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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Simvastatin reduces fibrosis and protects against muscle weakness after massive rotator cuff tear.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg
PUBLISHED: 04-27-2014
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Chronic rotator cuff tears are a common source of shoulder pain and disability, and patients with chronic cuff tears often have substantial weakness, fibrosis, inflammation, and fat accumulation. Identifying therapies to prevent the development of these pathologic processes will likely have a positive impact on clinical outcomes. Simvastatin is a drug with demonstrated anti-inflammatory and antifibrotic effects in many tissues but had not previously been studied in the context of rotator cuff tears. We hypothesized that after the induction of a massive supraspinatus tear, simvastatin would protect muscles from a loss of force production and fibrosis.
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90Y glass microspheres for the treatment of unresectable metastatic liver disease from chemotherapy-refractory gastrointestinal cancers: a pilot study.
J Gastrointest Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2014
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This prospective pilot single-institution study was undertaken to document the feasibility, safety, and efficacy of treatment of liver-dominant metastatic gastrointestinal cancer using (90)Y glass microspheres.
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Subtype-specific MEK-PI3 kinase feedback as a therapeutic target in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
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Mutations in the KRAS oncogene are dominant features in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA). Because KRAS itself is considered "undruggable," targeting pathways downstream of KRAS are being explored as a rational therapeutic strategy. We investigated the consequences of MAP-ERK kinase (MEK) inhibition in a large PDA cell line panel. Inhibition of MEK activated phosphoinositide 3-kinase in an EGF receptor (EGFR)-dependent fashion and combinations of MEK and EGFR inhibitors synergistically induced apoptosis. This combinatorial effect was observed in the epithelial but not mesenchymal subtype of PDA. RNA expression analysis revealed predictors of susceptibility to the combination, including E-cadherin, HER3, and the miR200-family of microRNAs, whereas expression of the transcription factor ZEB1 was associated with resistance to the drug combination. Knockdown of HER3 in epithelial-type and ZEB1 in mesenchymal-type PDA cell lines resulted in sensitization to the combination of MEK and EGFR inhibitors. Thus, our findings suggest a new, subtype-specific, and personalized therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer.
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Molecular phylogeny of the Notostraca.
Mol. Phylogenet. Evol.
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2013
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We used a combined analysis of one nuclear (28S rDNA) and three mitochondrial markers (COI, 12S rDNA, 16S rDNA) to infer the molecular phylogeny of the Notostraca, represented by samples from the six continents that are inhabited by this group of branchiopod crustaceans. Our results confirm the monophyly of both extant notostracan genera Triops and Lepidurus with good support in model based and maximum parsimony analyses. We used branchiopod fossils as a calibration to infer divergence times among notostracan lineages and accounted for rate heterogeneity among lineages by applying relaxed-clock models. Our divergence date estimates indicate an initial diversification into the genera Triops and Lepidurus in the Mesozoic, most likely at a minimum age of 152.3-233.5 Ma, i.e., in the Triassic or Jurassic. Implications for the interpretation of fossils and the evolution of notostracan morphology are discussed. We further use the divergence date estimates to formulate a biogeographic hypothesis that explains distributions of extant lineages predominantly by overland dispersal routes. We identified an additional hitherto unrecognised highly diverged lineage within Lepidurus apus lubbocki and three additional previously unknown major lineages within Triops. Within T. granarius we found deep differentiation, with representatives distributed among three major phylogenetic lineages. One of these major lineages comprises T. cancriformis, the T. mauritanicus species group and two hitherto unrecognised T. granarius lineages. Samples that were morphologically identified as T. granarius diverged from the most basal nodes within this major lineage, and divergence dates suggested an approximate age of 23.7-49.6 Ma for T. cancriformis, indicating the need for a taxonomic revision of Triassic and Permian fossils that are currently attributed to the extant T. cancriformis. We thus elevate T. cancriformis minor to full species status as Triops minorTrusheim, 1938 and include in this species the additional Upper Triassic samples that were attributed to T. cancriformis. We further elevate T. cancriformis permiensis to full species status as Triops permiensisGand et al., 1997.
