Appropriate DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair factor choice is essential for ensuring accurate repair outcome and genomic integrity. The factors that regulate this process remain poorly understood. Here, we identify two repressive chromatin components, the macrohistone variant macroH2A1 and the H3K9 methyltransferase and tumor suppressor PRDM2, which together direct the choice between the antagonistic DSB repair mediators BRCA1 and 53BP1. The macroH2A1/PRDM2 module mediates an unexpected shift from accessible to condensed chromatin that requires the ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM)-dependent accumulation of both proteins at DSBs in order to promote DSB-flanking H3K9 dimethylation. Remarkably, loss of macroH2A1 or PRDM2, as well as experimentally induced chromatin decondensation, impairs the retention of BRCA1, but not 53BP1, at DSBs. As a result, macroH2A1 and/or PRDM2 depletion causes epistatic defects in DSB end resection, homology-directed repair, and the resistance to poly(ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP) inhibition-all hallmarks of BRCA1-deficient tumors. Together, these findings identify dynamic, DSB-associated chromatin reorganization as a critical modulator of BRCA1-dependent genome maintenance.
Homologous recombination (HR) is initiated by DNA end resection, a process in which stretches of single-strand DNA (ssDNA) are generated and used for homology search. Factors implicated in resection include nucleases MRE11, EXO1, and DNA2, which process DNA ends into 3' ssDNA overhangs; helicases such as BLM, which unwind DNA; and other proteins such as BRCA1 and CtIP whose functions remain unclear. CDK-mediated phosphorylation of CtIP on T847 is required to promote resection, whereas CDK-dependent phosphorylation of CtIP-S327 is required for interaction with BRCA1. Here, we provide evidence that CtIP functions independently of BRCA1 in promoting DSB end resection. First, using mouse models expressing S327A or T847A mutant CtIP as a sole species, and B cells deficient in CtIP, we show that loss of the CtIP-BRCA1 interaction does not detectably affect resection, maintenance of genomic stability or viability, whereas T847 is essential for these functions. Second, although loss of 53BP1 rescues the embryonic lethality and HR defects in BRCA1-deficient mice, it does not restore viability or genome integrity in CtIP(-/-) mice. Third, the increased resection afforded by loss of 53BP1 and the rescue of BRCA1-deficiency depend on CtIP but not EXO1. Finally, the sensitivity of BRCA1-deficient cells to poly ADP ribose polymerase (PARP) inhibition is partially rescued by the phospho-mimicking mutant CtIP (CtIP-T847E). Thus, in contrast to BRCA1, CtIP has indispensable roles in promoting resection and embryonic development.
Toll/IL-1R domain-containing adaptor inducing interferon-? (IFN-?) factor (TRIF) is a key adaptor for Toll-like receptor (TLR) 3 and TLR4 signaling. Using a novel cDNA isolate encoding a TRIF protein with a 21-residue deletion (?160-181) from its amino-terminal half, we investigated the impact of this deletion on TRIF functions. Transfection studies consistently showed higher expression levels of the (?160-181) TRIF compared to wild-type (wt) TRIF, an effect unrelated to apoptosis, cell lines or plasmid amplification. Colocalization of wt and (?160-181) TRIF proteins led to a dramatic reduction of their respective expressions, suggesting that wt/(?160-181) TRIF heterocomplexes are targeted for degradation. We demonstrated that wt TRIF associates with tumor necrosis factor-? receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3) better than (?160-181) TRIF, culminating in its greater ubiquitination and proteolysis. This explains, in part, the differential expression levels of the two TRIF proteins. Despite higher expression levels in transfected cells, (?160-181) TRIF inefficiently transactivated the IFN pathway, whereas the nuclear factor-?B (NF-?B) pathway activation remained similar to that by wt TRIF. In coexpression studies, (?160-181) TRIF marginally contributed to the IFN pathway activation, but still enhanced NF-?B signaling with wt TRIF. Therefore, this 21 amino acid sequence is crucial for TRAF3 association, modulation of TRIF stability and activation of the IFN pathway.
