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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
The effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit in spoken word production.
Mem Cognit
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Two experiments using the form-preparation paradigm were conducted to investigate the effect of orthographic form-cuing on the phonological preparation unit during spoken word production with native Mandarin speakers. In both experiments, participants were instructed to memorize nine prompt-response monosyllabic word pairs, after which an associative naming session was conducted in which the prompts were presented and participants were asked to say the corresponding response names as quickly and accurately as possible. In both experiments, the response words in the homogeneous lists shared the same onsets, or shared the same rimes; the response names had no common aspects of pronunciation in the heterogeneous lists. Chinese characters (Experiment 1) and Pinyin (phonetic transcription of the characters) (Experiment 2) were used to investigate the effect of the orthographic form. Significant onset facilitation and rime inhibition was shown for Pinyin syllables but not for characters. The contrasts of the onset and rime effect in the two orthographic forms suggest that a specific phonological unit is promoted in spoken word production in a certain orthographic form. Pinyin cued the participants to prepare the onset whereas Chinese characters did not. The rime interference effect may arise as a result of lexical competition in spoken word production.
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The Genome of the Myxosporean Thelohanellus kitauei Shows Adaptations to Nutrient Acquisition within its Fish Host.
Genome Biol Evol
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2014
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Members of Myxozoa, a parasitic metazoan taxon, have considerable detrimental effects on fish hosts and also have been associated with human food-borne illness. Little is known about their biology and metabolism. Analysis of the genome of Thelohanellus kitauei and comparative analysis with genomes of its two free-living cnidarian relatives revealed that T. kitauei has adapted to parasitism, as indicated by the streamlined metabolic repertoire and the tendency towards anabolism rather than catabolism. T. kitauei mainly secretes proteases and protease inhibitors for nutrient digestion (parasite invasion), and depends on endocytosis (mainly low-density lipoprotein receptors-mediated type) and secondary carriers for nutrient absorption. Absence of both classic and complementary anaerobic pathways and gluconeogenesis, the lack of de novo synthesis and reduced activity in hydrolysis of fatty acids, amino acids, and nucleotides indicated that T. kitauei in this vertebrate host-parasite system has adapted to inhabit a physiological environment extremely rich in both oxygen and nutrients (especially glucose), which is consistent with its preferred parasitic site, i.e., the host gut submucosa. Taking advantage of the genomic and transcriptomic information, twenty-three potential nutrition-related T. kitauei-specific chemotherapeutic targets were identified. This first genome sequence of a myxozoan will facilitate development of potential therapeutics for efficient control of myxozoan parasites and ultimately prevent myxozoan-induced fish-borne illnesses in humans.
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Monoclonal antibodies against g protein of spring viremia of carp virus.
Monoclon Antib Immunodiagn Immunother
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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Part of the G protein (3094-4170?bp) of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) was expressed in Escherichia coli and purified by dialysis in our study. Two clones of monoclonal antibodies (MAbs 1H11 and 4B8) against G protein were generated by fusion of mouse myeloma cell line SP2/0 and spleen lymphocytes from part of G protein (3094-4170?bp) immunized mice. The results of ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay), IFA (indirect immunofluorescent assay), and Western blot assay further demonstrated the characterizations of the two MAbs. Both 1H11 and 4B8 were specific to SVCV G protein. Ten pairs of synthesized overlapping peptides were used to identify the epitope of the MAbs. The MAbs are useful in the development of SVCV diagnostic methods.
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[Risk factors and intervention strategies for the elementary and middle school students with allergic rhinitis in Changsha].
Zhong Nan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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To analyze the risk factors for allergic rhinitis and provide the scientific basis for disease control and intervention through investigation of the elementary and middle school students with allergic rhinitis in Changsha.
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Stereoselective synthesis of ?-lactones or spiro-heterocycles through NHC-catalyzed annulation: divergent reactivity by catalyst control.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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NHC-catalyzed divergent annulation of enals with heterocyclic enones was developed to produce benzofuran/indole-containing ?-lactones or spiro-heterocycles in a highly diastereo- and enantioselective fashion. The chemo-selectivity controlled by the chiral catalyst backbone is particularly noteworthy.
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Comparison of multifocal visual evoked potential, static automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography findings for assessing visual pathways in patients with pituitary adenomas.
Pituitary
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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There have been no studies investigating the correlation between structural [thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT)] and functional [Humphrey visual field (HVF) or visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude] measures of optic nerve integrity in patients with pituitary adenomas (PA).
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Electrochemical determination of Sudan I in food products using a carbon nanotube-ionic liquid composite modified electrode.
Food Addit Contam Part A Chem Anal Control Expo Risk Assess
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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A sensitive and convenient electrochemical method was developed for the determination of Sudan I using a carbon nanotube-ionic liquid composite modified electrode with the enhancement effect of cetyltrimethyl ammonium bromide (CTAB). The modified electrode exhibited an obvious electrocatalytic activity towards the oxidation of Sudan I, and the oxidation peak current significantly increased in the presence of CTAB. The experimental parameters, such as solution pH, concentration of CTAB and accumulation time, were optimised for Sudan I determination. The oxidation peak current showed a linear relationship with the concentration of Sudan I in the range of 3.0 × 10(-8) to 3.1 × 10(-6) mol l(-1), with a detection limit of 8.0 × 10(-9) mol l(-1). The proposed method was successfully applied for the determination of Sudan I in food products of ketchup and chilli sauce.
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Spring Viremia of Carp Virus Induces Autophagy for Necessary Viral Replication.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
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Outbreaks of spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) in several carp species and other cultivated fish can cause significant mortality and jeopardize the billion-dollar worldwide fish industry. SVCV, also known as Rhabdovirus carpio, is a bullet-shaped RNA virus that enters and amplifies in gill epithelium and later spreads to internal organs. Young fish under stressed conditions (spring cold water, etc.) are more vulnerable to SVCV-induced lethality due to their lack of a mature immune system. Currently, the host response of SVCV remains largely unknown. Here, we observed that autophagy is activated in SVCV-infected epithelioma papulosum cyprinid (EPC) cells. We demonstrated that the SVCV glycoprotein, rather than viral replication, activates the autophagy pathway. In addition, SVCV utilized the autophagy pathway to facilitate its own genomic RNA replication and to enhance its titers in the supernatants. Autophagy promoted the survival of SVCV-infected cells by eliminating damaged mitochondrial DNA generated during viral infection. We further showed that SVCV induces autophagy in EPC cells through the ERK/mTOR signaling pathway. Our results reveal a connection between autophagy and SVCV replication and propose autophagy suppression as a novel means to restrict SVCV viral replication.
