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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Personal exposure to ultrafine particles: Two-level statistical modeling of background exposure and time-activity patterns during three seasons.
J Expo Sci Environ Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 04-24-2014
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Personal exposure to air pollution is associated with time- and location-specific factors including indoor and outdoor air pollution, meteorology and time activities. Our investigation aims at the description and identification of factors determining personal exposure to particle number concentration (PNC) in everyday situations. Ten volunteers recorded their personal exposure to PNC and kept an activity diary in three different seasons besides stationary measurements of ambient air pollution and meteorology. Background exposure to PNC was modelled using the most predictive variables. In a second step, the effects of the activities were calculated adjusted for the background exposure. The average personal PNC level was highest in winter and was three times higher than the mean stationary PNC level while staying indoors and two times higher while staying outdoors. Personal indoor PNC levels were significantly increased during the use of candles, cooking and the occurrence of smell of food. High stationary outdoor PNC levels and low dew point temperatures were associated with increased personal outdoor PNC levels. Times spent in public transport were associated with lower personal PNC levels than other times spent in transportation. Personal PNC levels in everyday situations exhibited a large variability because of seasonal, microenvironment-specific and activity-specific influences.Journal of Exposure Science and Environmental Epidemiology advance online publication, 19 November 2014; doi:10.1038/jes.2014.73.
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Individual daytime noise exposure during routine activities and heart rate variability in adults: a repeated measures study.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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Epidemiological studies have demonstrated associations between noise exposure and cardiovascular events. However, there have been few studies of possible underlying mechanisms.
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Immediate ozone effects on heart rate and repolarisation parameters in potentially susceptible individuals.
Occup Environ Med
PUBLISHED: 11-17-2011
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Elevated ozone levels have been associated with cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. We investigated the effects of ozone on heart rate (HR) and repolarisation parameters in potentially susceptible populations.
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Estimated personal soot exposure is associated with acute myocardial infarction onset in a case-crossover study.
Prog Cardiovasc Dis
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2011
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The current study investigates the association of estimated personal exposure to traffic-related air pollution and acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Cases of AMI were interviewed in the Augsburg KORA Myocardial Infarction Registry from February 1999 through December 2003, and 960 AMI survivors were included in the analyses. The time-varying component of daily personal soot exposure (the temporally variable contribution due to the daily area level of exposure and daily personal activities) was estimated using a linear combination of estimated mean ambient soot concentration, time spent outdoors, and time spent in traffic. The association of soot exposure with AMI onset was estimated in a case-crossover analysis controlling for temperature and day of the week using conditional logistic regression analyses. Estimated personal soot exposure was associated with AMI (relative risk, 1.30 per 1.1 m(-1) × 10(-5) [95% confidence interval, 1.09-1.55]). Estimated ambient soot and measured ambient PM(2.5) particulate matter 2.5 µm and smaller in aerodynamic diameter were not significantly associated with AMI onset. Our results suggest that an increase in risk of AMI in association with personal soot exposure may be in great part due to the contribution of personal soot from individual times spent in traffic and individual times spent outdoors. As a consequence, estimates calculated based on measurements at urban background stations may be underestimations. Health effects of traffic-related air pollution may need to be updated, taking into account individual time spent in traffic and outdoors, to adequately protect the public.
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The procoagulant effects of fine particulate matter in vivo.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2011
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Inhalation of fine particulate matter (<2.5 ?m; fine PM) has been shown to increase the risk for cardiovascular events. In this letter, we reappraise the role of tissue factor (TF) antigen and we also summarize changes in measured coagulation proteins in humans and rodents by other studies with fine PM. By considering all studies including ours, we conclude that monitoring the overall coagulation state by measuring capacity assays such as thrombin generation, and quantification of TF activity would be more suitable than determining single coagulation proteins (such as TF antigen) in order to better assess the systemic prothrombotic effects of fine PM.
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Cardiovascular and inflammatory effects of intratracheally instilled ambient dust from Augsburg, Germany, in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs).
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2010
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Several epidemiological studies associated exposure to increased levels of particulate matter in Augsburg, Germany with cardiovascular mortality and morbidity. To elucidate the mechanisms of cardiovascular impairments we investigated the cardiopulmonary responses in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), a model for human cardiovascular diseases, following intratracheal instillation of dust samples from Augsburg.
