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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile depend on body fat in European adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the relationships between macronutrient intake and serum lipid profile in adolescents from eight European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) cross-sectional study (2006-7), and to assess the role of body fat-related variables in these associations. Weight, height, waist circumference, skinfold thicknesses, total cholesterol, HDL-cholesterol (HDL-C), LDL-cholesterol, TAG, apoB and apoA1 were measured in 454 adolescents (44 % boys) aged 12·5-17·5 years. Macronutrient intake (g/4180 kJ per d (1000 kcal per d)) was assessed using two non-consecutive 24 h dietary recalls. Associations were evaluated by multi-level analysis and adjusted for sex, age, maternal education, centre, sum of four skinfolds, moderate-to-vigorous physical activity, sedentary behaviours and diet quality index for adolescents. Carbohydrate intake was inversely associated with HDL-C (? = - 0·189, P< 0·001). An inverse association was found between fat intake and TAG (? = - 0·319, P< 0·001). Associations between macronutrient intake and serum lipids varied according to adiposity levels, i.e. an inverse association between carbohydrate intake and HDL-C was only observed in those adolescents with a higher waist:height ratio. As serum lipids and excess body fat are the major markers of CVD, these findings should be considered when developing strategies to prevent the risk of CVD among adolescents.
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REFERENCE VALUES FOR LEPTIN, CORTISOL, INSULIN AND GLUCOSE, AMONG EUROPEAN ADOLESCENTS AND THEIR ASSOCIATION WITH ADIPOSITY: THE HELENA STUDY.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2014
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Adequate concentrations of leptin, cortisol, and insulin are important for a suitable metabolism and development during adolescence. These hormones jointly with glucose play a major role in fat metabolism and development of childhood obesity. Our main objective was to quantify biomarkers as leptin, cortisol, insulin and glucose status in European adolescents to contribute to establish reference ranges.
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Dietary lipid intake only partially influences variance in serum phospholipid fatty acid composition in adolescents: impact of other dietary factors.
Lipids
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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The present study aimed to assess the correlation between food and fatty acid (FA) intake and the serum phospholipid (PL) FA status in European adolescents and explored the percentage of variation in serum PL FA that could be attributed to dietary habits. Participants included 528 adolescents recruited in the HELENA Study. Dietary intake was assessed by two, self-administered, non-consecutive 24-h recalls. PL FA concentrations were measured in fasting venous serum samples. Reduced rank regressions were applied to examine the combined effect of food intakes. Results indicated that the variance in serum PL FA in adolescents, that could be explained by diet varied from 7.0% for MUFA to 14.2% for n-3FA. The variance in the long-chain n-3FA was mainly explained by fish intake but also by coffee and tea consumption. In conclusion this study indicated that dietary intake influences the serum PL FA status to a limited amount but that also other factors interfere. However, dietary intake is important as it is among those factors that could be modified. Furthermore, the results suggest that the overall dietary habits should be considered instead of only the consumption of single foods or nutrients, as the medium of the food or concomitant intake of foods and nutrients might interact and as such influence absorption or metabolism.
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Breastfeeding Shows a Protective Trend toward Adolescents with Higher Abdominal Adiposity.
Obes Facts
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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The question of whether breastfeeding has a protective effect against the development of overweight or obesity later in life remains controversial, especially during adolescence. The objective was to assess the relationship between breastfeeding and adolescents' body composition.
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Self-reported sleep duration, white blood cell counts and cytokine profiles in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Sleep Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Sleep patterns face important changes during adolescence. This can have implications for the immune system, which is regulated by the sleep-wake cycle; however, most studies relating sleep and immune system have been conducted on adults.
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A 6 year longitudinal study of accelerometer-measured physical activity and sedentary time in Swedish adults.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate changes over six years in physical activity and sedentary behavior assessed with accelerometry in a representative sample of Swedish adults.
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Associations of early life and sociodemographic factors with menarcheal age in European adolescents.
Eur. J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Early menarche has been associated with adult overweight, cardiovascular risk factors, and other diseases. Little is known about the determinants of menarcheal age (MA). Therefore, the main aim of this study was to examine the associations between early life programming factors and menarcheal age in European adolescents. Secondly, the influence of sociodemographical factors on menarcheal age was also studied. A total of 1,069 European girls from the HELENA cross-sectional study, aged 12.5-17.5 years, were included in this study. Using multilevel linear regression models, a possible association between birth weight and length, ponderal index at birth, gestational age, duration of exclusive breastfeeding, and menarcheal age was examined. Associations between geographical gradient, number of siblings, physical activity (PA), dietary factors, and menarcheal age were also examined. After adjustment, menarcheal age was positively associated with birth weight and length (p?=?0.01 and p?=?0.01). Conclusion: These findings confirm that birth weight and length may have a programming effect on menarcheal age. Next to this finding, sociodemographic factors were not associated with menarcheal age.
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Health inequalities in urban adolescents: role of physical activity, diet, and genetics.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Coordinated European projects relying on standardized methods are needed to identify health inequalities across Europe. This study aimed to compare fitness, fatness, and cardiometabolic risk between urban adolescents from the south and center-north of Europe and to explore whether physical activity (PA) and other factors might explain these differences.