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Sulfur-Graphene Nanostructured Cathodes via Ball-Milling for High-Performance Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Although much progress has been made to develop high-performance lithium-sulfur batteries (LSBs), the reported physical or chemical routes to sulfur cathode materials are often multistep/complex and even involve environmentally hazardous reagents, and hence are infeasible for mass production. Here, we report a simple ball-milling technique to combine both the physical and chemical routes into a one-step process for low-cost, scalable, and eco-friendly production of graphene nanoplatelets (GnPs) edge-functionalized with sulfur (S-GnPs) as highly efficient LSB cathode materials of practical significance. LSBs based on the S-GnP cathode materials, produced by ball-milling 70 wt % sulfur and 30 wt % graphite, delivered a high initial reversible capacity of 1265.3 mAh g(-1) at 0.1 C in the voltage range of 1.5-3.0 V with an excellent rate capability, followed by a high reversible capacity of 966.1 mAh g(-1) at 2 C with a low capacity decay rate of 0.099% per cycle over 500 cycles, outperformed the current state-of-the-art cathode materials for LSBs. The observed excellent electrochemical performance can be attributed to a 3D "sandwich-like" structure of S-GnPs with an enhanced ionic conductivity and lithium insertion/extraction capacity during the discharge-charge process. Furthermore, a low-cost porous carbon paper pyrolyzed from common filter paper was inserted between the 0.7S-0.3GnP electrode and porous polypropylene film separator to reduce/eliminate the dissolution of physically adsorbed polysulfide into the electrolyte and subsequent cross-deposition on the anode, leading to further improved capacity and cycling stability.
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Trans-ancestry mutational landscape of hepatocellular carcinoma genomes.
Nat. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Diverse epidemiological factors are associated with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) prevalence in different populations. However, the global landscape of the genetic changes in HCC genomes underpinning different epidemiological and ancestral backgrounds still remains uncharted. Here a collection of data from 503 liver cancer genomes from different populations uncovered 30 candidate driver genes and 11 core pathway modules. Furthermore, a collaboration of two large-scale cancer genome projects comparatively analyzed the trans-ancestry substitution signatures in 608 liver cancer cases and identified unique mutational signatures that predominantly contribute to Asian cases. This work elucidates previously unexplored ancestry-associated mutational processes in HCC development. A combination of hotspot TERT promoter mutation, TERT focal amplification and viral genome integration occurs in more than 68% of cases, implicating TERT as a central and ancestry-independent node of hepatocarcinogenesis. Newly identified alterations in genes encoding metabolic enzymes, chromatin remodelers and a high proportion of mTOR pathway activations offer potential therapeutic and diagnostic opportunities.
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Clear cell melanoma: a cutaneous clear cell malignancy.
Arch. Pathol. Lab. Med.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2014
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Clear cell melanoma is a rare clear cell malignancy. Accurate diagnosis of clear cell melanoma requires integration of immunohistochemical and morphologic findings, with molecular studies to rule out clear cell sarcoma. The differential diagnosis includes melanoma, carcinoma, perivascular epithelioid cell tumor, and epidermotropic clear cell sarcoma. We use a case of a lesion on the helix of an 86-year-old man as an example. Histologic examination revealed an ulcerated clear cell malignant tumor. Tumor cell cytoplasm contained periodic acid-Schiff-positive, diastase-sensitive glycogen. Tumor cells showed positive labeling for S100, HMB-45, and Melan-A, and negative labeling for cytokeratins, p63, and smooth muscle actin. Molecular studies demonstrated BRAF V600E mutation, copy gains at the 6p25 (RREB1) and 11q13 (CCND1) loci, and absence of EWSR1-ATF1 fusion. These findings supported a diagnosis of clear cell melanoma. The rare pure clear cell morphology occurs due to accumulation of intracytoplasmic glycogen. We review the differential diagnosis of clear cell melanoma and describe the utility of immunohistochemical and molecular studies in confirming this diagnosis.
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[Substitution saturation analysis of mitochondrial cytochrome C oxidase subunit 1 (COX1) gene of Angiostrongylus cantonensis].
Zhongguo Ji Sheng Chong Xue Yu Ji Sheng Chong Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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To determine the substitution saturation of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit I (COX1) gene of Angiostrongylus cantonensis.
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[The diagnosis and treatment progress of invasive fungal sinusitis].
Lin Chung Er Bi Yan Hou Tou Jing Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2014
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The incidence of invasive fungal sinusitis is low, on the rising in recent years. But the misdiagnosis rate of the disease is high. In order to improve the level of early diagnosis and reduce the misdiagnosis, in this pa per, the invasive fungal sinusitis's clinical characteristics, diagnosis, treatment and prognosis are reviewed.
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A new species of the genus Toxoides Hampson, 1893 (Lepidoptera: Thyatiridae) from China.
Zootaxa
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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A new species of the genus Toxoides, T. sichuanensis sp. n. is described based on specimens collected in Sichuan, China. Illustrations of male adult and male genitalia are provided, together with a distribution map of the genus Toxoides.
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On the absence of sternal elements in Anchiornis (Paraves) and Sapeornis (Aves) and the complex early evolution of the avian sternum.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 09-08-2014
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Anchiornis (Deinonychosauria: Troodontidae), the earliest known feathered dinosaur, and Sapeornis (Aves: Pygostylia), one of the basalmost Cretaceous birds, are both known from hundreds of specimens, although remarkably not one specimen preserves any sternal ossifications. We use histological analysis to confirm the absence of this element in adult specimens. Furthermore, the excellent preservation of soft-tissue structures in some specimens suggests that no chondrified sternum was present. Archaeopteryx, the oldest and most basal known bird, is known from only 10 specimens and the presence of a sternum is controversial; a chondrified sternum is widely considered to have been present. However, data from Anchiornis and Sapeornis suggest that a sternum may also have been completely absent in this important taxon, suggesting that the absence of a sternum could represent the plesiomorphic avian condition. Our discovery reveals an unexpected level of complexity in the early evolution of the avian sternum; the large amount of observable homoplasy is probably a direct result of the high degree of inherent developmental plasticity of the sternum compared with observations in other skeletal elements.
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Quantitative trait loci mapping and genetic dissection for lint percentage in upland cotton (Gossypium hirsutum).
J. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Lint percentage is an important character of cotton yield components and it is also correlated with cotton fibre development. In this study, we used a high lint percentage variety, Baimian1, and a low lint percentage, TM-1 genetic standard for Gossypium hirsutum, as parents to construct a mapping populations in upland cotton (G. hirsutum). A quantitative trait locus/loci (QTL) analysis of lint percentage was performed by using two mapping procedures; composite interval mapping (CIM), inclusive composite interval mapping (ICIM) and the F2:3 populations in 2 years. Six main-effect QTL (M-QTL) for lint percentage (four significant and two suggestive) were detected in both years by CIM, and were located on chr. 3, chr. 19, chr. 26 and chr. 5/chr. 19. Of the six QTL, marker intervals and favourable gene sources of the significant M-QTL, qLP-3(2010) and qLP-3(2011) were consistent. These QTL were also detected by ICIM, and therefore, should preferentially be used for markerassisted selection (MAS) of lint percentage. Another M-QTL, qLP-19(2010), was detected by two mapping procedures, and it could also be a candidate for MAS. We detected the interaction between two M-QTL and environment, and 11 epistatic QTL (E-QTL) and their interaction with environment by using ICIM. The study also found two EST-SSRs, NAU1187 and NAU1255, linked to M-QTL for lint percentage that could be candidate markers affecting cotton fibre development.
