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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Optimization of multilocus sequence analysis for identification of species in the genus Vibrio.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) is an important method for identification of taxa that are not well differentiated by 16S rRNA gene sequences alone. In this procedure, concatenated sequences of selected genes are constructed and then analyzed. The effects that the number and the order of genes used in MLSA have on reconstruction of phylogenetic relationships were examined. The recA, rpoA, gapA, 16S rRNA gene, gyrB, and ftsZ sequences from 56 species of the genus Vibrio were used to construct molecular phylogenies, and these were evaluated individually and using various gene combinations. Phylogenies from two-gene sequences employing recA and rpoA in both possible gene orders were different. The addition of the gapA gene sequence, producing all six possible concatenated sequences, reduced the differences in phylogenies to degrees of statistical (bootstrap) support for some nodes. The overall statistical support for the phylogenetic tree, assayed on the basis of a reliability score (calculated from the number of nodes having bootstrap values of ? 80 divided by the total number of nodes) increased with increasing numbers of genes used, up to a maximum of four. No further improvement was observed from addition of the fifth gene sequence (ftsZ), and addition of the sixth gene (gyrB) resulted in lower proportions of strongly supported nodes. Reductions in the numbers of strongly supported nodes were also observed when maximum parsimony was employed for tree construction. Use of a small number of gene sequences in MLSA resulted in accurate identification of Vibrio species.
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Polyphenols-rich Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. beans show hypoglycemic and ?-cells protective effects in type 2 diabetic rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the antidiabetic activity of Cyamopsis tetragonoloba (L.) Taub. (Fabaceae) beans in high-fat diet (HFD) fed-streptozotocin (STZ)-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Dose dependent response of oral treatment of C. tetragonoloba beans' methanol extract (CTme) (200 and 400mg/kg b wt.) was assessed by measuring fasting blood glucose, changes in body weight, plasma insulin, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), total cholesterol, triglycerides, oral glucose tolerance, intraperitoneal insulin tolerance, hepatic glycogen, marker enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism in HFD fed-STZ-induced type 2 diabetic rats. Histology and immunohistochemical analysis of pancreatic islets were also performed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis of CTme showed the presence of polyphenols such as gallic acid and caffeic acid in the concentrations of 2.46% (W/W) and 0.32% (W/W). CTme significantly reverted the altered biochemical parameters to near normal levels in diabetic rats. Furthermore CTme showed the protective effect on the ?-cells of pancreatic tissues in diabetic rats. These findings indicate that C. tetragonoloba beans have therapeutic potential in HFD fed-STZ-induced hyperglycemia; therefore this can be used in the management of type 2 diabetes.
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Laparoscopic resection of gastrointestinal neuroendocrine tumors with special contribution of radionuclide imaging.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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The surgical treatment of neuroendocrine tumors (NETs) draws on experience and guidelines more than on prospective randomized trials. The incidence of NET is increasing in all parts of the gastrointestinal tract. A variety of classifications introduced over the last decade may have led to difficulties in judging clinical relevance and determining the right surgical strategy. The North American Neuroendocrine Tumor Society and the European Neuroendocrine Tumor Society have developed usable guidelines from the available literature. For more than 20 years laparoscopy has developed as the gold standard for various surgical indications. Nevertheless, few trials have compared open and laparoscopic surgery with regard to NET. This review summarizes the recent literature on surgery for NET and incorporates the evidence on laparoscopy for cancer which might be also applied for NET.
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Hepatoprotective role of Abelmoschus esculentus (Linn.) Moench., on carbon tetrachloride-induced liver injury.
Toxicol. Mech. Methods
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Chronic liver disease has become a global health problem. The research for prominent herbal agents for the management of liver diseases is widely increased.
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First experience using peptide receptor radionuclide therapy in a patient with urothelial carcinoma.