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Gastric cancer, version 2.2013: featured updates to the NCCN Guidelines.
J Natl Compr Canc Netw
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
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The NCCN Clinical Practice Guidelines in Oncology for Gastric Cancer provide evidence- and consensus-based recommendations for a multidisciplinary approach for the management of patients with gastric cancer. For patients with resectable locoregional cancer, the guidelines recommend gastrectomy with a D1+ or a modified D2 lymph node dissection (performed by experienced surgeons in high-volume centers). Postoperative chemoradiation is the preferred option after complete gastric resection for patients with T3-T4 tumors and node-positive T1-T2 tumors. Postoperative chemotherapy is included as an option after a modified D2 lymph node dissection for this group of patients. Trastuzumab with chemotherapy is recommended as first-line therapy for patients with HER2-positive advanced or metastatic cancer, confirmed by immunohistochemistry and, if needed, by fluorescence in situ hybridization for IHC 2+.
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Aging-associated exacerbation in fatty degeneration and infiltration after rotator cuff tear.
J Shoulder Elbow Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Rotator cuff tears are one of the most common musculoskeletal complaints and a substantial source of morbidity in elderly patients. Chronic cuff tears are associated with muscle atrophy and an infiltration of fat to the area, a condition known as "fatty degeneration." To improve the treatment of cuff tears in elderly patients, a greater understanding of the changes in the contractile properties of muscle fibers and the molecular regulation of fatty degeneration is essential.
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ZEB1 limits adenoviral infectability by transcriptionally repressing the coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
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We have previously reported that RAS-MEK (Cancer Res. 2003 May 1;63(9):2088-95) and TGF-? (Cancer Res. 2006 Feb 1;66(3):1648-57) signaling negatively regulate coxsackie virus and adenovirus receptor (CAR) cell-surface expression and adenovirus uptake. In the case of TGF-?, down-regulation of CAR occurred in context of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT), a process associated with transcriptional repression of E-cadherin by, for instance, the E2 box-binding factors Snail, Slug, SIP1 or ZEB1. While EMT is crucial in embryonic development, it has been proposed to contribute to the formation of invasive and metastatic carcinomas by reducing cell-cell contacts and increasing cell migration.
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Autophagy suppression promotes apoptotic cell death in response to inhibition of the PI3K-mTOR pathway in pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Targeting of pathways downstream of RAS represents a promising therapeutic strategy for pancreatic cancer, the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the USA, since activation of the Raf-MEK-ERK and PI3K-AKT pathways is found frequently in this disease and is associated with poor prognosis. Taking advantage of a panel of human PDAC cell lines and specific inhibitors of PI3K and/or mTOR, we systematically address the question whether dual-targeted inhibition of the PI3K and mTOR pathways offers advantages over single-targeted inhibition of PI3K in PDAC. We observe greater overall susceptibility of cell lines to dual inhibition compared to targeting PI3K alone. However, we find that dual inhibition of PI3K and mTOR induces autophagy to a greater extent than inhibition of each target alone. In agreement with this, we show that combined administration of PI3K/mTOR and autophagy inhibitors results in increased anti-tumor activity in vitro and in vivo in models of pancreatic adenocarcinoma. XL765, a PI3K/mTOR inhibitor used in our in vivo studies, is currently undergoing clinical evaluation in a variety of cancer types, while the autophagy inhibitor chloroquine is a widely used anti-malaria compound. Thus, our studies provide rationale for clinical development of combinations of these compounds for the treatment of pancreatic adenocarcinoma.
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A dynamical systems model for combinatorial cancer therapy enhances oncolytic adenovirus efficacy by MEK-inhibition.