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Cube-in-Cube Hollow Cu9 S5 Nanostructures with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities in Solar H2 Evolution.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Invited for the cover of this issue is the group of Xuefeng Qian at Shanghai Jiao Tong University. The image depicts hydrogen being produced from water by solar energy. Read the full text of the article at 10.1002/chem.201403683.
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Cytokine-induced killer cells in the treatment of patients with renal cell carcinoma: a pooled meta-analysis.
Immunotherapy
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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Cytokine-induced killer cells (CIKs) have been applied in multifarious cancer. Here, we address the connection between immune therapy and clinical responses by a systematic meta-analysis. A total of 385 patients (including 183 controls) were identified for renal cell cancer (RCC) in the seven selected trials. The estimated pooled complete response and partial response showed a significant improvement for patients receiving CIK immunotherapy compared with non-CIK therapy (p < 0.0001), which was up to 62% of clinical response. The overall analysis showed a significant survival benefit (1-year overall survival [OS]: p = 0.0002; 3-year OS: p < 0.0001) in favor of CIK-based therapy in RCC, thus a statistically significant effect of OS and clinical response was demonstrated in RCC patients.
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Cube-in-Cube Hollow Cu9 S5 Nanostructures with Enhanced Photocatalytic Activities in Solar H2 Evolution.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Hydrogen produced from water under solar energy is an ideal clean energy source, and the efficiency of hydrogen production usually depends on the catalytic systems based on new compounds and/or a unique nanostructure. Herein, well-defined cube-in-cube hollow Cu9 S5 nanostructures have been successfully prepared with Cu2 O nanocubes and CS2 as precursors, and single-shell hollow Cu9 S5 nanocubes could be obtained by replacing CS2 with Na2 S. The formation mechanism of cube-in-cube hollow nanostructures has been proposed based on the Kirkendell effect and an outward self-assembly process. Further studies revealed that the cube-in-cube hollow Cu9 S5 nanostructures exhibited better photocatalytic activity toward solar H2 evolution and would be a promising photocatalyst in the solar hydrogen industry.
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Expression of the ELAV-like protein HuR in the cytoplasm is associated with endometrial carcinoma progression.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Human antigen R (HuR) is an mRNA-binding factor that belongs to the embryonic lethal abnormal vision/Hu protein family which may function as a tumor maintenance gene in a variety of carcinomas. However, there is no study to analyze HuR expression in endometrial carcinoma. Here, we investigated the expression of HuR in endometrial carcinoma carcinogenesis and subsequent progression. The expression of HuR and estrogen receptor alpha (ER-?) protein was examined by immunohistochemistry on paraffin embedding specimens containing endometrial carcinoma and adjacent non-cancerous tissues. Short hairpin RNA against HuR was transfected to investigate the role of HuR in regulating the expression of ER-? and progression in endometrial carcinoma. Cell viability and cycle were measured using 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) and flow cytometry, respectively. Apoptosis was examined by annexin V apoptosis assay. Our study result show that cytoplasmic HuR expression is more frequent in poorly differentiated carcinomas (p?=?0.005), advanced stage (p?=?0.020), and positive ER-? expression (p?=?0.026). Three HuR short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) were transfected into Ishikawa cells, and we selected the most effective shRNA for the following experiments. After the transfection, the ER-? protein level was decreased. Further, decreased expression of HuR resulted in the inhibition of proliferation and induced apoptosis in Ishikawa cells. Our results showed that HuR could be a causal factor of ER-? regulation in Ishikawa cells and thus may induce the hormone-dependent endometrial carcinoma.
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Fecal microbiota transplantation through mid-gut for refractory Crohn's disease: Safety, feasibility and efficacy trial results.
J. Gastroenterol. Hepatol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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The gut microbiota plays a pivotal role in the intestinal diseases. Fecal microbiota transplantation (FMT) might be a rescue therapy for refractory inflammatory bowel disease. This study aimed to evaluate the safety, feasibility and efficacy of FMT through mid-gut for refractory Crohn's disease (CD).
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Genome-wide identification and analysis of mitogen activated protein kinase kinase kinase gene family in grapevine (Vitis vinifera).
BMC Plant Biol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Mitogen-activated protein kinase kinase kinases (MAPKKKs; MAP3Ks) are important components of MAPK cascades, which are highly conserved signal transduction pathways in animals, yeast and plants, play important roles in plant growth and development. MAPKKKs have been investigated on their evolution and expression patterns in limited plants including Arabidopsis, rice and maize.
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The Effects of High Glucose Levels on Reactive Oxygen Species-Induced Apoptosis and Involved Signaling in Human Vascular Endothelial Cells.
Cardiovasc. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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This study investigated the effects of high glucose levels on human vascular endothelial cells and the expression of apoptosis-associated signaling molecules. Cell proliferation of human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) was analyzed by colorimetric assay and cell number counting. Apoptosis was measured by Annexin V/FITC staining and flow cytometry. Gene knockdown was established by transfection of synthesized small interfering RNA. Caspase-3 activation was inhibited by a caspase-3 inhibitor. Protein expression of signaling molecules was measured by Western blot. Glucose significantly decreased HUVEC viability, induced cell apoptosis, and elevated levels of intracellular reactive oxygen species in a concentration and time-dependent manner. Glucose significantly upregulated the Nox4 isoform of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase and phosphatase and tensin homolog (PTEN) protein expression, increased PTEN phosphorylation, and activated caspase-3 in a concentration-dependent manner. Silencing Nox4 and PTEN gene expression and inhibiting caspase-3 activation significantly protected HUVECs from glucose-induced cell apoptosis. Silencing Nox4 significantly normalized the levels of reactive oxygen species in glucose-treated cells; 20 mM glucose obviously upregulated Nox4, PTEN, phosphor-PTEN, and Bax levels, but significantly reduced integrin-linked kinase (ILK) activity, Bcl-2 (B cell lymphoma 2) expression, and protein kinase B (Akt) phosphorylation at serine 473. High glucose levels can reduce cell viability and induce apoptosis in HUVECs through Nox4-produced reactive oxygen species. Elevated levels of reactive oxygen species decreased Bcl-2 expression and increased PTEN expression and phosphorylation, which lead to the subsequent inhibition of ILK-Akt signaling, elevation of Bax expression, and activation of caspase-3.
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Blocking autocrine VEGF signaling by sunitinib, an anti-cancer drug, promotes embryonic stem cell self-renewal and somatic cell reprogramming.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
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Maintaining the self-renewal of embryonic stem cells (ESCs) could be achieved by activating the extrinsic signaling, i.e., the use of leukemia inhibitory factor (LIF), or blocking the intrinsic differentiation pathways, i.e., the use of GSK3 and MEK inhibitors (2i). Here we found that even in medium supplemented with LIF, mESCs still tend to differentiate toward meso-endoderm lineages after long-term culture and the culture spontaneously secretes vascular endothelial growth factors (VEGFs). Blocking VEGF signaling with sunitinib, an anti-cancer drug and a receptor tyrosine kinase (RTK) inhibitor mainly targeting VEGF receptors (VEGFRs), is capable of maintaining the mESCs in the undifferentiated state without the need for feeder cells or LIF. Sunitinib facilitates the derivation of mESCs from blastocysts, and the mESCs maintained in sunitinib-containing medium remain pluripotent and are able to contribute to chimeric mice. Sunitinib also promotes iPSC generation from MEFs with only Oct4. Knocking down VEGFR2 or blocking it with neutralizing antibody mimicks the effect of sunitinib, indicating that blocking VEGF/VEGFR signaling is indeed beneficial to the self-renewal of mESCs. We also found that hypoxia-inducible factor alpha (HIF1?) and endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress are involved in the production of VEGF in mESCs. Blocking both pathways inhibits the expression of VEGF and prevents spontaneous differentiation of mESCs. Interestingly, LIF may also exert its effect by downregulating HIF1? and ER stress pathways and subsequent VEGF expression. These results indicate the existence of an intrinsic differentiation pathway in mESCs by activating the autocrine VEGF signaling. Blocking VEGF signaling with sunitinib or other small molecules help to maintain the mESCs in the ground state of pluripotency.