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Physical activity, sedentary time, and liver enzymes in adolescents: the HELENA study.
Pediatr. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
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To examine the association between physical activity (PA) and liver enzyme levels in adolescents from nine European countries.
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Vitamins and iron blood biomarkers are associated with blood pressure levels in European adolescents. The HELENA study.
Nutrition
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2014
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Previous research showed that low concentration of biomarkers in the blood during adolescence (i.e., iron status; retinol; and vitamins B6, B12, C, and D) may be involved in the early stages of development of many chronic diseases, such as hypertension. The aim was to evaluate if iron biomarkers and vitamins in the blood are associated with blood pressure in European adolescents.
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Change in paternal grandmothers' early food supply influenced cardiovascular mortality of the female grandchildren.
BMC Genet.
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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This study investigated whether large fluctuations in food availability during grandparents' early development influenced grandchildren's cardiovascular mortality. We reported earlier that changes in availability of food - from good to poor or from poor to good - during intrauterine development was followed by a double risk of sudden death as an adult, and that mortality rate can be associated with ancestors' childhood availability of food. We have now studied transgenerational responses (TGR) to sharp differences of harvest between two consecutive years' for ancestors of 317 people in Överkalix, Sweden.
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Associations of season and region on objectively assessed physical activity and sedentary behaviour.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Abstract Seasonal and regional variation may influence physical activity (PA) patterns. These associations are in need of further investigation. The objective of the current study was to examine the association of season and region on objectively measured PA. The study was designed as a cross-sectional study with 1172 participants living in Sweden. Data on PA were collected throughout a calendar year using accelerometry. Regions were categorised as south (Götaland), central (Svealand) and north (Norrland). Outcome variables included accelerometer-measured mean counts per minute, sedentary time and time in low intensity and moderate-intensity physical activity (MVPA) or greater. ANCOVA was used to determine the associations of season and region with PA, adjusting for sex, age, body mass index (BMI) and education. The results showed that during the Spring season more time was spent in MVPA than during the Autumn. For participants living in the south of Sweden, a significant trend for season was found for MVPA, with Spring having the highest MVPA (P = 0.025). Season had a borderline significant association with MVPA or higher intensity activities (P = 0.051). No significant effects of region or season on total PA, low-intensity PA and sedentary periods of time were observed. The results indicate that studies conducted in a population living in high latitudes, may not be significantly affected by seasonality or region when assessing PA.
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Seasonal variation in physical activity and sedentary time in different European regions. The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2013
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This report aims (1) to examine the association between seasonality and physical activity (PA) and sedentary time in European adolescents and (2) to investigate whether this association was influenced by geographical location (Central-North versus South of Europe), which implies more or less extreme weather and daylight hours. Valid data on PA, sedentary time and seasonality were obtained in 2173 adolescents (1175 females; 12.5-17.5 years) included in this study. Physical activity and sedentary time were measured by accelerometers. ANCOVA was conducted to analyse the differences in PA and sedentary time across seasons. Results showed that girls had lower levels of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) and average PA, and spent more time in sedentary activities in winter compared with spring (all P < 0.05). Stratified analyses showed differences in PA and sedentary time between winter and spring in European girls from Central-North of Europe (P < 0.05 for sedentary time). There were no differences between PA and sedentary time across seasonality in boys. In conclusion, winter is related with less time spent in MVPA, lower average PA and higher time spent in sedentary activities in European adolescent girls, compared with spring. These differences seem to mainly occur in Central-North Europe.
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Impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns in free living conditions among adolescents measured using a uniaxial accelerometer: The HELENA study.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2013
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Abstract The aim of this study was to assess the impact of the choice of threshold on physical activity patterns measured in adolescents under free living conditions (FLC) using a uniaxial accelerometer. The study comprised 2043 adolescents (12.5-17.5 years) participating in the HELENA Study. Participants wore a uniaxial accelerometer for 7 days. The PA patterns were assessed using thresholds determined from six different studies. For each of the thresholds used, the number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation of 60 min of moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) per day was also calculated. A significant difference was found between thresholds regardless of the activity level: differences of 38%, 207%, 136%, and 2780% for sedentary, light, moderate, and vigorous intensity PA, respectively (P < 0.001). Time of MVPA varied between methods from 25.3 to 55.2 min · day(-1). The number of adolescents fulfilling the recommendation varied from 5.9% to 37% according to the thresholds used. The kappa coefficient for concordance in the assessment of the number of adolescents achieving the PA recommendations was generally low. The definition of the threshold for PA intensity may considerably affect the PA patterns in FLC when assessed using a uniaxial accelerometer and the number of participants fulfilling the recommendations.
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Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league.