Constitutive activation of NF-?B is a hallmark of the activated B cell-like (ABC) subtype of diffuse large B-cell lymphoma (DLBCL), owing to upstream signals from the B-cell receptor (BCR) and MYD88 pathways. The linear polyubiquitin chain assembly complex (LUBAC) attaches linear polyubiquitin chains to I?B kinase-?, a necessary event in some pathways that engage NF-?B. Two germline polymorphisms affecting the LUBAC subunit RNF31 are rare among healthy individuals (?1%) but enriched in ABC DLBCL (7.8%). These polymorphisms alter RNF31 ?-helices that mediate binding to the LUBAC subunit RBCK1, thereby increasing RNF31-RBCK1 association, LUBAC enzymatic activity, and NF-?B engagement. In the BCR pathway, LUBAC associates with the CARD11-MALT1-BCL10 adapter complex and is required for ABC DLBCL viability. A stapled RNF31 ?-helical peptide based on the ABC DLBCL-associated Q622L polymorphism inhibited RNF31-RBCK1 binding, decreased NF-?B activation, and killed ABC DLBCL cells, credentialing this protein-protein interface as a therapeutic target.
Akt activation is a hallmark of human cancers. Here, we report a critical mechanism for regulation of Akt activity by the splicing kinase SRPK1, a downstream Akt target for transducing growth signals to regulate splicing. Surprisingly, we find that SRPK1 has a tumor suppressor function because ablation of SRPK1 in mouse embryonic fibroblasts induces cell transformation. We link the phenotype to constitutive Akt activation from genome-wide phosphoproteomics analysis and discover that downregulated SRPK1 impairs the recruitment of the Akt phosphatase PHLPP1 (pleckstrin homology (PH) domain leucine-rich repeat protein phosphatase) to Akt. Interestingly, SRPK1 overexpression is also tumorigenic because excess SRPK1 squelches PHLPP1. Thus, aberrant SRPK1 expression in either direction induces constitutive Akt activation, providing a mechanistic basis for previous observations that SRPK1 is downregulated in some cancer contexts and upregulated in others.
Subcutaneous tumors induce the accumulation of myeloid derived suppressor cells (MDSC) not only in blood and spleens, but also in livers of these animals. Unexpectedly, we observed a moderate increase in serum transaminases in mice with EL4 subcutaneous tumors, which prompted us to study the relationship of hepatic MDSC accumulation and liver injury. MDSC were the predominant immune cell population expanding in livers of all subcutaneous tumor models investigated (RIL175, B16, EL4, CT26 and BNL), while liver injury was only observed in EL4 and B16 tumor-bearing mice. Elimination of hepatic MDSC in EL4 tumor-bearing mice using low dose 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) treatment reversed transaminase elevation and adoptive transfer of hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice caused transaminase elevation indicating a direct MDSC mediated effect. Surprisingly, hepatic MDSC from B16 tumor-bearing mice partially lost their damage-inducing potency when transferred into mice bearing non damage-inducing RIL175 tumors. Furthermore, MDSC expansion and MDSC-mediated liver injury further increased with growing tumor burden and was associated with different cytokines including GM-CSF, VEGF, interleukin-6, CCL2 and KC, depending on the tumor model used. In contrast to previous findings, which have implicated MDSC only in protection from T cell-mediated hepatitis, we show that tumor-induced hepatic MDSC themselves can cause moderate liver damage.
A critical process during thymic development of the T cell repertoire is the induction of self-tolerance. Tolerance in developing T cells is highly dependent on medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTEC), and mTEC development in turn requires signals from mature single-positive thymocytes, a bidirectional relationship termed thymus crosstalk. We show that CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L costimulatory interactions, which mediate negative selection and self-tolerance, upregulate expression of LT?, LT?, and receptor activator for NF-?B in the thymus and are necessary for medullary development. Combined absence of CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L results in profound deficiency in mTEC development comparable to that observed in the absence of single-positive thymocytes. This requirement for costimulatory signaling is maintained even in a TCR transgenic model of high-affinity TCR-ligand interactions. CD4 thymocytes maturing in the altered thymic epithelial environment of CD40/CD80/86 knockout mice are highly autoreactive in vitro and are lethal in congenic adoptive transfer in vivo, demonstrating a critical role for these costimulatory pathways in self-tolerance as well as thymic epithelial development. These findings demonstrate that cooperativity between CD28-CD80/86 and CD40-CD40L pathways is required for normal medullary epithelium and for maintenance of self-tolerance in thymocyte development.
