Exosomes are nanometer-sized microvesicles formed in multivesicular bodies (MVBs) during endosome maturation. Exosomes are released from cells into the microenvironment following fusion of MVBs with the plasma membrane. During the last decade, skeletal muscle-secreted proteins have been identified with important roles in intercellular communications. To investigate whether muscle-derived exosomes participate in this molecular dialog, we determined and compared the protein contents of the exosome-like vesicles (ELVs) released from C2C12 murine myoblasts during proliferation (ELV-MB), and after differentiation into myotubes (ELV-MT). Using a proteomic approach combined with electron microscopy, western-blot and bioinformatic analyses, we compared the protein repertoires within ELV-MB and ELV-MT. We found that these vesicles displayed the classical properties of exosomes isolated from other cell types containing components of the ESCRT machinery of the MVBs, as well as numerous tetraspanins. Specific muscle proteins were also identified confirming that ELV composition also reflects their muscle origin. Furthermore quantitative analysis revealed stage-preferred expression of 31 and 78 proteins in ELV-MB and ELV-MT respectively. We found that myotube-secreted ELVs, but not ELV-MB, reduced myoblast proliferation and induced differentiation, through, respectively, the down-regulation of Cyclin D1 and the up-regulation of myogenin. We also present evidence that proteins from ELV-MT can be incorporated into myoblasts by using the GFP protein as cargo within ELV-MT. Taken together, our data provide a useful database of proteins from C2C12-released ELVs throughout myogenesis and reveals the importance of exosome-like vesicles in skeletal muscle biology.
Exosomes are nanovesicles that have emerged as a new intercellular communication system between an intracellular compartment of a donor cell towards the periphery or an internal compartment of a recipient cell. The bioactivity of exosomes resides not only in their protein and RNA contents but also in their lipidic molecules. Exosomes display original lipids organized in a bilayer membrane and along with the lipid carriers such as fatty acid binding proteins that they contain, exosomes transport bioactive lipids. Exosomes can vectorize lipids such as eicosanoids, fatty acids, and cholesterol, and their lipid composition can be modified by in-vitro manipulation. They also contain lipid related enzymes so that they can constitute an autonomous unit of production of various bioactive lipids. Exosomes can circulate between proximal or distal cells and their fate can be regulated in part by lipidic molecules. Compared to their parental cells, exosomes are enriched in cholesterol and sphingomyelin and their accumulation in cells might modulate recipient cell homeostasis. Exosome release from cells appears to be a general biological process. They have been reported in all biological fluids from which they can be recovered and can be monitors of specific pathophysiological situations. Thus, the lipid content of circulating exosomes could be useful biomarkers of lipid related diseases. Since the first lipid analysis of exosomes ten years ago detailed knowledge of exosomal lipids has accumulated. The role of lipids in exosome fate and bioactivity and how they constitute an additional lipid transport system are considered in this review.
Progesterone, the cationic amphiphile U18666A and a phospholipase inhibitor (Methyl Arachidonyl Fluoro Phosphonate, MAFP) inhibited by 70%-90% HIV production in viral reservoir cells, i.e. human THP-1 monocytes and monocyte-derived macrophages (MDM). These compounds triggered an inhibition of fluid phase endocytosis (macropinocytosis) and modified cellular lipid homeostasis since endosomes accumulated filipin-stained sterols and Bis(Monoacylglycero)Phosphate (BMP). BMP was quantified using a new cytometry procedure and was increased by 1.25 times with MAFP, 1.7 times with U18666A and 2.5 times with progesterone. MAFP but not progesterone or U18666A inhibited the hydrolysis of BMP by the Pancreatic Lipase Related Protein 2 (PLRP2) as shown by in-vitro experiments. The possible role of sterol transporters in steroid-mediated BMP increase is discussed. Electron microscopy showed the accumulation of viral particles either into large intracellular viral-containing compartments or outside the cells, indicating that endosomal accumulation of BMP could block intracellular biogenesis of viral particles while inhibition of macropinocytosis would prevent viral particle uptake. This is the first report linking BMP metabolism with a natural steroid such as progesterone or with involvement of a phospholipase A1 activity. BMP cellular content could be used as a biomarker for efficient anti-viral drugs.
Dysregulation of lipid metabolism involves cellular communication mediated by cell contacts or exchange of bioactive lipids bound to soluble carriers or to lipoproteins. An increasing field is that of cellular communication mediated by nanovesicles called exosomes. Those vesicles are released from an internal compartment of viable cells, circulate in all biological fluids and can transfer material from cell-to-cells. Involvement of exosome trafficking in the transcellular metabolism of eicosanoids and cholesterol-related diseases including cancer is developed hereafter.