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The somatic genomic landscape of chromophobe renal cell carcinoma.
Cancer Cell
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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We describe the landscape of somatic genomic alterations of 66 chromophobe renal cell carcinomas (ChRCCs) on the basis of multidimensional and comprehensive characterization, including mtDNA and whole-genome sequencing. The result is consistent that ChRCC originates from the distal nephron compared with other kidney cancers with more proximal origins. Combined mtDNA and gene expression analysis implicates changes in mitochondrial function as a component of the disease biology, while suggesting alternative roles for mtDNA mutations in cancers relying on oxidative phosphorylation. Genomic rearrangements lead to recurrent structural breakpoints within TERT promoter region, which correlates with highly elevated TERT expression and manifestation of kataegis, representing a mechanism of TERT upregulation in cancer distinct from previously observed amplifications and point mutations.
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Distally Based Saphenous Nerve-Greater Saphenous Venofasciocutaneous Flap for Reconstruction of Soft Tissue Defects in Distal Lower Leg.
Ann Plast Surg
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To this day, the reconstruction of soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg is still a challenge for reconstructive surgeons. At present, free flap, musculocutaneous flap, anterior and posterior tibial artery flap, cross-leg flap, and distally based neurocutaneous flap are the main surgical alternatives. However, these methods are not always satisfactory. This article describes our experience with the distally based saphenous nerve-greater saphenous venofasciocutaneous flap method to reconstruct soft tissue defects in the distal lower leg.
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[Clinical analysis of syndrome-relative biological indices in acute lacuna encephalon infarction patients of upper hyperactivity of Gan Yang syndrome].
Zhongguo Zhong Xi Yi Jie He Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2014
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To analyze and summarize changes of syndrome-related biological indices in acute lacuna encephalon infarction patients of upper hyperactivity of Gan yang syndrome (UHGYS), thus providing objective evidence for syndrome typing and disease identification.
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Facile immobilization of ag nanocluster on nanofibrous membrane for oil/water separation.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2014
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Superhydrophobic and superoleophilic electrospun nanofibrous membranes exhibiting excellent oil/water separation performance were green fabricated by a facile route combining the amination of electrospun polyacrylonitrile (APAN) nanofibers and immobilization of a Ag nanocluster with an electroless plating technique, followed by n-hexadecyl mercaptan (RSH) surface modification. By introducing the hierarchically rough structures and low surface energy, the pristine superhydrophilic APAN nanofibrous membranes could be endowed with a superhydrophobicity with water contact angle of 171.1 ± 2.3°, a superoleophilicity with oil contact angle of 0° and a self-cleaning surface arising from the extremely low water contact angle hysteresis (3.0 ± 0.6°) and a low water-adhesion property. Surface morphology studies have indicated that the selective wettability of the resultant membranes could be manipulated by tuning the electroless plating time as well as the hierarchical structures. More importantly, the extremely high liquid entry pressure of water (LEPw, 175 ± 3 kPa) and the robust fiber morphology of the APAN immobilized Ag nanocluster endowed the as-prepared membranes with excellent separation capability and stability for oil/water separation by a solely gravity-driven process. The resultant membranes exhibited remarkable separation efficiency in both hyper-saline environment and broad pH range conditions, as well as excellent recyclability, which would make them a promising candidate for industrial oil-contaminated water treatments and marine spilt oil cleanup, and provided a new prospect to achieve functional nanofibrous membranes for oil/water separation.
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Sodium ferulate lowers portal pressure in rats with secondary biliary cirrhosis through the RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway: a preliminary study.
Int. J. Mol. Med.
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Cirrhotic rats show higher expression levels of hepatic RhoA and Rho-kinase than normal healthy rats, and the activation of this signaling pathway leads to portal hypertension. Sodium ferulate (SF) has been shown to decrease the production of geranylgeranyl pyrophosphate (GGPP), a substance essential for RhoA activation. In the present study, to investigate the effects of SF on fibrosis, portal hypertension and the RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway, hepatic cirrhosis was induced in rats by bile duct ligation. Liver function and fibrogenesis-related biochemical parameters, the hepatic hydroxyproline content, the pathological characteristics of the liver sections and the levels of hepatic ?-smooth muscle actin (?-SMA; by immunohistochemistry) were analyzed to assess effects of SF on hepatic fibrosis. In addition, hepatic RhoA, Rho-kinase and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was examined by immunohistochemistry. Apoptosis in the SF-treated and SF + GGPP-treated rat primary hepatic stellate cells (HSCs) and a human stellate cell line (LX-2) was examined by flow cytometry. Intrahepatic resistance and responsiveness to the ?1-adrenoceptor agonist, methoxamine, were investigated by in situ liver perfusion. Treatment with SF did not affect fibrosis-related biochemical parameters or the hydroxyproline content; however, SF reduced the histological evidence of fibrosis and hepatocyte damage. The SF-treated rats had a significantly lower expression of ?-SMA and Rho-kinase, as well as an increased hepatic eNOS content; however, SF did not affect RhoA expression. The SF-treated HSCs had a significantly increased apoptotic rate compared to the untreated rats. Following the addition of GGPP, the rate apoptotic rate decreased. SF reduced basal intrahepatic resistance and the responsiveness of hepatic vascular smooth muscle to methoxamine. Therefore, our data demonstrate that SF reduces fibrogenesis, decreases portal pressure in cirrhotic rats and inhibits the activation of the RhoA/Rho-kinase signaling pathway.
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[Silence potentiates chemosensitivity of K562 cells to SAHA].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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Ribosomal protein S27a (RPS27a) can perform extra-ribosomal functions besides imparting a role in ribosome biogenesis and post-translational modifications of proteins. The RPS27a gene has been reported to be over-expressed in breast fibroadenomas, colorectal and renal cancers, advanced-phase chronic myeloid leukemia (CML) and acute leukemia (AL) patients. This study was purposed to explore the function of RPS27a in CML-erythroleukemia cell line K562 cells. RPS27a was silenced by short hairpin RNA (shRNA) in K562 cells. Furthermore, the proliferation changes of K562 cells was detected by MTT method after sliencing the RPS27a with suberoylanilide hydroxamic acid (SAHA), then the IC50 of K562-sh1/sh2 and K562-scr cells to SAHA was measured. The results indicated that compared with K562-scr cells, the IC50 of K562-sh1/sh2 to SAHA at 24 h and 48 h decreased (P < 0.01); RPS27a slience significantly increased the percentage of apoptotic K562-sh1/sh2 cells after incubation with 1 µmol/L, 2 µmol/L and 5 µmol/L SAHA for 24 h and 48 h as compared with that of K562-scr cells (P < 0.01). K562-sh1, K562-sh2 and K562-scr cells after incubation with or without 2 µmol/L SAHA for 48 h presented apoptosis features: i. e. chromatin condensation, nucleic fragmentation and apoptotic body formation. It is concluded that RPS27a can inhibit the apoptosis of K562 cells and RPS27a slience can potentiate sensitivity of K562 cells to SAHA.