Induction of self-tolerance in developing T cells depends on medullary thymic epithelial cells (mTECs), whose development, in turn, requires signals from single-positive (SP) thymocytes. Thus, the absence of SP thymocytes in Tcra(-/-) mice results in a profound deficiency in mTECs. Here, we have probed the mechanism that underlies this requirement for cross-talk with thymocytes in medullary development. Previous studies have implicated nonclassical NF-?B as a pathway important in the development of mTECs, because mice lacking RelB, NIK, or IKK?, critical components of this pathway, have an almost complete absence of mTECs, with resulting autoimmune pathology. We therefore assessed the effect of selective deletion in TEC of TNF receptor-associated factor 3 (TRAF3), an inhibitor of nonclassical NF-?B signaling. Deletion of TRAF3 in thymic epithelial cells allowed RelB-dependent development of normal numbers of AIRE-expressing mTECs in the complete absence of SP thymocytes. Thus, mTEC development can occur in the absence of cross-talk with SP thymocytes, and signals provided by SP T cells are needed to overcome TRAF3-imposed arrest in mTEC development mediated by inhibition of nonclassical NF-?B. We further observed that TRAF3 deletion is also capable of overcoming all requirements for LT?R and CD40, which are otherwise necessary for mTEC development, but is not sufficient to overcome the requirement for RANKL, indicating a role for RANKL that is distinct from the signals provided by SP thymocytes. We conclude that TRAF3 plays a central role in regulation of mTEC development by imposing requirements for SP T cells and costimulation-mediated cross-talk in generation of the medullary compartment.
The DNA damage response (DDR) protein 53BP1 protects DNA ends from excessive resection in G1, and thereby favors repair by nonhomologous end-joining (NHEJ) as opposed to homologous recombination (HR). During S phase, BRCA1 antagonizes 53BP1 to promote HR. The pro-NHEJ and antirecombinase functions of 53BP1 are mediated in part by RIF1, the only known factor that requires 53BP1 phosphorylation for its recruitment to double-strand breaks (DSBs). Here, we show that a 53BP1 phosphomutant, 53BP18A, comprising alanine substitutions of the eight most N-terminal S/TQ phosphorylation sites, mimics 53BP1 deficiency by restoring genome stability in BRCA1-deficient cells yet behaves like wild-type 53BP1 with respect to immunoglobulin class switch recombination (CSR). 53BP18A recruits RIF1 but fails to recruit the DDR protein PTIP to DSBs, and disruption of PTIP phenocopies 53BP18A. We conclude that 53BP1 promotes productive CSR and suppresses mutagenic DNA repair through distinct phosphodependent interactions with RIF1 and PTIP.
The cell nucleus contains many distinct subnuclear compartments, domains, and bodies that vary in their composition, structure, and function. While the cellular constituents that occupy the subnuclear regions may be well known, defining the structural details of the molecular assembly of the constituents has been more difficult. A correlative fluorescence and energy-filtering transmission electron microscopy (EFTEM) imaging method has the ability to provide these details. The correlative microscopy method described here allows the tracking of subnuclear structures from specific cells by fluorescence microscopy and then, using electron energy loss imaging in the transmission electron microscope, reveals the ultrastructural features of the nuclear components along with endogenous elemental information that relates directly to the biochemical composition of the structure. The ultrastructural features and composition of well-characterized PML bodies and interchromatin granule clusters are compared to those of ligand-activated glucocorticoid receptor (GR) foci, with GR foci containing fibrogranular nucleic acid-containing features and PML bodies being devoid of nucleic acid.
To dissect the astonishing complexity of the biomolecular machinery functioning within a cell, imaging has been an integral tool in biology, allowing researches to "view" the detailed molecular biology responsible for coordinating cellular life. To visualize the molecular components of cellular structures requires, in particular, imaging techniques capable of reaching nanoscale spatial resolutions. Such nanoimaging techniques are the focus of this volume. Chapters in the current volume are divided into four parts and include specialized techniques in the areas of light, electron, and scanning probe microscopy, as well as methodologies employing combinatorial and complementary imaging approaches.
We performed a loss-of-function RNA interference screen to define therapeutic targets in multiple myeloma, a genetically diverse plasma cell malignancy. Unexpectedly, we discovered that all myeloma lines require caspase-10 for survival irrespective of their genetic abnormalities. The transcription factor IRF4 induces both caspase-10 and its associated protein cFLIPL in myeloma, generating a protease that does not induce apoptosis but rather blocks an autophagy-dependent cell death pathway. Caspase-10 inhibits autophagy by cleaving the BCL2-interacting protein BCLAF1, itself a strong inducer of autophagy that acts by displacing beclin-1 from BCL2. While myeloma cells require a basal level of autophagy for survival, caspase-10 tempers this response to avoid cell death. Drugs that disrupt this vital balance may have therapeutic potential in myeloma.