Tamoxifen (Tam) is a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM) that remains one of the major drugs used in the hormonotherapy of breast cancer (BC). In addition to its SERM activity, we recently showed that the oxidative metabolism of cholesterol plays a role in its anticancer pharmacology. We established that these effects were not regulated by the ER but by the microsomal antiestrogen binding site/cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase complex (AEBS/ChEH). The present study aimed to identify the oxysterols that are produced under Tam treatment and to define their mechanisms of action. Tam and PBPE (a selective AEBS/ChEH ligand) stimulated the production and the accumulation of 5,6?-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6?-EC), 5,6?-epoxy-cholesterol-3?-sulfate (5,6-ECS), 5,6?-epoxy-cholesterol (5,6?-EC) in MCF-7 cells through a ROS-dependent mechanism, by inhibiting ChEH and inducing sulfation of 5,6?-EC by SULT2B1b. We showed that only 5,6?-EC was responsible for the induction of triacylglycerol (TAG) biosynthesis by Tam and PBPE, through the modulation of the oxysterol receptor LXR?. The cytotoxicity mediated by Tam and PBPE was triggered by 5,6?-EC through an LXR?-independent route and by 5,6-ECS through an LXR?-dependent mechanism. The importance of SULT2B1b was confirmed by its ectopic expression in the SULT2B1b(-) MDA-MB-231 cells, which became sensitive to 5,6?-EC, Tam or PBPE at a comparable level to MCF-7 cells. This study established that 5,6-EC metabolites contribute to the anticancer pharmacology of Tam and highlights a novel signaling pathway that points to a rationale for re-sensitizing BC cells to Tam and AEBS/ChEH ligands.
The interfacial physical properties of bis(monoacylglycero)phosphate (BMP) and its derivatives with three oleoyl chains (hemi-BDP) and four oleoyl chains (bis(diacylglycero)phosphate, BDP) were investigated using Langmuir monomolecular films. The mean molecular area of BMP at the collapse surface pressure (45mN m(-1)) was similar to those measured with other phospholipids bearing two acyl chains (66 and 59.6Å(2) molecule(-1) at pH 5.5 and 8.0, respectively). In Hemi-BDP and BDP, the mean molecular area increased by 26 and 35Å(2) molecule(-1) per additional acyl chain at pH 5.5 and 8.0, respectively. When BMP was added to a phospholipid mixture mimicking late endosome membrane composition at pH 8.0, the mean phospholipid molecular area increased by 7% regardless of the surface pressure. In contrast, the variation in molecular area was surface pressure-dependent at pH 5.5, a pH value close to that of intra-endosomal content. BMP and hemi-BDP, but not BDP, were hydrolyzed by pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (PLRP2), which exhibits phospholipase A(1) activity. At pH 5.5, the maximum activities of PLRP2 on BMP were recorded at high surface pressures (25-35mN/m). At pH 8.0, the PLRP2 activity vs. surface pressure showed a bell-shaped curve with maximum activities at 15mN/m for both BMP and hemi-BDP. This is a new activity for this enzyme which could degrade cellular BMP since both human PLRP2 (HPLRP2) and BMP were localized in human monocytic THP-1 cells. This is the first report on the cellular localization of HPLRP2 in human monocytes.
Tamoxifen is one of the major drugs used for the hormonotherapy of estrogen receptor positive breast cancers. However, its therapeutic efficacy can be limited by acquired resistance and tumor recurrence can occur after several years of treatment. Tamoxifen is known as the prototypical modulator of estrogen receptors, but other targets have been identified that could account for its pharmacology. In particular, tamoxifen binds with high affinity to the microsomal antiestrogen binding site (AEBS) and inhibits cholesterol esterification at therapeutic doses. We have recently shown that the AEBS was a hetero-oligomeric complex composed of 3?-hydroxysterol-?(8)-?(7)-isomerase and 3?-hydroxysterol-?(7)-reductase, that binds different structural classes of ligands, including selective estrogen receptor modulators, several sigma receptor ligands, poly-unsaturated fatty acids and ring B oxysterols. We established a link between the modulation of cholesterol metabolism by tamoxifen and other AEBS ligands and their capacity to induce breast cancer cell differentiation, apoptosis and autophagy. Moreover, we showed that the AEBS carries out cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase activity and established that cholesterol-5,6-epoxide hydrolase is a new target for tamoxifen and other AEBS ligands. Finally in this review, we report on recent data from the literature showing how the modulation of cholesterol and oxysterol metabolism can be linked to the antitumor and chemopreventive properties of tamoxifen, and give new perspectives to improve the clinical outcome of the hormonotherapy of breast cancers.
