known functions. We observed that transgenic rats (TGR) overexpressing the human renin gene (hREN) developed moderate obesity with increased body fat mass and glucose intolerance compared with nontransgenic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. The metabolic changes were not reversed by an angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, a direct renin inhibitor, or by (pro)renin receptor blocker treatment. The obese phenotype in TGR(hREN) originated from higher food intake, which was partly compensated by increases in resting energy expenditure, total thermogenesis (postprandial and exercise activity), and lipid oxidation during the first 8 weeks of life. Once established, the difference in body weight between TGR(hREN) and SD rats remained constant over time. When restricted to the caloric intake of SD, TGR(hREN) developed an even lower body weight than nontransgenic controls. We did not observe significant changes in the cocaine and amphetamine-regulated transcript, pro-opiomelanocortin, both anorexigenic, or neuropeptide Y, orexigenic, mRNA levels in TGR(hREN) versus SD controls. However, the mRNA level of the agouti-related peptide, orexigenic, was significantly reduced in TGR(hREN) versus SD controls at the end of the study, which indicates a compensatory mechanism. We suggest that the human renin transgene initiates a process leading to increased and early appetite, obesity, and metabolic changes not related to angiotensin II. The mechanisms are independent of any currently known renin-related effects.
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The potential role of green tea catechins in the prevention of the metabolic syndrome - a review.
Phytochemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2009
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The metabolic syndrome (MetS) represents an emerging health burden for governments and health care providers. Particularly relevant for prevention and early management of MetS are lifestyle conditions including physical activity and the diet. It has been shown that green tea, when consumed on a daily basis, supports health. Many of the beneficial effects of green tea are related to its catechin, particularly (-)-epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), content. There is conclusive evidence from in vitro and animal studies which provide the concepts for underlying functional mechanisms of green tea catechins and their biological actions. An increasing number of human studies have explored the effects of green tea catechins on the major MetS conditions such as obesity, type-2 diabetes and cardiovascular risk factors. This article provides a comprehensive overview of the human studies addressing the potential benefits of green tea catechins on the MetS. The number of human studies in this field is still limited. However, the majority of human epidemiological and intervention studies demonstrate beneficial effects of green tea or green tea extracts, rich in EGCG on weight management, glucose control and cardiovascular risk factors. The optimal dose has not yet been established. The current body of evidence in humans warrants further attention. In particular, well-controlled long-term human studies would help to fully understand the protective effects of green tea catechins on parameters related to the MetS.
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Is metabolic flexibility altered in multiple sclerosis patients?
PLoS ONE
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Metabolic flexibility is defined as ability to adjust fuel oxidation to fuel availability. Multiple sclerosis (MS) results in reduced muscle strength and exercise intolerance. We tested the hypothesis that altered metabolic flexibility contributes to exercise intolerance in MS patients.
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Atrial natriuretic peptide and adiponectin interactions in man.
PLoS ONE
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Reduced circulating natriuretic peptide concentrations are independently associated with insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes, while increased natriuretic peptide levels appear to be protective. Observations in vitro and in heart failure patients suggest that atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) promotes adiponectin release, an adipokine with insulin sensitizing properties. We tested the hypothesis that ANP acutely raises adiponectin levels in 12 healthy men. We infused ANP intravenously over 135 minutes while collecting venous blood and adipose tissue microdialysates at baseline and at the end of ANP-infusion. We obtained blood samples at identical time-points without ANP infusion in 7 age and BMI matched men. With infusion, venous ANP concentrations increased ?10 fold. Systemic and adipose tissue glycerol concentrations increased 70% and 80%, respectively (P<0.01). ANP infusion increased total adiponectin 14 ± 5% and high molecular-weight (HMW)-adiponectin 13 ± 5% (P<0.05). Adiponectin did not change in the control group (P<0.05 vs. infusion). ANP-induced changes in HMW adiponectin and adipose tissue lipolysis were directly correlated with each other, possibly suggesting a common mechanism. Our data show that ANP acutely increases systemic total and HMW-adiponectin concentrations in healthy subjects. Our study could have implications for the physiological regulation of adiponectin and for disease states associated with altered natriuretic peptide availability.
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Moderate dietary weight loss reduces myocardial steatosis in obese and overweight women.
Int. J. Cardiol.
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Excessive myocardial triglyceride (MTG) content in obesity and type 2 diabetes is associated with impaired cardiac function. Previous studies suggest that MTG could be mobilized through lifestyle interventions. We assessed influences of moderate dietary weight loss in non diabetic obese and overweight women on MTG content and cardiac function.
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Aliskiren penetrates adipose and skeletal muscle tissue and reduces renin-angiotensin system activity in obese hypertensive patients.
J. Hypertens.
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In animals, the direct renin inhibitor aliskiren showed extensive tissue binding in the kidney and long-lasting renal effects. Aliskiren provides prolonged blood pressure-lowering effects following treatment discontinuation in patients. Therefore, we investigated whether aliskiren attains tissue concentrations sufficient to inhibit local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) activity in patients.
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Bioimpedance and bioimpedance vector analysis in patients with anorexia nervosa.
Eur Eat Disord Rev
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The utility of bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA) in patients with anorexia nervosa (AN) is imperfectly defined. Furthermore, any advantage accrued by BIA with vector analysis (BIVA) is unknown.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.