Clin Nucl Med
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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A 78-year-old man with urothelial carcinoma metastasis after surgical resection of the right kidney, part of the ureter, and urinary bladder in May 2003 and 3 cycles of chemotherapy with cisplatin-gemcitabine was referred for peptide receptor radionuclide therapy (PRRT). Somatostatin-receptor profile was assessed by 68Ga-labeled lanreotide PET, and PRRT was performed using 3738 MBq (101 mCi) of 90Y-DOTA-lanreotide. Because of adequate PRRT response confirmed with MRI and 18F-FDG PET, surgical resection of the solitary cervical metastasis was feasible. Treatment was well tolerated, and the patient remains in complete remission from his urothelial carcinoma.
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Herbivore induced plant volatiles: their role in plant defense for pest management.
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-23-2011
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Plants respond to herbivory through different defensive mechanisms. The induction of volatile emission is one of the important and immediate response of plants to herbivory. Herbivore-induced plant volatiles (HIPVs) are involved in plant communication with natural enemies of the insect herbivores, neighboring plants, and different parts of the damaged plant. Release of a wide variety of HIPVs in response to herbivore damage and their role in plant-plant, plant-carnivore and intraplant communications represents a new facet of the complex interactions among different trophic levels. HIPVs are released from leaves, flowers, and fruits into the atmosphere or into the soil from roots in response to herbivore attack. Moreover, HIPVs act as feeding and/or oviposition deterrents to insect pests. HIPVs also mediate the interactions between the plants and the microorganisms. This review presents an overview of HIPVs emitted by plants, their role in plant defense against herbivores and their implications for pest management.
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Role of salicylic acid in induction of plant defense system in chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.).
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Salicylic acid (SA), a plant hormone plays an important role in induction of plant defense against a variety of biotic and abiotic stresses through morphological, physiological and biochemical mechanisms. A series of experiments were carried out to evaluate the biochemical response of the chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) plants to a range of SA concentrations (1, 1.5, and 2 mM). Water treated plants were maintained as control. Activities of peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO) were evaluated and amounts of total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), and proteins were calculated after 96 h of treatment. Plants responded very quickly to SA at 1.5 mM and showed higher induction of POD and PPO activities, besides the higher accumulation of phenols, H2O2 and proteins. Plants treated with SA at 2 mM showed phytotoxic symptoms. These results suggest that SA at 1.5 mM is safe to these plants and could be utilized for the induction of plant defense.
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Herbivore- and elicitor-induced resistance in groundnut to Asian armyworm, Spodoptera litura (Fab.) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae).
Plant Signal Behav
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Induced defense was studied in three groundnut genotypes ICGV 86699 (resistant), NCAc 343 (resistant) and TMV 2 (susceptible) in response to Spodoptera litura infestation and jasmonic acid (JA) application. The activity of the oxidative enzymes [peroxidase (POD) and polyphenol oxidase (PPO)] and the amounts other host plant defense components [total phenols, hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA), and protein content] were recorded at 24, 48, 72 and 96 h in JA pretreated (one day before) plants and infested with S. litura, and JA application and simultaneous infestation with S. litura to understand the defense response of groundnut genotypes against S. litura damage. Data on plant damage, larval survival and larval weights were also recorded. There was a rapid increase in the activities of POD and PPO and in the quantities of total phenols, H2O2, MDA and protein content in the JA pretreated + S. litura infested plants. All the three genotypes showed quick response to JA application and S. litura infestation by increasing the defensive compounds. Among all the genotypes, higher induction was recorded in ICGV 86699 in most of the parameters. Reduced plant damage, low larval survival and larval weights were observed in JA pretreated plants. It suggests that pretreatment with elicitors, such as JA could provide more opportunity for plant defense against herbivores.
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[99mTc]demotensin VI: biodistribution and initial clinical results in tumor patients of a pilot/phase I study.
Cancer Biother. Radiopharm.
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2011
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Neurotensin subtype 1 receptor overexpression is found in a variety of human tumors. The aim of this pilot/phase I study was to assess the safety profile, pharmacokinetics, and imaging characteristics of (99m)Tc-Demotensin VI in tumor patients.