J Sports Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Abstract This study aimed to describe morphological characteristics of elite female volleyball players from the highest Spanish league, with special focus on differences by performance level and playing positions. Nearly all female players playing in the highest Spanish volleyball league during season 2003/2004 participated in this study (N=148 elite players, 92% of the total). Anthropometric, body composition and somatotype parameters according to performance and playing positions were analysed. The players characteristics were as follows; body mass 72.3±8.4 kg; stature 179.8±7.1 cm; body fat 24.0±3.1% and skeletal muscle mass 27.3±2.9 kg. Mean somatotype was 3.1±0.7; 3.4±0.9; 3.1±0.9 characterised as central with a tendency to balanced mesomorph. Top level players (whose teams were better classified in the team performance ranking) were taller, had higher skeletal muscle mass and ectomorphy, and had a lower level of adiposity markers, compared with lower level players. Players selected for their respective National teams (individual performance) were taller, heavier, had higher muscle mass and lower endomorphy than non-selected players. Differences according to playing positions were found. This study provides a complete set of reference data on anthropometry, body composition and somatotype of elite female volleyball players. Morphological differences have been identified according to performance level and playing position.
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Effects on adolescents lipid profile of a fitness-enhancing intervention in the school setting; the EDUFIT study.
Nutr Hosp
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2013
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Observational studies have reported an association among physical activity, fitness and lipid profile in youth. The purpose of this study was to analyse the effect of a school-based intervention focused on increasing the number and intensity of Physical Education (PE) sessions a week, on adolescents lipid profile.
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Perceived neighborhood environment and physical activity in 11 countries: do associations differ by country?
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Increasing empirical evidence supports associations between neighborhood environments and physical activity. However, since most studies were conducted in a single country, particularly western countries, the generalizability of associations in an international setting is not well understood. The current study examined whether associations between perceived attributes of neighborhood environments and physical activity differed by country.
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Association between self-reported sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2013
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Evidence has grown supporting the role for short sleep duration as an independent risk factor for weight gain and obesity. The purpose of the present study was to examine the relationship between sleep duration and dietary quality in European adolescents. The sample consisted of 1522 adolescents (aged 12.5-17.5 years) participating in the European multi-centre cross-sectional ‘Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence’ study. Sleep duration was estimated by a self-reported questionnaire. Dietary intake was assessed by two 24 h recalls. The Diet Quality Index for Adolescents with Meal index (DQI-AM) was used to calculate overall dietary quality, considering the components dietary equilibrium, dietary diversity, dietary quality and a meal index. An average sleep duration of ? 9 h was classified as optimal, between 8 and 9 h as borderline insufficient and < 8 h as insufficient. Sleep duration and the DQI-AM score were positively associated (? = 0.027, r 0.130, P< 0.001). Adolescents with insufficient (62.05 (sd 14.18)) and borderline insufficient sleep (64.25 (sd 12.87)) scored lower on the DQI-AM than adolescents with an optimal sleep duration (64.57 (sd 12.39)) (P< 0.001; P= 0.018). The present study demonstrated in European adolescents that short sleep duration was associated with a lower dietary quality. This supports the hypothesis that the health consequences of insufficient sleep may be mediated by the relationship of insufficient sleep to poor dietary quality.
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Patterns of neighborhood environment attributes related to physical activity across 11 countries: a latent class analysis.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Neighborhood environment studies of physical activity (PA) have been mainly single-country focused. The International Prevalence Study (IPS) presented a rare opportunity to examine neighborhood features across countries. The purpose of this analysis was to: 1) detect international neighborhood typologies based on participants response patterns to an environment survey and 2) to estimate associations between neighborhood environment patterns and PA.
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Lunch at school, at home or elsewhere. Where do adolescents usually get it and what do they eat? Results of the HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Considering the lack of uniformity regarding school meals in Europe, information on adolescents school lunch patterns is of public health importance. Thus, the aim of this analysis was to describe and evaluate lunchtime energy and food intake of European adolescents at different lunch locations. Data on nutritional and health-related parameters were derived from the HEalthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional Study (HELENA-CSS). A sub-sample of 891 adolescents (47% male) with plausible data on total and lunchtime energy intake (2×24h recall) as well as usual lunch location was considered. Food intake was compared to lunch of the Optimized Mixed Diet (OMD) for children and adolescents. Although energy intake was nearly in line with the recommendations, food intake was suboptimal compared to the OMD regardless of usual lunch location. Adolescents had more potatoes and less sweets at school, and more drinks (water, coffee and tea) and vegetables at home when each compared with the other locations. Food intake of adolescents getting their lunch elsewhere was characterized by the smallest amounts of potatoes and the highest amounts of sweets. Although lunch patterns may differ among countries, schools in Europe do not seem to reveal all their potential to offer access to a healthy lunch for adolescents yet.
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Association of objectively measured physical activity with body components in European adolescents.
BMC Public Health
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2013
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Physical activity (PA) is suggested to contribute to fat loss not only through increasing energy expenditure "per se" but also increasing muscle mass; therefore, it would be interesting to better understand the specific associations of PA with the different bodys components such as fat mass and muscle mass. The aim of the present study was to examine the association between objectively measured PA and indices of fat mass and muscle components independently of each other giving, at the same time, gender-specific information in a wide cohort of European adolescents.
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More physically active and leaner adolescents have higher energy intake.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To test whether youths who engage in vigorous physical activity are more likely to have lean bodies while ingesting relatively large amounts of energy. For this purpose, we studied the associations of both physical activity and adiposity with energy intake in adolescents.