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[Accuracy of predicting in vitro ruminal methane production in goats using volatile fatty acids stoichiometric models].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 08-19-2014
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This study was conducted to investigate the accuracy of predicting in vitro ruminal methane (CH4) production using volatile fatty acids (VFA) stoichiometric models [CH4 = 0.5Ace-0.25Pro + 0.5But-0.25Val] (model 1), where CH4, Ace, Pro, But and Val are the production amounts of CH4, acetate, propionate, butyrate and valerate, respectively. Ten common feedstuffs, including four concentrates and six roughages with a wide range of chemical composition were incubated in serum bottles, and VFAs and CH4 production at 72 h were determined. The differences between the predicted and measured CH4 production were quantified using the model accuracy analysis. The results showed that the predicted CH4 production amounts were generally greater than the measured values obtained using the model 1, and the bias, slope and random error were 62.6%, 11.7% and 25.7%, respectively, indicating that fixed error exceeded 70%. By assuming 80% of total hydrogen being used for CH4 synthesis, the VFA stoichiometric model could be re-expressed as [CH4 = 0.8 (0.5Ace-0.25Pro + 0.5But-0.25Val)] (model 2). The root mean square prediction error (rMSPE = 0.18) for model 2 was less than for model 1 (rMSPE = 0.60). In addition, the bias, slope and random error of the model 2 were 2.1%, 5.7%, 92.3%, respectively, indicating that fixed error was less than 10%. In model 1, hydrogen formation resulting from VFA production were assumed to be totally consumed by methanogens for CH4 synthesis, without considering other pathways of hydrogen metabolism, which was the main factor resulting in the higher predicted values than the measured values.
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Metabolic engineering of Saccharomyces cerevisiae for caffeine and theobromine production.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Caffeine (1, 3, 7-trimethylxanthine) and theobromine (3, 7-dimethylxanthine) are the major purine alkaloids in plants, e.g., tea (Camellia sinensis) and coffee (Coffea arabica). Caffeine is a major component of coffee and is used widely in food and beverage industries. Most of the enzymes involved in the caffeine biosynthetic pathway have been reported previously. Here, we demonstrated the biosynthesis of caffeine (0.38 mg/L) by co-expression of Coffea arabica xanthosine methyltransferase (CaXMT) and Camellia sinensis caffeine synthase (TCS) in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Furthermore, we endeavored to develop this production platform for making other purine-based alkaloids. To increase the catalytic activity of TCS in an effort to increase theobromine production, we identified four amino acid residues based on structural analyses of 3D-model of TCS. Two TCS1 mutants (Val317Met and Phe217Trp) slightly increased in theobromine accumulation and simultaneously decreased in caffeine production. The application and further optimization of this biosynthetic platform are discussed.
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Neuroprotection by Acetyl-11-Keto-?-Boswellic Acid, in Ischemic Brain Injury Involves the Nrf2/HO-1 defense Pathway.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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Stroke is a complex disease involved oxidative stress-related pathways in its pathogenesis. The nuclear factor erythroid-2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)/heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) pathway has been considered a potential target for neuroprotection in stroke. Acetyl-11-Keto-?-Boswellic Acid (AKBA) is an active triterpenoid compound from the extract of Boswellia serrate. The present study was to determine whether AKBA, a novel Nrf2 activator, can protect against cerebral ischemic injury. The stroke model was produced in Sprague-Dawley rats via middle cerebral artery occlusion. To model ischemia-like conditions in vitro, primary cultured cortical neurons were exposed to transient oxygen and glucose deprivation (OGD). Treatment of AKBA significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores by elevating the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression in brain tissues in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats at 48?hours post reperfusion. In primary cultured neurons, AKBA increased the Nrf2 and HO-1 expression, which provided protection against OGD-induced oxidative insult. Additionally, AKBA treatment increased Nrf2 binding activity to antioxidant-response elements (ARE). The protective effect of AKBA was attenuated by knockdown of Nrf2 or HO-1. In conclusion, these findings provide evidence that AKBA protects neurons against ischemic injury, and this neuroprotective effect involves the Nrf2/HO-1 pathway.
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Crystal structure of the RNA-guided immune surveillance Cascade complex in Escherichia coli.
Nature
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR) together with CRISPR-associated (Cas) proteins form the CRISPR/Cas system to defend against foreign nucleic acids of bacterial and archaeal origin. In the I-E subtype CRISPR/Cas system, eleven subunits from five Cas proteins (CasA1B2C6D1E1) assemble along a CRISPR RNA (crRNA) to form the Cascade complex. Here we report on the 3.05 Å crystal structure of the 405-kilodalton Escherichia coli Cascade complex that provides molecular details beyond those available from earlier lower-resolution cryo-electron microscopy structures. The bound 61-nucleotide crRNA spans the entire 11-protein subunit-containing complex, where it interacts with all six CasC subunits (named CasC1-6), with its 5' and 3' terminal repeats anchored by CasD and CasE, respectively. The crRNA spacer region is positioned along a continuous groove on the concave surface generated by the aligned CasC1-6 subunits. The five long ?-hairpins that project from individual CasC2-6 subunits extend across the crRNA, with each ?-hairpin inserting into the gap between the last stacked base and its adjacent splayed counterpart, and positioned within the groove of the preceding CasC subunit. Therefore, instead of continuously stacking, the crRNA spacer region is divided into five equal fragments, with each fragment containing five stacked bases flanked by one flipped-out base. Each of those crRNA spacer fragments interacts with CasC in a similar fashion. Furthermore, our structure explains why the seed sequence, with its outward-directed bases, has a critical role in target DNA recognition. In conclusion, our structure of the Cascade complex provides novel molecular details of protein-protein and protein-RNA alignments and interactions required for generation of a complex mediating RNA-guided immune surveillance.
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The first radiosynthesis of [(11)C]AZD8931 as a new potential PET agent for imaging of EGFR, HER2 and HER3 signaling.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2014
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The reference standard AZD8931{2-(4-((4-((3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)piperidin-1-yl)-N-methylacetamide} (11a) was synthesized from methyl 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzoate or ethyl 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzoate and 2-chloro-N-methylacetamide in 11 steps with 2-5% overall chemical yield. The precursor N-desmethyl-AZD8931{2-(4-((4-((3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)piperidin-1-yl)acetamide} (11b) was synthesized from methyl 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzoate or ethyl 4,5-dimethoxy-2-nitrobenzoate and 2-bromoacetamide in 11 steps with 2-4% overall chemical yield. The target tracer [(11)C]AZD8931 {2-(4-((4-((3-chloro-2-fluorophenyl)amino)-7-methoxyquinazolin-6-yl)oxy)piperidin-1-yl)-N-[(11)C]methylacetamide} ([(11)C]11a) was prepared from N-desmethyl-AZD8931 (11b) with [(11)C]CH3OTf under basic condition (NaH) through N-[(11)C]methylation and isolated by HPLC combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) in 40-50% radiochemical yield based on [(11)C]CO2 and decay corrected to end of bombardment (EOB) with 370-1110GBq/?mol specific activity at EOB.