Cell secretion is a general process involved in various biological responses. Exosomes are part of this process and have gained considerable scientific interest in the past five years. Several steps through investigations across the last 20 years can explain this interest. First characterized during reticulocyte maturation, they were next evidenced as a key player in the immune response and cancer immunotherapy. More recently they were reported as vectors of mRNAs, miRNAs and also lipid mediators able to act on target cells. They are the only type of vesicles released from an intracellular compartment from cells in viable conditions. They appear as a vectorized signaling system operating from inside a donor cell towards either the periphery, the cytosol, or possibly to the nucleus of target cells. Exosomes from normal cells trigger positive effects, whereas those from pathological ones, such as tumor cells or infected ones may trigger non-positive health effects. Therefore regulating the biogenesis and secretion of exosomes appear as a pharmacological challenge to intervene in various pathophysiologies. Exosome biogenesis and molecular content, interaction with target cells, utilisation as biomarkers, and functional effects in various pathophysiologies are considered in this review.
Exosomes are bioactive vesicles released from multivesicular bodies (MVB) by intact cells and participate in intercellular signaling. We investigated the presence of lipid-related proteins and bioactive lipids in RBL-2H3 exosomes. Besides a phospholipid scramblase and a fatty acid binding protein, the exosomes contained the whole set of phospholipases (A2, C, and D) together with interacting proteins such as aldolase A and Hsp 70. They also contained the phospholipase D (PLD) / phosphatidate phosphatase 1 (PAP1) pathway leading to the formation of diglycerides. RBL-2H3 exosomes also carried members of the three phospholipase A2 classes: the calcium-dependent cPLA(2)-IVA, the calcium-independent iPLA(2)-VIA, and the secreted sPLA(2)-IIA and V. Remarkably, almost all members of the Ras GTPase superfamily were present, and incubation of exosomes with GTPgammaS triggered activation of phospholipase A(2) (PLA(2))and PLD(2). A large panel of free fatty acids, including arachidonic acid (AA) and derivatives such as prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) and 15-deoxy-Delta(12,14)-prostaglandinJ(2) (15-d PGJ(2)), were detected. We observed that the exosomes were internalized by resting and activated RBL cells and that they accumulated in an endosomal compartment. Endosomal concentrations were in the micromolar range for prostaglandins; i.e., concentrations able to trigger prostaglandin-dependent biological responses. Therefore exosomes are carriers of GTP-activatable phospholipases and lipid mediators from cell to cell.
Extracellular vesicles (EVs) are membraneous vesicles released by a variety of cells into their microenvironment. Recent studies have elucidated the role of EVs in intercellular communication, pathogenesis, drug, vaccine and gene-vector delivery, and as possible reservoirs of biomarkers. These findings have generated immense interest, along with an exponential increase in molecular data pertaining to EVs. Here, we describe Vesiclepedia, a manually curated compendium of molecular data (lipid, RNA, and protein) identified in different classes of EVs from more than 300 independent studies published over the past several years. Even though databases are indispensable resources for the scientific community, recent studies have shown that more than 50% of the databases are not regularly updated. In addition, more than 20% of the database links are inactive. To prevent such database and link decay, we have initiated a continuous community annotation project with the active involvement of EV researchers. The EV research community can set a gold standard in data sharing with Vesiclepedia, which could evolve as a primary resource for the field.
Methyl arachidonyl fluorophosphonate (MAFP) is a known inhibitor of cytosolic phospholipase A2 and some other serine enzymes. MAFP was found here to be an irreversible inhibitor of human pancreatic lipase-related protein 2 (HPLRP2), an enzyme displaying lipase, phospholipase A1 and galactolipase activities. In the presence of MAFP, mass spectrometry analysis of HPLRP2 revealed a mass increase of 351Da, suggesting a covalent binding of MAFP to the active site serine residue. When HPLRP2 was pre-incubated with MAFP before measuring residual activity, a direct inhibition of HPLRP2 occurred, confirming that HPLRP2 has an active site freely accessible to solvent and differs from most lipases in solution. HPLRP2 activities on tributyrin (TC4), phosphatidylcholine (PC) and monogalactosyl dioctanoylglycerol (C8-MGDG) were equally inhibited under these conditions. Bile salts were not required to trigger the inhibition, but they significantly increased the rate of HPLRP2 inhibition, probably because of MAFP micellar solubilization. Since HPLRP2 is active on various substrates that self-organize differently in the presence of water, HPLRP2 inhibition by MAFP was tested in the presence of these substrates after adding MAFP in the course of the lipolysis reaction. In this case, the rates of inhibition of lipase, phospholipase A1 and galactolipase activities were not equivalent (triglycerides>PC>MGDG), suggesting different enzyme/inhibitor partitioning between the aqueous phase and lipid aggregates. The inhibition by MAFP of a well identified phospholipase A1 (HPLRP2), present in pancreatic juice and also in human monocytes, indicates that MAFP cannot be used for discriminating phospholipase A2 from A1 activities at the cellular level.
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