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Physical activity and markers of insulin resistance in adolescents: role of cardiorespiratory fitness levels--the HELENA study.
Pediatr Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2013
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To analyze the association between objectively assessed physical activity (PA) and markers of insulin resistance (IR) in European adolescents and to examine whether the association of objectively assessed PA and markers of IR is modified by cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time during childhood, adolescence and young adulthood: a cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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To know how moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) and sedentary time change across lifespan periods is needed for designing successful lifestyle interventions. We aimed to study changes in objectively measured (accelerometry) MVPA and sedentary time from childhood to adolescence and from adolescence to young adulthood.
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Can the IPAQ-long be used to assess occupational physical activity?
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 12-27-2011
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To be able to draw any conclusions regarding the health effects of occupational physical activity (OPA), more information is needed regarding valid measures to assess OPA. Aims were to compare OPA as assessed with the International Physical Activity Questionnaire long version (IPAQ-L) with OPA assessed with an accelerometer and to assess the contribution of OPA to total PA.
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Pain and functional capacity in female fibromyalgia patients.
Pain Med
PUBLISHED: 09-21-2011
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To examine the association between pain and functional capacity levels. DESING: Cross-sectional study.
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Body size at birth modifies the effect of fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Br. J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-15-2011
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The present study was intended to examine whether ponderal index (PI) at birth modifies the effect of the fat mass and obesity associated (FTO) rs9939609 polymorphism on adiposity in European adolescents. A total of 628 adolescents aged 14·4 (se 1·3) years (56·8 % female) were recruited. PI was calculated from parental reports of birth weight and length (kg/m³), and the BMI (kg/m²), body fat percentage and fat mass index (FMI, kg/m²) were calculated. The rs9939609 polymorphism was genotyped and physical activity assessed by accelerometry. Sex, duration of pregnancy, pubertal status, centre and physical activity were used as confounders in all the analyses. The minor A allele of the FTO rs9939609 was significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) but not with PI. Significant interactions between PI and the rs9939609 polymorphism in terms of body fat percentage (P = 0·002) and FMI (P = 0·017) were detected. However, this polymorphism was only significantly associated with higher BMI, body fat percentage and FMI (all P < 0·05) in adolescents in the lower PI tertile. Indeed, both body fat percentage and FMI were higher in those adolescents in the lower PI tertile carrying the A allele of the FTO rs9939609 polymorphism than in those with the TT genotype (25·0 (se 0·8) v. 22·1 (se 1·0) %, adjusted P = 0·030 and 5·6 (se 0·3) v. 4·6 (se 0·4) kg/m2, P = 0·031, respectively). Our findings suggest that those adolescents born with lower PI could be more vulnerable to the influence of the A risk allele of the FTO polymorphism on total adiposity content.
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Reliability and intermethod agreement for body fat assessment among two field and two laboratory methods in adolescents.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 08-25-2011
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To increase knowledge about reliability and intermethods agreement for body fat (BF) is of interest for assessment, interpretation, and comparison purposes. It was aimed to examine intra- and inter-rater reliability, interday variability, and degree of agreement for BF using air-displacement plethysmography (Bod-Pod), dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry (DXA), bioelectrical impedance analysis (BIA), and skinfold measurements in European adolescents. Fifty-four adolescents (25 females) from Zaragoza and 30 (14 females) from Stockholm, aged 13-17 years participated in this study. Two trained raters in each center assessed BF with Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry (DXA only in Zaragoza). Intermethod agreement and reliability were studied using a 4-way ANOVA for the same rater on the first day and two additional measurements on a second day, one each rater. Technical error of measurement (TEM) and percentage coefficient of reliability (%R) were also reported. No significant intrarater, inter-rater, or interday effect was observed for %BF for any method in either of the cities. In Zaragoza, %BF was significantly different when measured by Bod-Pod and BIA in comparison with anthropometry and DXA (all P < 0.001). The same result was observed in Stockholm (P < 0.001), except that DXA was not measured. Bod-Pod, DXA, BIA, and anthropometry are reliable for %BF repeated assessment within the same day by the same or different raters or in consecutive days by the same rater. Bod-Pod showed close agreement with BIA as did DXA with anthropometry; however, Bod-Pod and BIA presented higher values of %BF than anthropometry and DXA.
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Physical activity, fitness, and serum leptin concentrations in adolescents.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 08-09-2011
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To examine the association of physical activity and fitness with leptin concentrations in European adolescents, after taking into account several potential confounders including total body fat (TBF).
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Nutritional knowledge in European adolescents: results from the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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To build up sufficient knowledge of a healthy diet. Here, we report on the assessment of nutritional knowledge using a uniform method in a large sample of adolescents across Europe.
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Stability of the factorial structure of metabolic syndrome from childhood to adolescence: a 6-year follow-up study.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 07-25-2011
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Metabolic syndrome (MS) is a clustering of cardiometabolic risk factors that is considered a predictor of cardiovascular disease, type 2 diabetes and mortality. There is no consistent evidence on whether the MS construct works in the same way in different populations and at different stages in life.