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Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit containing phenolic compounds shows antidiabetic and antioxidant effects in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2011
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In this study, quantification of phenolic compounds and the investigation of antidiabetic and antioxidant activities of the fruit of Solanum torvum Swartz. are described. S. torvum fruit methanol extract (STMe) was administered orally at a dose of 200 and 400mg/kg/day to streptozotocin induced diabetic rats for 30days. The levels of glucose, insulin, total protein, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, liver glycogen and marker enzymes of carbohydrate metabolism, hepatic function and antioxidants were analyzed. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analysis revealed that STMe contained high levels of phenolic compounds, mainly rutin (1.36%w/w), caffeic acid (12.03%w/w), gallic acid (4.78%w/w) and catechin (0.46%w/w). STMe at 200 and 400mg/kg reduced blood glucose level by 17.04% and 42.10%, respectively in diabetic rats. The levels and/or activities of other biochemical parameters were restored significantly compared to diabetic control rats due to treatment with fruit extract. Histology of liver and pancreas in STMe treated groups substantiated the cytoprotective action of the drug. Immunohistochemical observation of islets in extract treated diabetic rats showed apparent ?-cells regeneration. These findings suggest that S. torvum fruit containing phenolic compounds has great potential as a natural source of antidiabetic and antioxidant drug.
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Cancer chemopreventive potential of luteolin-7-O-glucoside isolated from Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn.
Nutr Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2011
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The anticarcinogenic potential of the phytocompound Luteolin-7-O-Glucoside (LUT7G), isolated from the leaves of Ophiorrhiza mungos Linn, was studied against 4 different cancer cell lines (COLO 320 DM, AGS, MCF-7, and A549) and normal VERO cell line. The ability of LUT7G to induce apoptosis was determined by its antiradical activity, DNA fragmentation, expression of ?-catenin, and chemopreventive efficacy in vivo by administering rats with DMH (20 mg/kg b.w., s.c.) for 4 consecutive wk and supplementing with 3 different doses throughout the experimental period of 16 wk. LUT7G scavenged 80% of DPPH radicals generated in vitro at 1000 ?M and suppressed the expression of ?-catenin to 40% at 120 ?M concentrations. LUT7G induced apoptosis by scavenging ROS and suppressing the expression of ?-catenin in COLO 320 DM cells and effectively inhibited ACF development in DMH-induced experimental carcinogenesis. Hence LUT7G can be a potent anticancer drug for colon carcinogenesis.
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Antihyperglycemic activity and antidiabetic effect of methyl caffeate isolated from Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2011
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Natural remedies from medicinal plants are considered to be effective and safe alternatives to treat diabetes mellitus. Solanum torvum Swartz. fruit is widely used in the traditional system of medicine to treat diabetes. In the present study methyl caffeate, isolated from S. torvum fruit, was screened for its efficacy in controlling diabetes in animal models. Antihyperglycemic effect of methyl caffeate was studied in normal glucose-fed rats. The effects of oral administration of methyl caffeate (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) for 28 days on body weight, fasting blood glucose, plasma insulin, hemoglobin, glycated hemoglobin, total protein, hepatic glycogen and carbohydrate metabolism enzymes in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats were investigated. Histological observations in the pancreas and GLUT4 expression in skeletal muscles were also studied. Methyl caffeate at 40 mg/kg significantly prevented the increase in blood glucose level after glucose administration at 60 min in comparison to the hyperglycemic control group. In streptozotocin induced diabetic rats, methyl caffeate produced significant reduction in blood glucose and increased body weight. The levels and/or activities of other biochemical parameters were near normal due to treatment with methyl caffeate. Methyl caffeate treated diabetic rats showed upregulation of GLUT4 and regeneration of ?-cells in the pancreas. These results substantiated that methyl caffeate possessed hypoglycemic effect, and it could be developed into a potent oral antidiabetic drug.
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Clinical aspects, diagnostic challenges and management of patients with neuroendocrine tumors (NETs).
Onkologie
PUBLISHED: 02-21-2011
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Neuroendocrine tumor (NET) entities are rare malignancies. Higher awareness and improved diagnostic methods have led to an increasing incidence of these diseases, and most oncologists deal with such patients in their daily practice. The symposium on NETs that was held in Merano (Italy) in October 2009 was organized by the German-speaking European School of Oncology (dESO) and gathered specialists from different disciplines of transalpine countries to bring together experiences and observations regarding these tumors. The goal of the meeting and of this review was to illustrate both well- and poorly differentiated NETs and to encourage interdisciplinary approaches.