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Changes in deceleration capacity of heart rate and heart rate variability induced by ambient air pollution in individuals with coronary artery disease.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2010
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Exposure to ambient particles has been shown to be responsible for cardiovascular effects, especially in elderly with cardiovascular disease. The study assessed the association between deceleration capacity (DC) as well as heart rate variability (HRV) and ambient particulate matter (PM) in patients with coronary artery disease (CAD).
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The influence of improved air quality on mortality risks in Erfurt, Germany.
Res Rep Health Eff Inst
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2009
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Around the world, daily variations in ambient air pollution have been consistently associated with variations in daily mortality. The aim of the study presented here was to assess the effects of ambient air pollution on daily mortality during a period of tremendous changes in air quality in the city of Erfurt, in eastern Germany, from October 1991 to March 2002. Data on particle size distributions were obtained from September 1995 to March 2002 at a research monitoring station. For particles from 0.01 microm to 2.5 microm in diameter, number concentrations (NCs)* and mass concentrations (MCs) were calculated. Particles with diameters less than or equal to 0.10 microm are defined as ultrafine particles (UFP). Data on the gaseous pollutants NO2, CO, SO2, and O3 and on PM10 (particulate matter [PM] with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 10 microm) were obtained from a government air-monitoring station. Data on changes in energy consumption, car fleet composition, and population were collected from local authorities. Death certificates of persons living in and dying in Erfurt were abstracted, and daily mortality counts were calculated. Poisson regression models were used to analyze the data, applying penalized splines (also known as P-splines) to model nonlinear relationships in the confounders. Model selection was done without air pollutants in the models, based on a combination of goodness-of-fit criteria and avoidance of autocorrelation in error terms. Final models included P-splines of time trend, meteorologic data, and influenza epidemics as well as day of the week with an indicator variable. Results are presented as change per interquartile range (IQR), i.e., change in the relative risk of mortality associated with a change in the concentration from the 25th to the 75th percentile of a given pollutant. Air pollutants were considered both as linear terms and as P-splines to assess the exposure-response functions. Changes in effect estimates over time were calculated using fully Bayesian time-varying coefficient models. This method was selected over four other approaches tested in simulation studies. Air-pollution concentrations decreased substantially in Erfurt during the decade under observation. The strongest changes were observed for SO2, for which annual concentrations decreased from 64 microg/m3 in 1992 to 4 microg/m3 in 2001. Concentrations of PM10, PM2.5 (particulate matter with aerodynamic diameter less than or equal to 2.5 microm), and CO decreased by more than 50%. NO2, O3, and ultrafine particles also decreased, though to a lesser extent. Based on visual inspection of the data on the changes in ambient air-pollution concentrations during the study period, we defined three study subperiods: A first subperiod from 1991 to 1995; a second, transitional subperiod from 1995 to 1998; and a third subperiod from 1998 to 2002. Generally, air-pollution concentrations decreased substantially from the first subperiod to the second, and some additional decreases occurred from the second subperiod to the third. During the second, transitional subperiod, natural gas replaced coal as the main energy source in Erfurt. In addition, the number of cars with catalytic converters increased over time, as did the number of cars in general. To facilitate the interpretation of the results, we organized the air pollutants into four groups: (1) NO2, CO, and ultrafine particles, (2) PM10 and PM2.5, (3) SO2, and (4) O3. We observed a 1.6% increased risk for daily mortality (CI, -0.4% to 3.5%) for an increase of 19.7 microg/m3 in NO2 (lag day 3), a 1.9% increased risk (CI, 0.2%-3.6%) for an increase of 0.48 mg/m3 in CO (lag day 4), and a 2.9% increased risk (CI, 0.3%-5.5%) for an increase of 9743/cm3 in ultrafine particles (lag day 4). No consistent associations were observed for PM10, PM2.5, or SO2. For O3, a 4.6% increased risk for daily mortality (CI, 1.1%-8.3%) was associated with a 43.8 microg/m3 maximum 8-hr concentration of O3 per day (lag day 2). For all four pollutants, exposure-response functions suggested no deviation from linearity. However, in time-varying models the strongest associations were observed for NO2, CO, and ultrafine particles during the transition subperiod, from 1995 to 1998, when O3 concentrations were lowest. Changes in source characteristics or ambient air-pollution concentrations were not able to explain these observations in a straightforward manner. However, the observations suggested that changes such as the introduction of three-way catalytic converters in cars and the substitution natural gas for coal might have been beneficial. Overall we concluded that: 1. Economic and political changes and the adoption of new technologies in eastern Germany resulted in distinct improvements in ambient air quality; 2. Urban air pollution in Erfurt changed within one decade from the eastern mixture toward that of western Europe ("western mixture"), which is dominated by concentrations of NOx, O3, fine particles, and ultrafine particles with low concentrations of SO2; 3. There was an association between daily mortality and ultrafine particles and combustion-related gases (lag days 3 or 4); 4. Ultrafine particles seemed to be the best pollution indicator and to point to the role of local combustion in the pollution mixture; 5. Regression coefficients showed variation over time for NO2, CO, ultrafine particles, and O3 that could not be explained by nonlinearity in the exposure-response functions; 6. Mortality associated with pollution was lower at the end of the 1990s than during the 1990s, except for mortality associated with O3; and 7. Mortality associated with pollution was strongest in the second, transitional subperiod, from 1995 to 1998, when changes in source characteristics had taken place but the benefits of improved ambient air quality had not yet been completely achieved.