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Objectively-measured and self-reported physical activity and fitness in relation to inflammatory markers in European adolescents: the HELENA Study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2011
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Atherogenesis involves an inflammatory process that occurs early in life even though clinical symptoms are not observed until adulthood. Two important protective factors for low-grade inflammation may be physical activity (PA) and fitness. We examined the independent associations of objective and subjective measurements of PA and fitness with low-grade inflammation in European adolescents.
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High folate intake is related to better academic achievement in Swedish adolescents.
Pediatrics
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2011
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Adolescents are vulnerable to increased plasma total homocysteine (tHcy) and to insufficient folate status. Folate status and Hcy metabolism are linked to cognitive functions, but academic achievement by adolescents has not been studied in this respect.
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Birth weight and subsequent adiposity gain in Swedish children and adolescents: a 6-year follow-up study.
Obesity (Silver Spring)
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2011
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We examined whether birth weight (BW) predicts changes in body composition over a 6-year period in Swedish children and adolescents. For this purpose, a total of 247 children (55.5% girls) and 162 adolescents (60.5% girls) were included in the study and were followed up 6 years later. BW was obtained from parental records. We measured weight, height, waist circumference, and the bicep, tricep, subscapular, suprailiac, and medial calf skinfolds, and we calculated BMI, fat-free mass (FFM), and the sum of five skinfolds. Physical activity was assessed by accelerometry. Changes in pubertal status and baseline anthropometric estimates were used as confounders in all analysis. In the children cohort, we observed that BW was inversely associated with changes in BMI (? = -0.736, P = 0.002) and the sum of five skinfolds (? = -6.381, P = 0.009) regardless of confounders and physical activity, only in girls. We did not find any significant association between BW and adiposity gain estimates in the adolescent cohort. These findings give further support to the concept that low BW may have a programming effect of subsequent adiposity gain from childhood to adolescence. We also confirm the sex-related differences in the programming effect of body composition.
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Migration and mortality trajectories: a study of individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden.
Soc Sci Med
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2011
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Migration may result in exposure to factors that are both beneficial and harmful for good health. How the act of migration is associated with mortality, or whether the socio-economic condition of migrants prior to migration influences their mortality trajectory, is not well understood. In the present study, a cohort of 413 randomly selected individuals born in the rural community of Överkalix, Sweden, between 1890 and 1935 were followed from birth to either death or old age. Around 50% of the study-population moved away from Överkalix at one time or another. To adjust for a potential bias resulting from self-selection among the migrants, the fathers occupational status was used together with parents and grandparents longevity. Overall, migration could not be shown to predict mortality when the backgrounds of the migrants were taken into account. Nonetheless, socio-economic background conditions appeared to moderate the association, decreasing the mortality rates for migrants with relatively good pre-migratory socio-economic conditions, while increasing it for migrants with poorer pre-migratory conditions. However, further scrutiny revealed that this effect modification mainly affected the female migrants mortality. In conclusion, the study suggests that there is no general association between migration and mortality, but that migrants with better socio-economic resources are more likely to improve their mortality trajectories than migrants with poorer resources. Better pre-migratory conditions hence appear to be important for avoiding health-adverse circumstances and gaining access to health beneficial living conditions when moving to foreign environments - especially for women.
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Active commuting and physical activity in adolescents from Europe: results from the HELENA study.
Pediatr Exerc Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2011
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We assessed commuting patterns in adolescents from 10 European cities and examined associations with physical activity (PA). A total of 3112 adolescents were included. PA was objectively measured with accelerometry. Commuting patterns and overall PA were self-reported using questions from the International Physical Activity Questionnaire modified for adolescents (IPAQ-A). Adolescents reported to spend 30 min (15,60) [expressed as median (25th, 75th percentiles)] walking. In boys, associations between active commuting (walking and biking) and PA levels were observed for moderate, moderate-to-vigorous and overall PA. In girls, these associations were observed for moderate and moderate-to-vigorous PA (walking). Similar results were found with the IPAQ-A. We observed positive associations between overall commuting and PA levels in European adolescents, yet due to the cross-sectional study design we cannot state the direction of these. Future studies should address the causation between active commuting and PA levels.
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Fitness and fatness are independently associated with markers of insulin resistance in European adolescents; the HELENA study.
Int J Pediatr Obes
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2011
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To examine the independent association of total and central body fat and cardiorespiratory fitness with markers of insulin resistance after controlling for several potential confounders in European adolescents participating in the HELENA-CSS (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence Cross-Sectional) study.
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Lactase persistence and milk consumption are associated with body height in Swedish preadolescents and adolescents.
Food Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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Body height is a classic polygenic trait. About 80%-90% of height is inherited and 10%-20% owed to environmental factors, of which the most important ones are nutrition and diseases in preadolescents and adolescents.
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Metabolite Signature during Short-Day Induced Growth Cessation in Populus.