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Functional imaging in phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma with 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr 3-octreotide positron emission tomography and 123I-metaiodobenzylguanidine.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2011
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(68)Ga-DOTA-Tyr(3)-octreotide positron emission tomography ((68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET) has proven to be superior to (111)In-DTPA-D-Phe(1)-octreotide ((111)In-octreotide) planar scintigraphy and SPECT imaging in neuroendocrine tumours (NETs). Because of these promising results, we compared the accuracy of (123)I-metaiodobenzylguanidine ((123)I-MIBG) imaging with PET in the diagnosis and staging of metastatic phaeochromocytoma and neuroblastoma, referring to radiological imaging as reference standard.
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Procedure guidelines for PET/CT tumour imaging with 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides: 68Ga-DOTA-TOC, 68Ga-DOTA-NOC, 68Ga-DOTA-TATE.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2010
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The aim of these guidelines is to assist nuclear medicine physicians in recommending, performing, reporting and interpreting the results of somatostatin (SST) receptor PET/CT imaging using 68Ga-DOTA-conjugated peptides, analogues of octreotide, that bind to SST receptors. This imaging modality should not be regarded as the only approach to visualizing tumours expressing SST receptors or as excluding other imaging modalities useful for obtaining comparable results. The corresponding guidelines of 111In-pentetreotide scintigraphy imaging have been considered and partially integrated with this text. The same has been done with the relevant and recent literature in this field and the final result has been discussed by distinguished experts.
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Response of recurrent high-grade glioma to treatment with (90)Y-DOTATOC.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2010
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The treatment of patients with high-grade malignant glioma still represents an unsolved clinical problem. We report the treatment of 3 patients who had World Health Organization grade IV recurrent glioblastoma: a 23-y-old woman and 2 men aged 61 and 62 y.
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Virtual neck exploration: a new method for localizing abnormal parathyroid glands.
Ann. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 10-07-2009
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Computed tomography (CT) together with 99mTc-sestamibi single photon emission computed tomography (MIBI-SPECT) image fusion (CT-MIBI-SPECT image fusion) allows virtual exploration of the neck. The aim of this study was to evaluate whether CT-MIBI-SPECT image fusion is superior to MIBI-SPECT and CT in detecting abnormal parathyroid glands in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism.
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68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide PET for assessing response to somatostatin-receptor-mediated radionuclide therapy.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2009
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(68)Ga-labeled 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide (DOTA-TOC) PET has proven its usefulness in the diagnosis of patients with neuroendocrine tumors. Radionuclide therapy ((90)Y-DOTA-TOC or (177)Lu-DOTA-octreotate) is a choice of treatment that also requires an accurate diagnostic modality for early evaluation of treatment response. Our study compared (68)Ga-DOTA-TOC PET with CT or MRI using the Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Furthermore, standardized uptake values (SUVs) were calculated and compared with treatment outcome.
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Bone metastases in patients with neuroendocrine tumor: 68Ga-DOTA-Tyr3-octreotide PET in comparison to CT and bone scintigraphy.
J. Nucl. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2009
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Somatostatin receptor scintigraphy is an accurate imaging modality for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumor. Because detection of distant metastases has a major impact on treatment, early diagnosis of metastatic spread is of great importance. So far, no standard procedure has become established for the early diagnosis of bone metastases from neuroendocrine tumor. We compared the diagnostic value of CT with that of the novel somatostatin analog (68)Ga-1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-N,N,N,N-tetraacetic acid-d-Phe(1)-Tyr(3)-octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTATOC) in the detection of such metastases.
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Somatostatin receptor PET in neuroendocrine tumours: 68Ga-DOTA0,Tyr3-octreotide versus 68Ga-DOTA0-lanreotide.