ERM (ezrin, radixin moesin) proteins in lymphocytes link cortical actin to plasma membrane, which is regulated in part by ERM protein phosphorylation. To assess whether phosphorylation of ERM proteins regulates lymphocyte migration and membrane tension, we generated transgenic mice whose T-lymphocytes express low levels of ezrin phosphomimetic protein (T567E). In these mice, T-cell number in lymph nodes was reduced by 27%. Lymphocyte migration rate in vitro and in vivo in lymph nodes decreased by 18% to 47%. Lymphocyte membrane tension increased by 71%. Investigations of other possible underlying mechanisms revealed impaired chemokine-induced shape change/lamellipod extension and increased integrin-mediated adhesion. Notably, lymphocyte homing to lymph nodes was decreased by 30%. Unlike most described homing defects, there was not impaired rolling or sticking to lymph node vascular endothelium but rather decreased migration across that endothelium. Moreover, decreased numbers of transgenic T cells in efferent lymph suggested defective egress. These studies confirm the critical role of ERM dephosphorylation in regulating lymphocyte migration and transmigration. Of particular note, they identify phospho-ERM as the first described regulator of lymphocyte membrane tension, whose increase probably contributes to the multiple defects observed in the ezrin T567E transgenic mice.
A mutual relationship exists between metastasizing tumor cells and components of the coagulation cascade. The exact mechanisms as to how platelets influence blood-borne metastasis, however, remain poorly understood. Here, we used murine B16 melanoma cells to observe functional aspects of how platelets contribute to the process of hematogenous metastasis. We found that platelets interfere with a distinct step of the metastasis cascade, as they promote adhesion of melanoma cells to the endothelium in vitro under shear conditions. Constitutively active platelet receptor GPIIb/IIIa (integrin ?IIb?3) expressed on Chinese hamster ovary cells promoted melanoma cell adhesion in the presence of fibrinogen, whereas blocking antibodies to a??3 integrin on melanoma cells or to GPIIb/IIIa significantly reduced melanoma cell adhesion to platelets. Furthermore, using intravital microscopy, we observed functional platelet-melanoma cell interactions, as platelet depletion resulted in significantly reduced melanoma cell adhesion to the injured vascular wall in vivo. Using a mouse model of hematogenous metastasis to the lung, we observed decreased metastasis of B16 melanoma cells to the lung by treatment with a mAb blocking the a? subunit of a??3 integrin. This effect was significantly reduced when platelets were depleted in vivo. Thus, the engagement of GPIIb/IIIa with a??3 integrin interaction mediates tumor cell-platelet interactions and highlights how this interaction is involved in hematogenous tumor metastasis.
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes a viral interleukin 6 (vIL-6) that mimics many activities of human IL-6 (hIL-6). Both vIL-6 and hIL-6 play important roles in stimulating the proliferation of tumours caused by KSHV. Here, we provide evidence that a miRNA pathway is involved in regulation of vIL-6 and hIL-6 expression through binding sites in their open reading frames (ORFs). We show a direct repression of vIL-6 by hsa-miR-1293 and hIL-6 by hsa-miR-608. The repression of vIL-6 by miR-1293 was reversed by disruption of the vIL-6 miR-1293 seed match through the introduction of point mutations. In addition, expression of vIL-6 or hIL-6 in KSHV-infected cells could be enhanced by transfection of the respective miRNA inhibitors. In situ hybridization of human lymph node sections revealed that miR-1293 is primarily expressed in the germinal centre but is deficient in the mantle zone of lymph nodes, where the expression of vIL-6 is often found in patients with KSHV-associated multicentric Castlemans disease, providing evidence of an anatomical correlation. Taking these factors together, our study indicates that IL-6 expression can be regulated by miRNA interactions in its ORF and provides evidence for the role of these interactions in the pathogenesis of KSHV-associated diseases.