Front Plant Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2011
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The photoperiod is an important environmental signal for plants, and influences a wide range of physiological processes. For woody species in northern latitudes, cessation of growth is induced by short photoperiods. In many plant species, short photoperiods stop elongational growth after a few weeks. It is known that plant daylength detection is mediated by Phytochrome A (PHYA) in the woody hybrid aspen species. However, the mechanism of dormancy involving primary metabolism remains unclear. We studied changes in metabolite profiles in hybrid aspen leaves (young, middle, and mature leaves) during short-day-induced growth cessation, using a combination of gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry, and multivariate projection methods. Our results indicate that the metabolite profiles in mature source leaves rapidly change when the photoperiod changes. In contrast, the differences in young sink leaves grown under long and short-day conditions are less distinct. We found short daylength induced growth cessation in aspen was associated with rapid changes in the distribution and levels of diverse primary metabolites. In addition, we conducted metabolite profiling of leaves of PHYA overexpressor (PHYAOX) and those of the control to find the discriminative metabolites between PHYAOX and the control under the short-day conditions. The metabolite changes observed in PHYAOX leaves, together with those in the source leaves, identified possible candidates for the metabolite signature (e.g., 2-oxo-glutarate, spermidine, putrescine, 4-amino-butyrate, and tryptophan) during short-day-induced growth cessation in aspen leaves.
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Reliability and validity of a screen time-based sedentary behaviour questionnaire for adolescents: The HELENA study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2011
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Although there is a growing interest in the epidemiology of sedentary behaviours, it is unknown whether sedentary behaviour questionnaires are broad markers of sedentary time. The aims of this study were to determine the: (i) reliability of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) screen time-based sedentary behaviour questionnaire; and (ii) its validity, i.e. the ability of the questionnaire to correctly rank adolescents according to the objectively measured sedentary time.
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The descriptive epidemiology of sitting. A 20-country comparison using the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ).
Am J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2011
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Recent epidemiologic evidence points to the health risks of prolonged sitting, that are independent of physical activity, but few papers have reported the descriptive epidemiology of sitting in population studies with adults.
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Objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Am. J. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2011
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The authors aim in this cross-sectional study was to characterize levels of objectively measured physical activity and sedentary time in adolescents from 9 European countries. The study comprised 2,200 European adolescents (1,184 girls) participating in the HELENA cross-sectional study (2006-2008). Physical activity was measured by accelerometry and was expressed as average intensity (counts/minute) and amount of time (minutes/day) spent engaging in moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity (MVPA). Time spent in sedentary behaviors was also objectively measured. Cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by means of the 20-m shuttle run test. Level of maternal education was reported by the adolescents. A higher proportion of boys (56.8% of boys vs. 27.5% of girls) met the physical activity recommendations of at least 60 minutes/day of MVPA. Adolescents spent most of the registered time in sedentary behaviors (9 hours/day, or 71% of the registered time). Both average intensity and MVPA were higher in adolescents with high cardiorespiratory fitness, and sedentary time was lower in the high-fitness group. There were no physical activity or sedentary time differences between maternal education categories. These data provide an objective measure of physical activity and amount of time spent in sedentary behaviors in a relatively large number of European adolescents.
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The International Fitness Scale (IFIS): usefulness of self-reported fitness in youth.
Int J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2011
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We examined: (i) the usefulness of the International Fitness Scale (IFIS) to correctly rank adolescents into physical fitness levels; (ii) the capacity of the IFIS for predicting cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk; and (iii) the reliability of the IFIS in adolescents.
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Improvements in fitness reduce the risk of becoming overweight across puberty.
Med Sci Sports Exerc
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2011
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Information about factors related to overweight development in early stages of life is needed for designing useful strategies to prevent overweight and related diseases. Longitudinal studies can contribute to this goal. The present study aimed to identify factors in childhood that determine the development of overweight/obesity in adolescence.
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Positive health, cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness in children and adolescents.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2011
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Positive health is likely a buffer against physical and mental illness. Positive health may explain some of the health benefits associated with increasing cardiorespiratory fitness and decreasing fatness in youth. We examined the association of cardiorespiratory fitness and fatness with positive health indicators in 684 (365 boys and 319 girls) Spanish children aged 6-17.9 years.
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Breakfast habits and factors influencing food choices at breakfast in relation to socio-demographic and family factors among European adolescents. The HELENA Study.
Appetite
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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Breakfast consumption has been shown to be an important indicator of a healthy lifestyle. Little is known however about factors influencing breakfast consumption and food choices at breakfast in adolescents. The aim of the present study was therefore to describe breakfast habits, and factors influencing food choices at breakfast within the framework of the EU-funded HELENA Study, in 3528 adolescents from ten European cities. Additionally, socio-demographic differences in breakfast habits and in influencing factors were investigated. Half of the adolescents (and fewer girls than boys) indicated being regular breakfast consumers. Girls with mothers with a high level of education, boys from traditional families and boys who perceived low family affluence were positively associated with breakfast consumption. Boys whose parents gave encouragement and girls whose peers ate healthily were more likely to be regular breakfast consumers. Hunger, taste, health concerns and parents or guardian were the most important influences on the adolescents food choices at breakfast. Adolescents from southern Europe and girls reported to be more influenced by personal and socio-environmental factors. Socio-demographic differences, in particular regional and gender differences, need to be considered in discussions surrounding the development of nutritional intervention programs intended for adolescents.