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SphK1 confers resistance to apoptosis in gastric cancer cells by downregulating Bim via stimulating Akt/FoxO3a signaling.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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We previously reported that sphingosine kinase 1 (SphK1), an enzyme that catalyzes the production of sphingosine-1-phosphate (SIP), is upregulated in human gastric cancer and predicts poor clinical outcome. In the present study, we used known differential effects of UV irradiation on human MGC-803 gastric cancer cells to determine their effect on SphK1 activity. Ectopic expression of SphK1 in MGC-803 gastric cancer cells markedly enhanced their resistance to UV irradiation, whereas silencing endogenous SphK1 with shRNAs weakened this ability. Furthermore, these anti-apoptotic effects were significantly associated with decrease of Bim, an apoptosis-related protein. We further demonstrated that SphK1 could downregulate the transcriptional activity of forkhead box O3a (FoxO3a) by inducing its phosphorylation, which was found to be associated with the PI3K/Akt signaling. Taken together, our study supports the theory that SphK1 confers resistance to apoptosis in gastric cancer cells via the Akt/FoxO3a/Bim pathway.
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A green approach to the synthesis of novel "Desert rose stone"-like nanobiocatalytic system with excellent enzyme activity and stability.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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3D hierarchical layer double hydroxides (LDHs) have attracted extensive interest due to their unique electronic and catalytic properties. Unfortunately, the existing preparation methods require high temperature or toxic organic compounds, which limits the applications of the 3D hierarchical LDHs in biocatalysis and biomedicine. Herein, we present a green strategy to synthesize "Desert Rose Stone"-like Mg-Al-CO3 LDH nanoflowers in situ deposited on aluminum substrates via a coprecipitation method using atmospheric carbon dioxide. Using this method, we construct a novel "Desert Rose Stone"-like nanobiocatalytic system by using HRP as the model enzyme. Compared with the free HRP, the HRP/Mg-Al-LDH nanobiocatalytic system exhibits higher catalytic activity and stability. A smaller apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (0.16?mM) of this system suggests that the encapsulated HRP shows higher affinity towards H2O2.
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Hydrogen sulfide functions as a neuromodulator to regulate striatal neurotransmission in a mouse model of Parkinson's disease.
J. Neurosci. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
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Hydrogen sulfide (H2 S), a novel endogenous gasotransmitter, has been considered a neuromodulator to enhance hippocampal long-term potentiation and exerts neuroprotective effects against neurotoxin-induced neurodegeneration in rodent models of Parkinson's disease (PD). However, whether H2 S can function as a neuromodulator to regulate the levels of nigrostriatal neurotransmitters and then impact the vulnerability of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in response to neurotoxins remains unknown. For this study, we prepared a 1-methyl-4-phenyl-1,2,3,6-tetrahydropyridine plus probenecid (MPTP/p)-induced mouse subacute model of PD to explore the modulatory effect of H2 S on monoamine and amino acid neurotransmitters in the striatum of MPTP-treated mice. This study shows that NaHS (an H2 S donor, 5.6 mg/kg/day, i.p.) administration improves the survival rate and significantly ameliorates the weight loss of MPTP-treated mice. NaHS treatment attenuated MPTP-induced neuronal damage, restored the diminution of DA neurons, and suppressed the overactivation of astrocytes in the mouse striatum. Additionally, NaHS upregulated striatal serotonin levels and modulated the balance of excitatory glutamate and the inhibitory ?-aminobutyric acid system in response to MPTP challenge. The current study indicates that H2 S may function as an effective neuromodulator to regulate striatal neurotransmission and provides insight into the potential of H2 S for PD therapy. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat as effective sorbent for the removal of estrogens: kinetic and thermodynamic studies.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2014
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Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat was prepared via electrospinning for the removal of three estrogens, namely, diethylstilbestrol (DES), dienestrol (DS), and hexestrol (HEX) from aqueous solution. Static adsorption as well as the dynamic adsorption was evaluated by means of batch and dynamic disk flow mode, respectively. The kinetic study indicated that the adsorption of the target compounds could be well fitted by the pseudo-second-order equation, suggesting the intra-particle/membrane diffusion process as the rate-limiting step of the adsorption process. The adsorption equilibrium data were all fitted well to the Freundlich isotherm models, with a maximum adsorption capacity values in the range of 97.71 to 208.95 mg/g, which can be compared to or moderately higher than other sorbents published in the literatures. The dynamic disk mode studies indicated that the mean removal yields of three model estrogens were over 95% with a notable smaller amount of adsorbent (4 mg). Thermodynamic study revealed that the adsorption process was exothermic and spontaneous in nature. Desorption results showed that the adsorption capacity can remain up to 80% after seven times usage. It was suggested that Nylon 6 electrospun nanofibers mat has great potential as a novel effective sorbent material for estrogens removal.
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MicroRNA profile analysis of Epithelioma papulosum cyprini cell line before and after SVCV infection.
Dev. Comp. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play significant roles in regulating almost all of the biological processes in eukaryotes. An accumulating body of evidence shows that miRNAs are associated with cellular changes following viral infection. Spring viremia of carp virus (SVCV) is the pathogen of Spring viremia of carp (SVC), which results in heavy losses in the cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) industry in many countries. To study the involvement of miRNAs during SVCV infection, we adopted the Solexa sequencing technology to sequence small RNA libraries from the Epithelioma papulosum cyprini (EPC) cell line before and after infection with SVCV. In this study, a total of 161 conserved and 26 novel miRNAs were identified. Subsequently, the expression patterns of these miRNAs were compared between the uninfected (control library, M) and SVCV-infected (infection library, E) libraries. In addition, to verify the Solexa sequencing results, the expression patterns of 14 randomly selected miRNAs were validated by qRT-PCR. The targets of the significantly differentially expressed miRNAs were then predicted, and the miRNAs that could directly target the SVCV genome were also predicted. No miRNA encoded by SVCV itself was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this study presents the first miRNA profiling assessment in association with fish rhabdovirus infection, and the data presented lay a foundation for further investigations to determine the roles of miRNAs in regulating the molecular mechanism during SVCV infection.
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Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls in lotus plant (Nelumbonucifera spp.).