PLoS Comput. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 01-18-2011
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Oncolytic adenoviruses, such as ONYX-015, have been tested in clinical trials for currently untreatable tumors, but have yet to demonstrate adequate therapeutic efficacy. The extent to which viruses infect targeted cells determines the efficacy of this approach but many tumors down-regulate the Coxsackievirus and Adenovirus Receptor (CAR), rendering them less susceptible to infection. Disrupting MAPK pathway signaling by pharmacological inhibition of MEK up-regulates CAR expression, offering possible enhanced adenovirus infection. MEK inhibition, however, interferes with adenovirus replication due to resulting G1-phase cell cycle arrest. Therefore, enhanced efficacy will depend on treatment protocols that productively balance these competing effects. Predictive understanding of how to attain and enhance therapeutic efficacy of combinatorial treatment is difficult since the effects of MEK inhibitors, in conjunction with adenovirus/cell interactions, are complex nonlinear dynamic processes. We investigated combinatorial treatment strategies using a mathematical model that predicts the impact of MEK inhibition on tumor cell proliferation, ONYX-015 infection, and oncolysis. Specifically, we fit a nonlinear differential equation system to dedicated experimental data and analyzed the resulting simulations for favorable treatment strategies. Simulations predicted enhanced combinatorial therapy when both treatments were applied simultaneously; we successfully validated these predictions in an ensuing explicit test study. Further analysis revealed that a CAR-independent mechanism may be responsible for amplified virus production and cell death. We conclude that integrated computational and experimental analysis of combinatorial therapy provides a useful means to identify treatment/infection protocols that yield clinically significant oncolysis. Enhanced oncolytic therapy has the potential to dramatically improve non-surgical cancer treatment, especially in locally advanced or metastatic cases where treatment options remain limited.
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Characterization of a recombinant adeno-associated virus type 2 Reference Standard Material.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2010
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A recombinant adeno-associated virus serotype 2 Reference Standard Material (rAAV2 RSM) has been produced and characterized with the purpose of providing a reference standard for particle titer, vector genome titer, and infectious titer for AAV2 gene transfer vectors. Production and purification of the reference material were carried out by helper virus-free transient transfection and chromatographic purification. The purified bulk material was vialed, confirmed negative for microbial contamination, and then distributed for characterization along with standard assay protocols and assay reagents to 16 laboratories worldwide. Using statistical transformation and modeling of the raw data, mean titers and confidence intervals were determined for capsid particles ({X}, 9.18?x?10¹¹ particles/ml; 95% confidence interval [CI], 7.89?x?10¹¹ to 1.05?x?10¹² particles/ml), vector genomes ({X}, 3.28?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml; 95% CI, 2.70?x?10¹? to 4.75?x?10¹? vector genomes/ml), transducing units ({X}, 5.09?x?10? transducing units/ml; 95% CI, 2.00?x?10? to 9.60?x?10? transducing units/ml), and infectious units ({X}, 4.37?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml; 95% CI, 2.06?x?10? to 9.26?x?10? TCID?? IU/ml). Further analysis confirmed the identity of the reference material as AAV2 and the purity relative to nonvector proteins as greater than 94%. One obvious trend in the quantitative data was the degree of variation between institutions for each assay despite the relatively tight correlation of assay results within an institution. This relatively poor degree of interlaboratory precision and accuracy was apparent even though attempts were made to standardize the assays by providing detailed protocols and common reagents. This is the first time that such variation between laboratories has been thoroughly documented and the findings emphasize the need in the field for universal reference standards. The rAAV2 RSM has been deposited with the American Type Culture Collection and is available to the scientific community to calibrate laboratory-specific internal titer standards. Anticipated uses of the rAAV2 RSM are discussed.
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Efficient serotype-dependent release of functional vector into the culture medium during adeno-associated virus manufacturing.
Hum. Gene Ther.
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2010
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Vectors based on adeno-associated virus (AAV) are the subject of increasing interest as research tools and agents for in vivo gene therapy. A current limitation on the technology is the versatile and scalable manufacturing of vector. On the basis of experience with AAV2-based vectors, which remain strongly cell associated, AAV vector particles are commonly harvested from cell lysates, and must be extensively purified for use. We report here that vectors based on other AAV serotypes, including AAV1, AAV8, and AAV9, are found in abundance in, and can be harvested from, the medium of production cultures carried out with or without serum. For AAV2, this difference in compartmentalization is largely due to the affinity of the AAV2 particle for heparin, because an AAV2 variant in which the heparin-binding motif has been ablated gives higher yields and is efficiently released from cells. Vector particles isolated from the culture medium appear to be functionally equivalent to those purified from cell lysates in terms of transduction efficiency in vitro and in vivo, immunogenicity, and tissue tropism. Our findings will directly lead to methods for increasing vector yields and simplifying production processes for AAV vectors, which should facilitate laboratory-scale preparation and large-scale manufacture.