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Food and drink intake during television viewing in adolescents: the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) study.
Public Health Nutr
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2011
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To compare food consumption during television (TV) viewing among adolescents who watched >2 h/d v. ?2 h/d; and to examine the association between sociodemographic variables (age, gender and socio-economic status (SES)) and the consumption of energy-dense foods and drinks during TV viewing.
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Comparison of the IPAQ-A and actigraph in relation to VO2max among European adolescents: the HELENA study.
J Sci Med Sport
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2011
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The purpose was to compare data obtained from a modified, long, self-administered version of the International Physical Activity Questionnaire (IPAQ-A) with objective data obtained in parallel from Actigraph accelerometers, and VO(2)max in adolescents. The study comprised a total of 2018 adolescents (46% male) from ten European cities participating in the HELENA (Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence) study. Physical activity was assessed over seven consecutive days by accelerometry and expressed as min/day of moderate, vigorous, and moderate to vigorous (MVPA) physical activity (PA). PA was also assessed with the IPAQ-A. VO(2)max was estimated from a 20-m shuttle run test. Poor to fair correlations between the two methodologies were found for the whole study sample and when stratified by age and gender (r(s) = 0.08-0.26, p < 0.01). On average, the self-reported time spent in moderate PA was higher compared to the time measured with the accelerometer, while the differences between both instruments were less clear for vigorous intensity. Adolescents reporting high levels of PA (3rd tertile IPAQ-A) also showed higher levels of PA (accelerometers) in all the study variables (moderate, vigorous and MVPA), compared to adolescents reporting low PA (1st tertile IPAQ-A) (all p < 0.001). Both methods were moderately correlated with estimated VO(2)max. Within the HELENA-study, the IPAQ-A showed the modest comparability with the accelerometer data for assessing PA in each intensity level and was the highest for vigorous intensity. Both instruments are able to detect the adolescents with the highest cardio respiratory fitness, which are the most active adolescents.
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Sleep duration and activity levels in Estonian and Swedish children and adolescents.
Eur. J. Appl. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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We aimed to examine the associations of sleep duration with time spent on sedentary, moderate and vigorous activities in children and adolescents. The sample consisted of 2,241 (53.5% girls) Estonian and Swedish children (9-10 years) and adolescents (15-16 years), from the European Youth Heart Study, in 1998-1999. Sleep duration was calculated by the difference between self-reported bedtime and time for getting up on a normal weekday. Sedentary time/physical activity was measured by accelerometry (valid data on 1,462 participants). Adolescents had lower odds than children, and Swedish higher odds than Estonian, of meeting the sleep recommendations (>9 h) (OR = 0.22, 95% CI 0.17-0.27; and 1.32, 1.07-1.61, respectively). Participants sleeping longer than 10 h spent more time on physical activities (all intensities) and less time on sedentary activities than those sleeping shorter durations (all P < 0.001). The associations with physical activity became non-significant after additional adjustment for age or sexual maturation (Tanner stages), whereas the associations with sedentary time became borderline significant (P = 0.09/0.03, for age and Tanner, respectively). In conclusion, these results do not suggest a link between sleep durations and activity in a relatively large sample of children and adolescents from two European countries. Consequently, the common assumption that physical activity is a mediator in the relationship between short sleep durations and obesity is not supported by our findings.
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Associations of birth weight with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids in adolescents; the HELENA study.
Atherosclerosis
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2011
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Nutritional factors in early life may have long-term physiologic effects in humans. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) play important roles in protecting against cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk. Our aim was to examine the association of birth weight (BW) with serum long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) profile in adolescents.
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Relationship between self-reported dietary intake and physical activity levels among adolescents: the HELENA study.
Int J Behav Nutr Phys Act
PUBLISHED: 02-06-2011
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Evidence suggests possible synergetic effects of multiple lifestyle behaviors on health risks like obesity and other health outcomes. Therefore it is important to investigate associations between dietary and physical activity behavior, the two most important lifestyle behaviors influencing our energy balance and body composition. The objective of the present study is to describe the relationship between energy, nutrient and food intake and the physical activity level among a large group of European adolescents.
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Handgrip strength test as a complementary tool in the assessment of fibromyalgia severity in women.
Arch Phys Med Rehabil
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2011
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To determine the ability of handgrip strength test to discriminate between presence and absence of fibromyalgia (FM) and FM severity in women.