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-02-2014
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Enantioselective accumulation of chiral polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) 91, 95, 136, 149, 176 and 183 was investigated in lotus plants (Nelumbonucifera spp.) exposed to these chemicals via spiked sediment, to determine uptake and possible biotransformation for aquatic phytoremediation purposes. The concentrations of most PCBs were greatest in roots at 60 d (19.6 ± 1.51-70.6 ± 6.14 ?g kg(-1)), but were greatest in stems and leaves at 120 d (25.3 ± 6.14-95.5 ± 19.4 ?g kg(-1) and 17.4 ± 4.41-70.4 ± 10.4 ?g kg(-1), respectively). Total amounts were greatest at 120 d and significantly higher in roots than those in stems and in leaves (1,457 ± 220-5,852 ± 735 ng, 237 ± 47.1-902 ± 184 ng and 202 ± 60.3-802 ± 90.2 ng, respectively), but represented less than 0.51% of the total mass of PCBs added to sediments, indicating that lotus plants were unlikely to remove appreciable amounts of PCBs from contaminated sediments. Racemic PCB residues in sediment indicate no enantioselective biodegradation by sedimentary microbial consortia over the entire experiment. Preferential accumulation of the (-)-enantiomers of PCBs 91, 95 and 136 were observed in roots, stems and leaves, but non-enantioselective accumulation was observed for PCBs 149, 176 and 183. These results indicate that aquatic plants can accumulate PCBs enantioselectively via root uptake, possibly by biotransformation within plant tissues as observed for terrestrial plants. This is also the first report to identify optical rotation of the atropisomers of PCBs 91 and 95.
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Multiplexed electrochemical coding of DNA-protein bindings.
Biosens Bioelectron
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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A simple, sensitive and multiplexed electrochemical sensor for the detection of DNA-protein binding based on the exonuclease protection strategy is described. Two electroactive species, methylene blue (MB)- and ferrocene (Fc)-labeled dsDNA probes are self-assembled on a gold electrode to prepare the sensor surface. The target proteins, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and estrogen receptor (ER?), bind to the dsDNA probes and protect the probes from digesting by exonuclease III due to the steric hindrance of the bound proteins. These protein-protected, MB/Fc-labeled sequences remaining on the sensor surface display two distinct voltammetric peaks, whose peak potentials (MB: -0.27V; Fc: +0.27V) and intensities reflect the identities and amounts of the corresponding target proteins, for simultaneous and multiplexed detection of DNA-protein bindings. The proposed sensor is also selective to the target proteins against other interference molecules. By using labels with distinct voltammetric peaks, the developed method can be easily expanded for simultaneous detection of multiple DNA-protein bindings.
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Role of the Wilms' tumor 1 gene in the aberrant biological behavior of leukemic cells and the related mechanisms.
Oncol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The Wilms' tumor 1 (WT1) gene is one of the regulating factors in cell proliferation and development. It is a double-functional gene: an oncogene and a tumor suppressor. This gene was found to be highly expressed in many leukemic cell lines and in patients with acute myeloid leukemia. In the present study, we demonstrated that the WT1 gene was commonly expressed in leukemic cell lines apart from U937 cells. The K562 cell line which expresses WT1 at a high level (mRNA and protein) was used in the entire experiment. By MTT and colony formation assays, we found that curcumin, an inhibitor of the WT1 protein, inhibited cell proliferation and clonogenicity in a time- and dose-dependent manner. It also caused cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase. We then designed specific short hairpin RNAs (shRNAs) which could downregulate WT1 by 70-80% at the mRNA and protein levels. Reduction in the WT1 levels attenuated the proliferative ability and clonogenicity. Cell cycle progression analysis indicated that the proportion of cells in the G0/G1 phase increased while the proportion in the S phase decreased distinctively. ChIP-DNA selection and ligation (DSL) experiment identified a cohort of genes whose promoters are targeted by WT1. These genes were classified into different cellular signaling pathways using MAS software and included the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, MAPK signaling pathway, apoptosis pathway, and the cell cycle. We focused on the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway, and compared expression of several genes in the K562 cells transfected with the control shRNA and WT1-specific shRNA. ?-catenin, an important gene in the Wnt canonical pathway, was downregulated after WT1 RNAi. Target genes of ?-catenin which participate in cell proliferation and cell cycle regulation, such as CCND1 and MYC, were also significantly downregulated. Collectively, these data suggest that WT1 functions as an oncogene in leukemia cells, and one important mechanism is regulation of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway.
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Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin-mediated alterations in cell permeability, lipid and protein profiles of steroid-transforming Arthrobacter simplex.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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Hydroxypropyl-?-cyclodextrin (HP-?-CD) enhances steroid 1-dehydrogenation biotransformation by Arthrobacter simplex. In this work, HP-?-CD-induced improvement of A. simplex CPCC 140451 cell envelope permeability which had positive effects on the steroid bioconversion was confirmed by a comparative investigation which showed a lower dehydrogenase activity and higher cell permeability of the cells after being incubated with HP-?-CD. Atomic force microscopy and transmission electron microscopy micrographs showed that HP-?-CD altered the size, sharpness, and surface structure of the cell envelope. The analysis of lipid composition revealed that the proportion of extractable lipids decreased and the fatty acids profile was considerably altered. The contents of unsaturated fatty acids and long-chain fatty acids were reduced by 11.77 and 14.98 %, respectively. The total leakage of protein level increased to 8 %. Proteins belonging to the ATP-binding cassette superfamily and major facilitator superfamily were observed outside the cell. These alterations can explain the change of permeability on the molecular level under HP-?-CD treatment. Results showed the material basis and mechanisms underlying the cellular changes, thus most likely contributing to the conversion rate in addition to cyclodextrins known effects on substrate solubility.
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Assessment of density gradient centrifugation (DGC) and sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) measurements in couples with male factor infertility undergoing ICSI.
J. Assist. Reprod. Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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To investigate how effectively density gradient centrifugation (DGC) improves sperm nuclear integrity and to determine whether the sperm chromatin dispersion (SCD) test of sperm nuclear integrity in native or DGC-treated semen can predict the outcome of assisted reproductive technology (ART) in couples undergoing intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI).
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Non-contiguous finished genome sequence of Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis type strain (E13(T)), a strictly thermophilic and organic solvent-tolerant bacterium.
Stand Genomic Sci
PUBLISHED: 06-15-2014
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Anoxybacillus flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis is the only strictly thermophilic bacterium that is able to tolerate a broad range of toxic solvents at its optimal temperature of 55-60°C. The type strain E13(T) was isolated from water-sediment slurries collected from a hot spring. This study presents the draft genome sequence of A. flavithermus subsp. yunnanensis E13(T) and its annotation. The 2,838,393bp long genome (67 contigs) contains 3,035 protein-coding genes and 85 RNA genes, including 10 rRNA genes, and no plasmids. The genome information has been used to compare with the genomes from A. flavithermus subsp. flavithermus strains.
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Serum ?-human chorionic gonadotropin and interleukin-1 as diagnostic biomarkers for the premature rupture of membranes and chorioamnionitis.