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) lytic infection increases the expression of viral and human interleukin-6 (vIL-6 and hIL-6, respectively), an important factor for cell growth and pathogenesis. Here, we report genome-wide analysis of viral RNA targets of KSHV ORF57 by a novel UV-cross-linking and immunoprecipitation (CLIP) assay. We identified 11 viral transcripts as putative ORF57 targets and demonstrate that vIL-6 mRNA is an authentic target of ORF57. Disrupting the ORF57 gene in the KSHV genome leads to inefficient expression of vIL-6. With transient transfection, the expression of vIL-6 could be enhanced greatly in the presence of ORF57 in a dose-dependent manner. We found that the open reading frame (ORF) region of vIL-6 RNA contains an MRE (MTA [ORF57]-responsive element) composed of two motifs, MRE-A and MRE-B, and binding of ORF57 to these two motifs stabilizes vIL-6 RNA and promotes vIL-6 translation. We demonstrate that vIL-6 MRE-B bears an miR-1293 binding site and that, mechanistically, ORF57 competes with miR-1293 for the same binding site to interact with vIL-6 RNA, thereby preventing vIL-6 RNA from association with the miR-1293-specified RNA-induced silencing complex (RISC). Consistent with this, ORF57 also interacts with an miR-608 binding site in the hIL-6 ORF and prevents miR-608 repression of hIL-6. Collectively, our results identify a novel function of ORF57 in being responsible for stabilization of viral and human IL-6 RNAs and the corresponding enhancement of RNA translation. In addition, our data provide the first evidence that a tumor virus may use a viral protein to interfere with microRNA (miRNA)-mediated repression of an miRNA target to induce cell proliferation and tumorigenesis during virus infection.
Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) encodes ORF57, which promotes the accumulation of specific KSHV mRNA targets, including ORF59 mRNA. We report that the cellular export NXF1 cofactors RBM15 and OTT3 participate in ORF57-enhanced expression of KSHV ORF59. We also found that ectopic expression of RBM15 or OTT3 augments ORF59 production in the absence of ORF57. While RBM15 promotes the accumulation of ORF59 RNA predominantly in the nucleus compared to the levels in the cytoplasm, we found that ORF57 shifted the nucleocytoplasmic balance by increasing ORF59 RNA accumulation in the cytoplasm more than in the nucleus. By promoting the accumulation of cytoplasmic ORF59 RNA, ORF57 offsets the nuclear RNA accumulation mediated by RBM15 by preventing nuclear ORF59 RNA from hyperpolyadenylation. ORF57 interacts directly with the RBM15 C-terminal portion containing the SPOC domain to reduce RBM15 binding to ORF59 RNA. Although ORF57 homologs Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) EB2, herpes simplex virus (HSV) ICP27, varicella-zoster virus (VZV) IE4/ORF4, and cytomegalovirus (CMV) UL69 also interact with RBM15 and OTT3, EBV EB2, which also promotes ORF59 expression, does not function like KSHV ORF57 to efficiently prevent RBM15-mediated nuclear accumulation of ORF59 RNA and RBM15s association with polyadenylated RNAs. Collectively, our data provide novel insight elucidating a molecular mechanism by which ORF57 promotes the expression of viral intronless genes.
Beyond its role in immunity, complement mediates a wide range of functions in the context of morphogenetic or tissue remodeling processes. Angiogenesis is crucial during tissue remodeling in multiple pathologies; however, the knowledge about the regulation of neovascularization by the complement components is scarce. Here we studied the involvement of complement in pathological angiogenesis. Strikingly, we found that mice deficient in the central complement component C3 displayed increased neovascularization in the model of retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) and in the in vivo Matrigel plug assay. In addition, antibody-mediated blockade of C5, treatment with C5aR antagonist, or C5aR deficiency in mice resulted in enhanced pathological retina angiogenesis. While complement did not directly affect angiogenesis-related endothelial cell functions, we found that macrophages mediated the antiangiogenic activity of complement. In particular, C5a-stimulated macrophages were polarized toward an angiogenesis-inhibitory phenotype, including the up-regulated secretion of the antiangiogenic soluble vascular endothelial growth factor receptor-1. Consistently, macrophage depletion in vivo reversed the increased neovascularization associated with C3- or C5aR deficiency. Taken together, complement and in particular the C5a-C5aR axes are potent inhibitors of angiogenesis.
This study aimed to examine how CC chemokine receptor 5 (CCR5) inhibitors (aplaviroc [APL], TAK779 and maraviroc [MVC]) interact with CCR5 and affect its dynamics and physiological CC-chemokine-CCR5 interactions.
Biofilm formation is an important component of vascular catheter infections caused by Candida albicans. Little is known about the interactions between human phagocytes, antifungal agents, and Candida biofilms.