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Breastfeeding in infancy is not associated with inflammatory status in healthy adolescents.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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It has been suggested that breast-feeding (BF) may be associated with a decreased risk of cardiovascular disease in adulthood. A low-grade inflammation is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease, even in apparently healthy children. The objective of this study was to assess the potential modulating effect of BF on the inflammatory status of healthy adolescents. Information on BF (duration) was obtained from parental records in 484 of 1040 healthy European urban adolescents (56.4% females) that had a blood sample obtained as part of the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition and Adolescence study. Blood serum inflammatory markers were measured, including high sensitivity C-reactive protein, complement factors 3 and 4, ceruloplasmin, adhesion molecules (L-selectin and soluble endothelial selectin, soluble vascular cell adhesion molecule 1, and intercellular adhesion molecule 1), cytokines, TGF?1, and white blood cells. After univariate analysis, a propensity score, including the potential confounding factors, was computed and used to assess the association between BF and selected inflammatory markers. BF was not significantly associated with any of the selected inflammatory markers after adjustment for gender and propensity score. In our study, BF was not associated with low-grade inflammatory status in healthy adolescents, suggesting that the potential cardiovascular benefits of BF are related to other mechanisms than modulation of inflammation or might become relevant at a later age. Groups at high risk for cardiovascular disease should be a target for further research concerning the effects of BF.
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Excessive sedentary time and low cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: the HELENA study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2011
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The aims of this study were to examine what amount of sedentary time is associated with low cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in adolescents and whether this association is independent of physical activity.
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Field-based fitness assessment in young people: the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents.
Br J Sports Med
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2010
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The present study summarises the work developed by the ALPHA (Assessing Levels of Physical Activity) study and describes the procedures followed to select the tests included in the ALPHA health-related fitness test battery for children and adolescents. The authors reviewed physical fitness and health in youth findings from cross-sectional studies. The authors also performed three systematic reviews dealing with (1) the predictive validity of health-related fitness, (2) the criterion validity of field-based fitness tests and (3) the reliability of field-based fitness tests in youth. The authors also carried out 11-methodological studies to determine the criterion validity and the reliability of several field-based fitness tests for youth. Finally, the authors performed a study in the school setting to examine the reliability, feasibility and safety of the selected tests. The selected fitness tests were (1) the 20 m shuttle run test to assess cardiorespiratory fitness; (2) the handgrip strength and (3) standing broad jump to assess musculoskeletal fitness, and (4) body mass index, (5) skinfold thickness and (5) waist circumference to assess body composition. When there are time limits, the authors propose the high-priority ALPHA health-related fitness test battery, which comprises all the evidence-based fitness tests except the measurement of the skinfold thickness. The time required to administer this battery to a group of 20 youth by one physical education teacher is less than 2 h. In conclusion, the ALPHA fitness tests battery is valid, reliable, feasible and safe for the assessment of health-related physical fitness in children and adolescents to be used for health monitoring purposes at population level.
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Adolescents physical activity levels and relatives physical activity engagement and encouragement: the HELENA study.
Eur J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2010
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The aim of this article is to examine the association between adolescents physical activity (PA) levels and their relatives (father, mother, brothers, sisters and best friend) PA engagement and encouragement.
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Longer breastfeeding is associated with increased lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 09-22-2010
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Our aim in this study was to examine the association between breastfeeding duration and cardiorespiratory fitness, isometric strength, and explosive strength during adolescence. A total of 2567 adolescents (1426 girls) from the Healthy Lifestyle in Europe by Nutrition in Adolescence (HELENA) cross-sectional study aged 12.5-17.5 y were included. Information about duration of any and exclusive breastfeeding was obtained retrospectively by means of a parental questionnaire. The 20-m shuttle run, handgrip strength, and standing long jump tests were used to assess physical fitness. Significant differences among the categories of breastfeeding duration were tested using ANCOVA after adjusting for a set of potential confounders: gestational and current age, birth weight, sexual maturation, fat mass, fat-free mass, maternal education, parental weight status, country, smoking behavior, and days of vigorous physical activity. Longer breastfeeding (either any or exclusive) was associated with a higher performance in the standing long jump test in both boys and girls (P < 0.001), regardless of fat mass, fat-free mass, and the rest of potential confounders. In adolescents who were breastfed for 3-5 mo or ?6 mo, the risk of having a standing long jump performance below the 5th percentile was reduced by half compared with those who were never breastfed [odds ratio (OR) = 0.54, 95% CI = 0.30-0.96, P < 0.05; and OR = 0.40, 95% CI = 0.22-0.74, P < 0.01, respectively). These findings suggest a role of breastfeeding in determining lower body explosive strength during adolescence.
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Active commuting to school in children and adolescents: an opportunity to increase physical activity and fitness.
Scand J Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2010
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The purpose was to describe the patterns of commuting to school in young people and to examine its associations with physical activity (PA) and cardiorespiratory fitness.
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The repeatability and validity of questionnaires assessing occupational physical activity--a systematic review.
Scand J Work Environ Health
PUBLISHED: 08-30-2010
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This study aims to review systematically the repeatability and validity of questionnaires used to assess occupational physical activity among healthy adults.
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Recommended levels and intensities of physical activity to avoid low-cardiorespiratory fitness in European adolescents: The HELENA study.
Am. J. Hum. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2010
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The purpose of this study was to determine the sex-specific physical activity (PA) intensity thresholds that best discriminate between unhealthy/healthy cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF).
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Comparison of a subjective and an objective measure of physical activity in a population sample.
J Phys Act Health
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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The aim of this study was to compare physical activity components in the long, self-administrated version of IPAQ with an accelerometer in a population sample.
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