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A phase II study of bevacizumab plus erlotinib for gemcitabine-refractory metastatic pancreatic cancer.
Cancer Chemother. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2010
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No standard of care exists for patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer following progression on first-line chemotherapy. Based on potential for additive or synergistic activity by concurrent inhibition of VEGF and EGFR, we conducted a phase II study evaluating the combination of bevacizumab plus erlotinib in this patient population.
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Basal subtype and MAPK/ERK kinase (MEK)-phosphoinositide 3-kinase feedback signaling determine susceptibility of breast cancer cells to MEK inhibition.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2009
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Specific inhibitors of mitogen-activated protein kinase/extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) kinase (MEK) have been developed that efficiently inhibit the oncogenic RAF-MEK-ERK pathway. We used a systems-based approach to identify breast cancer subtypes particularly susceptible to MEK inhibitors and to understand molecular mechanisms conferring resistance to such compounds. Basal-type breast cancer cells were found to be particularly susceptible to growth inhibition by small-molecule MEK inhibitors. Activation of the phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) pathway in response to MEK inhibition through a negative MEK-epidermal growth factor receptor-PI3K feedback loop was found to limit efficacy. Interruption of this feedback mechanism by targeting MEK and PI3K produced synergistic effects, including induction of apoptosis and, in some cell lines, cell cycle arrest and protection from apoptosis induced by proapoptotic agents. These findings enhance our understanding of the interconnectivity of oncogenic signal transduction circuits and have implications for the design of future clinical trials of MEK inhibitors in breast cancer by guiding patient selection and suggesting rational combination therapies.
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Fluid biopsy in patients with metastatic prostate, pancreatic and breast cancers.
Phys Biol
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Hematologic spread of carcinoma results in incurable metastasis; yet, the basic characteristics and travel mechanisms of cancer cells in the bloodstream are unknown. We have established a fluid phase biopsy approach that identifies circulating tumor cells (CTCs) without using surface protein-based enrichment and presents them in sufficiently high definition (HD) to satisfy diagnostic pathology image quality requirements. This HD-CTC assay finds >5 HD-CTCs mL(-1) of blood in 80% of patients with metastatic prostate cancer (n = 20), in 70% of patients with metastatic breast cancer (n = 30), in 50% of patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer (n = 18), and in 0% of normal controls (n = 15). Additionally, it finds HD-CTC clusters ranging from 2 HD-CTCs to greater than 30 HD-CTCs in the majority of these cancer patients. This initial validation of an enrichment-free assay demonstrates our ability to identify significant numbers of HD-CTCs in a majority of patients with prostate, breast and pancreatic cancers.
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Characterization of circulating tumor cell aggregates identified in patients with epithelial tumors.
Phys Biol
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Circulating tumor cells (CTCs) have been implicated as a population of cells that may seed metastasis and venous thromboembolism (VTE), two major causes of mortality in cancer patients. Thus far, existing CTC detection technologies have been unable to reproducibly detect CTC aggregates in order to address what contribution CTC aggregates may make to metastasis or VTE. We report here an enrichment-free immunofluorescence detection method that can reproducibly detect and enumerate homotypic CTC aggregates in patient samples. We identified CTC aggregates in 43% of 86 patient samples. The fraction of CTC aggregation was investigated in blood draws from 24 breast, 14 non-small cell lung, 18 pancreatic, 15 prostate stage IV cancer patients and 15 normal blood donors. Both single CTCs and CTC aggregates were measured to determine whether differences exist in the physical characteristics of these two populations. Cells contained in CTC aggregates had less area and length, on average, than single CTCs. Nuclear to cytoplasmic ratios between single CTCs and CTC aggregates were similar. This detection method may assist future studies in determining which population of cells is more physically likely to contribute to metastasis and VTE.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.