Chromosome band 9p24 is frequently amplified in primary mediastinal B cell lymphoma (PMBL) and Hodgkin lymphoma (HL). To identify oncogenes in this amplicon, we screened an RNA interference library targeting amplicon genes and thereby identified JAK2 and the histone demethylase JMJD2C as essential genes in these lymphomas. Inhibition of JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperated in killing these lymphomas by decreasing tyrosine 41 phosphorylation and increasing lysine 9 trimethylation of histone H3, promoting heterochromatin formation. MYC, a major target of JAK2-mediated histone phosphorylation, was silenced after JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibition, with a corresponding increase in repressive chromatin. Hence, JAK2 and JMJD2C cooperatively remodel the PMBL and HL epigenome, offering a mechanistic rationale for the development of JAK2 and JMJD2C inhibitors in these diseases.
Kaposi sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 is a viral early protein essential for KSHV multiplication. We found that B cells derived from cavity-based B cell lymphoma with lytic KSHV infection display activation of caspase-8 and cleavage of ORF57 in the cytoplasm by caspase-7 at the aspartate residue at position 33 from the N terminus. Caspase-7 cleavage of ORF57 is prevented by pan-caspase inhibitor z-VAD, caspase-3 and caspase-7 inhibitor z-DEVD, and caspase-7 small interfering RNAs. The caspase-7 cleavage site (30)DETD(33) in ORF57 is not cleavable by caspase-3, although both enzymes use DEXD as a common cleavage site. B cells with lytic KSHV infection and caspase-7 activation exhibited a greatly reduced level of ORF57. A majority of the cells expressing active caspase-7 appeared to have no detectable ORF57 and vice versa. Upon cleavage with caspase-7, ORF57 was deficient in promoting the expression of viral lytic genes. Inhibiting caspase-7 cleavage of ORF57 in KSHV(+) BCBL-1 cells by z-VAD, z-DEVD, or caspase-7 small interfering RNA led to increased expression of viral lytic genes and production of cell-free virus particles. Collectively, our data provide the first compelling evidence that caspase cleavage of ORF57 may represent a cellular function against lytic KSHV infection.
Class I myosins, which link F-actin to membrane, are largely undefined in lymphocytes. Mass spectrometric analysis of lymphocytes identified two short tail forms: (Myo1G and Myo1C) and one long tail (Myo1F). We investigated Myo1G, the most abundant in T-lymphocytes, and compared key findings with Myo1C and Myo1F. Myo1G localizes to the plasma membrane and associates in an ATP-releasable manner to the actin-containing insoluble pellet. The IQ+tail region of Myo1G (Myo1C and Myo1F) is sufficient for membrane localization, but membrane localization is augmented by the motor domain. The minimal region lacks IQ motifs but includes: 1) a PH-like domain; 2) a "Pre-PH" region; and 3) a "Post-PH" region. The Pre-PH predicted alpha helices may contribute electrostatically, because two conserved basic residues on one face are required for optimal membrane localization. Our sequence analysis characterizes the divergent PH domain family, Myo1PH, present also in long tail myosins, in eukaryotic proteins unrelated to myosins, and in a probable ancestral protein in prokaryotes. The Myo1G Myo1PH domain utilizes the classic lipid binding site for membrane association, because mutating either of two basic residues in the "signature motif" destroys membrane localization. Mutation of each basic residue of the Myo1G Myo1PH domain reveals another critical basic residue in the beta3 strand, which is shared only by Myo1D. Myo1G differs from Myo1C in its phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate dependence for membrane association, because membrane localization of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase releases Myo1C from the membrane but not Myo1G. Thus Myo1PH domains likely play universal roles in myosin I membrane association, but different isoforms have diverged in their binding specificity.
Translocations involving the T cell receptor alpha/delta (TCRalpha/delta) chain locus, which bring oncogenes in the proximity of the TCRalpha enhancer, are one of the hallmark features of human T cell malignancies from ataxia telangiectasia (AT) and non-AT patients. These lesions are frequently generated by the fusion of DNA breaks at the TCRalpha/delta locus to a disperse region centromeric of the immunoglobulin heavy chain (IgH) locus. Aberrant VDJ joining accounts for TCRalpha/delta associated DNA cleavage, but the molecular mechanism that leads to generation of the "oncogene partner" DNA break is unclear. Here we show that in ATM deficient primary mouse T cells, IgH/TCRalpha/delta fusions arise at a remarkably similar frequency as in human AT lymphocytes. Recombinase-activating gene (RAG) is responsible for both TCRalpha/delta as well as IgH associated breaks on chromosome 12 (Chr12), which are subject to varying degrees of chromosomal degradation. We suggest a new model for how oncogenic translocations can arise from two non-concerted physiological DSBs.