Eur. J. Nucl. Med. Mol. Imaging
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The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of (68)Ga-labelled DOTA(0)-lanreotide ((68)Ga-DOTA-LAN) on the diagnostic assessment of neuroendocrine tumour (NET) patients with low to moderate uptake on planar somatostatin receptor (SSTR) scintigraphy or (68)Ga-labelled DOTA(0),Tyr(3)-octreotide ((68)Ga-DOTA-TOC) positron emission tomography (PET).
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Mechanisms of plant defense against insect herbivores.
Plant Signal Behav
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Plants respond to herbivory through various morphological, biochemicals, and molecular mechanisms to counter/offset the effects of herbivore attack. The biochemical mechanisms of defense against the herbivores are wide-ranging, highly dynamic, and are mediated both by direct and indirect defenses. The defensive compounds are either produced constitutively or in response to plant damage, and affect feeding, growth, and survival of herbivores. In addition, plants also release volatile organic compounds that attract the natural enemies of the herbivores. These strategies either act independently or in conjunction with each other. However, our understanding of these defensive mechanisms is still limited. Induced resistance could be exploited as an important tool for the pest management to minimize the amounts of insecticides used for pest control. Host plant resistance to insects, particularly, induced resistance, can also be manipulated with the use of chemical elicitors of secondary metabolites, which confer resistance to insects. By understanding the mechanisms of induced resistance, we can predict the herbivores that are likely to be affected by induced responses. The elicitors of induced responses can be sprayed on crop plants to build up the natural defense system against damage caused by herbivores. The induced responses can also be engineered genetically, so that the defensive compounds are constitutively produced in plants against are challenged by the herbivory. Induced resistance can be exploited for developing crop cultivars, which readily produce the inducible response upon mild infestation, and can act as one of components of integrated pest management for sustainable crop production.
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Radionuclide therapy beyond radioiodine.
Wien Med Wochenschr
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For decades, Iodine-131 has been used for the treatment of patients with thyroid cancer. In recent years, increasingly, other radiopharmaceuticals are in clinical use in the treatment of various malignant diseases. Although in principle these therapies-as in all applications of radionuclides-special radiation protection measures are required, a separate nuclear medicine therapy department is not necessary in many cases due to the lower or lack of gamma radiation. In the following article, four different radionuclide therapies are more closely presented which are emerging in the last years. One of them is the "Peptide Receptor Radionuclide Therapy," the so-called PRRT in which radiolabeled somatostatin (SST)-receptor(R) ligands are used in patients with neuroendocrine tumors. On the basis of radiolabeled antibodies against CD20-positive cells, the so-called radioimmunotherapy is used in the treatment of certain forms of malignant lymphoma. In primary or secondary liver tumors, the (90)Y-labeled particles can be administered. Last but not the least, the palliative approach of bone-seeking radiopharmaceuticals is noted in patients with painful bone metastases.
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Hypoglycemic and ?-cells regenerative effects of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. bark extract in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
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The aim of this study was to examine the antidiabetic potential of Aegle marmelos (L.) Corr. (Rutaceae) bark in a diabetic rat model. Dose dependent effects of methanol extract of Aegle marmelos bark (AM) (200 and 400 mg/kg) on blood glucose, plasma insulin, glycated haemoglobin (HbA1c), total protein, hepatic glycogen, marker enzymes of hepatic function and carbohydrate metabolism were evaluated in (streptozotocin) STZ-induced diabetic rats by oral administration for 30 days. Structural integrity of pancreatic islets was assessed by routine histology while, their functional status was assessed by immunolocalization for insulin. High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) study established that AM contained antihyperglycemic constituents, aegelin (1.27% w/w) and lupeol (0.29% w/w). AM at 200 and 400 mg/kg showed significant reduction in blood glucose level by 19.14% and 47.32%, respectively in diabetic rats. AM treatment significantly increased insulin level, and produced similar effects on other biochemical parameters. Histological studies showed the regenerative effect of AM on the ?-cells of diabetic rats. Immunohistochemical observations in the extract treated diabetic rats showed increased insulin-immunoreactive ?-cells. These findings suggest that A. marmelos bark extract has the therapeutic potential in STZ-induced hyperglycemia; hence it can be used in the treatment of diabetes mellitus.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.