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Short-term effects of air pollution: a panel study of blood markers in patients with chronic pulmonary disease.
Part Fibre Toxicol
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2009
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Growing evidence indicates that ambient air pollution is associated with exacerbation of chronic diseases like chronic pulmonary disease. A prospective panel study was conducted to investigate short-term changes of blood markers of inflammation and coagulation in response to daily changes in air pollution in Erfurt, Germany. 12 clinical visits were scheduled and blood parameters were measured in 38 male patients with chronic pulmonary disease during winter 2001/2002. Additive mixed models with random patient intercept were applied, adjusting for trend, weekday, and meteorological parameters. Hourly data on ultrafine particles (UFP, 0.01-0.1 mum), accumulation mode particles (ACP, 0.1-1.0 mum), PM10 (particulate matter <10 mum in diameter), elemental (EC) and organic carbon (OC), gaseous pollutants (nitrogen monoxide [NO], nitrogen dioxide [NO2], carbon monoxide [CO], and sulphur dioxide [SO2]) were collected at a central monitoring site and meteorological data were received from an official network. For each person and visit the individual 24-hour average of pollutants immediately preceding the blood withdrawal (lag 0) up to day 5 (lag1-4) and 5-day running means were calculated.
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Short-term mortality rates during a decade of improved air quality in Erfurt, Germany.
Environ. Health Perspect.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2009
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Numerous studies have shown associations between ambient air pollution and daily mortality.
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Selection of key ambient particulate variables for epidemiological studies - applying cluster and heatmap analyses as tools for data reduction.
Sci. Total Environ.
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The success of epidemiological studies depends on the use of appropriate exposure variables. The purpose of this study is to extract a relatively small selection of variables characterizing ambient particulate matter from a large measurement data set. The original data set comprised a total of 96 particulate matter variables that have been continuously measured since 2004 at an urban background aerosol monitoring site in the city of Augsburg, Germany. Many of the original variables were derived from measured particle size distribution (PSD) across the particle diameter range 3 nm to 10 ?m, including size-segregated particle number concentration, particle length concentration, particle surface concentration and particle mass concentration. The data set was complemented by integral aerosol variables. These variables were measured by independent instruments, including black carbon, sulfate, particle active surface concentration and particle length concentration. It is obvious that such a large number of measured variables cannot be used in health effect analyses simultaneously. The aim of this study is a pre-screening and a selection of the key variables that will be used as input in forthcoming epidemiological studies. In this study, we present two methods of parameter selection and apply them to data from a two-year period from 2007 to 2008. We used the agglomerative hierarchical cluster method to find groups of similar variables. In total, we selected 15 key variables from 9 clusters which are recommended for epidemiological analyses. We also applied a two-dimensional visualization technique called "heatmap" analysis to the Spearman correlation matrix. 12 key variables were selected using this method. Moreover, the positive matrix factorization (PMF) method was applied to the PSD data to characterize the possible particle sources. Correlations between the variables and PMF factors were used to interpret the meaning of the cluster and the heatmap analyses.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.