The recognition and repair of DNA lesions occurs within a chromatin environment. Genetically tagging fluorescent proteins to DNA damage response proteins has provided spatial and temporal details concerning the establishment of biochemical subnuclear regions geared toward metabolizing genomic lesions. A specific marker for chromatin regions containing DNA breaks is required to study the initial dynamic structural changes in chromatin when DNA breaks occur. Here we present the experimental protocols used to investigate the dynamics of chromatin structure immediately after the simultaneous photoactivation of PAGFP-tagged core histone H2B and introduction of DNA breaks using UVA laser microirradiation on a laser scanning confocal microscope.
Mechanisms controlling the disassembly of ezrin/radixin/moesin (ERM) proteins, which link the cytoskeleton to the plasma membrane, are incompletely understood. In lymphocytes, chemokine (e.g., SDF-1) stimulation inactivates ERM proteins, causing their release from the plasma membrane and dephosphorylation. SDF-1-mediated inactivation of ERM proteins is blocked by phospholipase C (PLC) inhibitors. Conversely, reduction of phosphatidylinositol 4,5-bisphosphate (PIP2) levels by activation of PLC, expression of active PLC mutants, or acute targeting of phosphoinositide 5-phosphatase to the plasma membrane promotes release and dephosphorylation of moesin and ezrin. Although expression of phosphomimetic moesin (T558D) or ezrin (T567D) mutants enhances membrane association, activation of PLC still relocalizes them to the cytosol. Similarly, in vitro binding of ERM proteins to the cytoplasmic tail of CD44 is also dependent on PIP2. These results demonstrate a new role of PLCs in rapid cytoskeletal remodeling and an additional key role of PIP2 in ERM protein biology, namely hydrolysis-mediated ERM inactivation.
The viral early-to-late switch of papillomavirus infection is tightly linked to keratinocyte differentiation and is mediated in part by alternative mRNA splicing. Here, we report that SRp20, a cellular splicing factor, controls the early-to-late switch via interactions with A/C-rich RNA elements. An A/C-rich SE4 element regulates the selection of a bovine papillomavirus type 1 (BPV-1) late-specific splice site, and binding of SRp20 to SE4 suppresses this selection. Expression of late BPV-1 L1 or human papillomavirus (HPV) L1, the major capsid protein, inversely correlates with SRp20 levels in the terminally differentiated keratinocytes. In HPV type 16, a similar SRp20-interacting element also controls the viral early-to-late switch. Keratinocytes in raft cultures, which support L1 expression, make considerably less SRp20 than keratinocytes in monolayer cultures, which do not support L1 expression. Conversely, abundant SRp20 in cancer cells or undifferentiated keratinocytes is important for the expression of the viral early E6 and E7 by promoting the expression of cellular transcription factor SP1 for transactivation of viral early promoters.
Polyadenylate-binding protein cytoplasmic 1 (PABPC1) is a cytoplasmic-nuclear shuttling protein important for protein translation initiation and both RNA processing and stability. We report that PABPC1 forms a complex with the Kaposis sarcoma-associated herpesvirus (KSHV) ORF57 protein, which allows ORF57 to interact with a 9-nucleotide (nt) core element of KSHV polyadenylated nuclear (PAN) RNA, a viral long noncoding RNA (lncRNA), and increase PAN stability. The N-terminal RNA recognition motifs (RRMs) of PABPC1 are necessary for the direct interaction with ORF57. During KSHV lytic infection, the expression of viral ORF57 leads to a substantial decrease in overall PABPC1 expression, along with a shift in the cellular distribution of the remaining PABPC1 to the nucleus. Interestingly, PABPC1 and ORF57 have opposing functions in modulating PAN steady-state accumulation. The suppressive effect of PABPC1 specific to PAN expression is alleviated by small interfering RNA knockdown of PABPC1 or by overexpression of ORF57. Conversely, ectopic PABPC1 reduces ORF57 steady-state protein levels and induces aberrant polyadenylation of PAN and thereby indirectly inhibits ORF57-mediated PAN accumulation. However, E1B-AP5 (heterogeneous nuclear ribonucleoprotein U-like 1), which interacts with a region outside the 9-nt core to stimulate PAN expression, does not interact or even colocalize with ORF57. Unlike PABPC1, the nuclear distribution of E1B-AP5 remains unchanged by viral lytic infection or overexpression of ORF57. Together, these data indicate that PABPC1 is an important cellular target of viral ORF57 to directly upregulate PAN accumulation during viral lytic infection, and the ability of host PABPC1 to disrupt ORF57 expression is a strategic host counterbalancing mechanism.
Gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with core sizes below 2 nm and compact ligand shells constitute versatile platforms for the development of novel reagents in nanomedicine. Due to their ultrasmall size, these AuNPs are especially attractive in applications requiring delivery to crowded intracellular spaces in the cytosol and nucleus. For eventual use in vivo, ultrasmall AuNPs should ideally be monodisperse, since small variations in size may affect how they interact with cells and how they behave in the body. Here we report the synthesis of ultrasmall, uniform 144-atom AuNPs protected by p-mercaptobenzoic acid followed by ligand exchange with glutathione (GSH). Quantitative scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) reveals that the resulting GSH-coated nanoparticles (Au(GSH)) have a uniform mass distribution with cores that contain 134 gold atoms on average. Particle size dispersity is analyzed by analytical ultracentrifugation, giving a narrow distribution of apparent hydrodynamic diameter of 4.0 ± 0.6 nm. To evaluate the nanoparticles intracellular fate, the cell-penetrating peptide TAT is attached noncovalently to Au(GSH), which is confirmed by fluorescence quenching and isothermal titration calorimetry. HeLa cells are then incubated with both Au(GSH) and the Au(GSH)-TAT complex, and imaged without silver enhancement of the AuNPs in unstained thin sections by STEM. This imaging approach enables unbiased detection and quantification of individual ultrasmall nanoparticles and aggregates in the cytoplasm and nucleus of the cells.
Multiple sclerosis (MS) and its mouse model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), are inflammatory disorders of the central nervous system (CNS). The function of platelets in inflammatory and autoimmune pathologies is thus far poorly defined.
Many cellular processes depend on ERM (ezrin, moesin, and radixin) proteins mediating regulated linkage between plasma membrane and actin cytoskeleton. Although conformational activation of the ERM protein is mediated by the membrane PIP2, the known properties of the two described PIP2-binding sites do not explain activation. To elucidate the structural basis of possible mechanisms, we generated informative moesin mutations and tested three attributes: membrane localization of the expressed moesin, moesin binding to PIP2, and PIP2-induced release of moesin autoinhibition. The results demonstrate for the first time that the POCKET containing inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate on crystal structure (the "POCKET" Lys-63, Lys-278 residues) mediates all three functions. Furthermore the second described PIP2-binding site (the "PATCH," Lys-253/Lys-254, Lys-262/Lys-263) is also essential for all three functions. In native autoinhibited ERM proteins, the POCKET is a cavity masked by an acidic linker, which we designate the "FLAP." Analysis of three mutant moesin constructs predicted to influence FLAP function demonstrated that the FLAP is a functional autoinhibitory region. Moreover, analysis of the cooperativity and stoichiometry demonstrate that the PATCH and POCKET do not bind PIP2 simultaneously. Based on our data and supporting published data, we propose a model of progressive activation of autoinhibited moesin by a single PIP2 molecule in the membrane. Initial transient binding of PIP2 to the PATCH initiates release of the FLAP, which enables transition of the same PIP2 molecule into the newly exposed POCKET where it binds stably and completes the conformational activation.
CTLA-4 proteins contribute to the suppressor function of regulatory T cells (Tregs), but the mechanism by which they do so remains incompletely understood. In the present study, we assessed CTLA-4 protein function in both Tregs and conventional (Tconv) CD4(+) T cells. We report that CTLA-4 proteins are responsible for all 3 characteristic Treg functions of suppression, TCR hyposignaling, and anergy. However, Treg suppression and anergy only required the external domain of CTLA-4, whereas TCR hyposignaling required its internal domain. Surprisingly, TCR hyposignaling was neither required for Treg suppression nor anergy because costimulatory blockade by the external domain of CTLA-4 was sufficient for both functions. We also report that CTLA-4 proteins were localized in Tregs in submembrane vesicles that rapidly recycled to/from the cell surface, whereas CTLA-4 proteins in naive Tconv cells were retained in Golgi vesicles away from the cell membrane and had no effect on Tconv cell function. However, TCR signaling of Tconv cells released CTLA-4 proteins from Golgi retention and caused activated Tconv cells to acquire suppressor function. Therefore, the results of this study demonstrate the importance of intracellular localization for CTLA-4 protein function and reveal that CTLA-4 protein externalization imparts suppressor function to both regulatory and conventional CD4(+) T cells.
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