Biomed Rep
PUBLISHED: 06-07-2014
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Chorioamnionitis is common in females with prematurely ruptured fetal membranes (PROM). The current diagnosis of PROM and preterm PROM (PPROM) is based on vaginal fluid analysis. The present study investigated the value of serum ?-human chorionic gonadotropin (?-hCG) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) levels in diagnosing chorioamnionitis. In total, 150 term-pregnancy patients were included in the prospective study. A total of 50 females had normal pregnancies (control group) and 100 had PROM. One hour before delivery, 3 ml venous blood was collected and analyzed. Fetal membrane and placental tissue underwent histopathological analyses. Of the 100 term-pregnancy females, 56 had PROM and 44 had PROM combined with chorioamnionitis (PROM + C). The serum ?-hCG levels for the control, PROM and PROM + C groups were 7,557.86±2,922.06, 636.96±14,379.10 and 50,310.34±22,874.82 IU/l, respectively. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) for PROM and PROM + C groups (?-hCG ?23,900.50 IU/l) had a sensitivity of 77.5% and a specificity of 78.6%. The level of IL-1 in the PROM + C group was higher compared to the control and PROM groups (0.58±0.05, 0.12±0.04 and 0.13±0.03 ng/ml, respectively). In conclusion, ROC for the PROM and PROM + C groups (IL-1 ?0.38 ng/ml) had a sensitivity of 76.5% and a specificity of 72.6%. Therefore, serum ?-hCG and IL-1 are potential biomarkers for diagnosing PROM and PROM + C, respectively.
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Inefficient export of viral late mRNA contributes to fastidiousness of human adenovirus type 41 (HAdV-41) in 293 cells.
Virology
PUBLISHED: 06-03-2014
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The human adenovirus (HAdV) early protein E1B55K interacts with E4orf6 to form an E3 ubiquitin ligase complex, which plays key roles in virus replication. To illustrate the reason for the fastidiousness of HAdV-41 in 293 cells, interaction between heterotypic E1B55K and E4orf6 proteins was investigated. HAdV-5 E1B55K could interact with HAdV-41 E4orf6, and vice versa. To form E1B55K/E4orf6 E3 ubiquitin ligase, HAdV-41 E4orf6 recruited Cul2 while HAdV-5 E4orf6 interacted with Cul5. The ligase complex formed by HAdV-5 E1B55K and HAdV-41 E4orf6 could cause the degradation of p53 and Mre11. However, in E1-deleted HAdV-41-infected 293TE7 cells, which expressed HAdV-41 E1B55K, viral late mRNAs were exported from nucleus more efficiently and accumulated to a higher concentration in cytoplasm when compared with that in infected 293 cells. These results suggested that interaction between homotypic E1B55K and E4orf6 was indispensable for efficient export of viral late mRNAs.
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Transcriptome analysis of epithelioma papulosum cyprini cells after SVCV infection.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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Spring viraemia of carp virus (SVCV) has been identified as the causative agent of spring viraemia of carp (SVC) and it has caused significant losses in the cultured common carp (Cyprinus carpio) industry. The molecular mechanisms that underlie the pathogenesis of the disease remain poorly understood. In this study, deep RNA sequencing was used to analyse the transcriptome and gene expression profile of EPC cells at progressive times after SVCV infection. This study addressed the complexity of virus-cell interactions and added knowledge that may help to understand SVCV.
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Assessment of immune cells and function of the residual spleen after subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly in cirrhotic patients.
BMC Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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BackgroundThe spleen is thought to be central in regulating the immune system, a metabolic asset involved in endocrine function. Overwhelming postsplenectomy infection leads to a mortality rate of up to 50%. However, there is still controversy on performing subtotal splenectomy as treatment of splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients. In the present study, immunocytes and the indexes of splenic size, hemodynamics, hematology and immunology in the residual spleen were analyzed to support subtotal splenectomy due to splenomegaly.ResultsIn residual spleen, T lymphocytes mainly were focal aggregation in the periarterial lymphatic sheath. While B lymphocytes densely distributed in splenic corpuscle. In red pulp, macrophages were equally distributed in the splenic cord and adhered to the wall of splenic sinus with high density. The number of unit area T and B lymphocytes of splenic corpuscle and marginal zone as well as macrophages of red pulp were obviously increased in the residual spleen, while the number of macrophages didn¿t be changed among the three groups in white pulp. While there were some beneficial changes (i.e., Counts of platelet and leucocyte as well as serum proportion of CD3+ T cells, CD4+ T cells, CD8+ T cells were increased markedly; serum levels of M-CSF and GM-CSF were decreased significantly; The proportion of granulocyte, erythrocyte, megakaryocyte in bone marrow were changed obviously; But serum IgA, IgM, IgG, Tuftsin level, there was no significant difference; splenic artery flow volume, portal venous diameter and portal venous flow volume, a significant difference was observed in residual spleen) in the clinical indices.ConclusionAfter subtotal splenectomy with splenomegaly due to portal hypertension in cirrhotic patients, the number of unit area T and B lymphocytes, and MØ in red pulp of residual spleen increased significantly. However, whether increase of T, B lymphocytes and MØs in residual splenic tissue can enhance the immune function of the spleen, still need further research to confirm.
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The expression of microRNA-375 in plasma and tissue is matched in human colorectal cancer.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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MicroRNAs (miRNAs) offer great potential as cancer biomarkers. The importance of miRNAs profiling in tissue and body fluids in colorectal cancer (CRC) have been addressed respectively in many studies. The purpose of our study is to systematically assess the expression of miRNAs in cancer tissue and matched plasma samples and to evaluate their usefulness as minimally invasive diagnostic biomarkers for the detection of CRC.
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MicroRNA-100 regulates pancreatic cancer cells growth and sensitivity to chemotherapy through targeting FGFR3.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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We intended to investigate the role of microRNA 100 (miR-100) in regulating pancreatic cancer cells' growth in vitro and tumor development in vivo. QTR-PCR was used to examine the expression of miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from human patients. Lentivirual vector containing miR-100 mimics (lv-miR-100) was used to overexpress miR-100 in MIA PaCa-2 and FCPAC-1 cells. The effects of overexpressing miR-100 on pancreatic cancer cell proliferation and chemosensitivity to cisplatin were examined by cell proliferation essay in vitro. MIA PaCa-2 cells with endogenously overexpressed miR-100 were transplanted into null mice to examine tumor growth in vivo. The predicted target of miR-100, fibroblast growth factor receptor 3 (FGFR3), was downregulated by siRNA to examine its effect on pancreatic cancer cells. We found miR-100 was markedly underexpressed in both pancreatic cancer cell lines and tumor cells from patients. In cancer cells, transfection of lv-miR-100 was able to upregulate endogenous expression of miR-100, inhibited cancer cell proliferation, and increased sensitivities to cisplatin. Overexpressing miR-100 led to significant inhibition on tumor formation in vivo. Luciferase essay showed FGFR3 was direct target of miR-100. FGFR3 was significantly downregulated by overexpressing miR-100 in pancreatic cancer cells and knocking down FGFR3 by siRNA exerted similar effect as miR-100. Our study demonstrated that miR-100 played an important role in pancreatic cancer development, possibly through targeting FGFR3. It may become a new therapeutic target for gene therapy in patients suffered from pancreatic cancer.
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Dysbindin-1, a schizophrenia-related protein, interacts with HDAC3.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2014
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DTNBP1 is a key candidate gene associated with schizophrenia. The expression of its protein product, dysbindin-1, is altered in the brains of schizophrenic patients; however, the physiological functions of dysbindin-1 in the central nervous system are unclear. Several studies have shown that both dysbindin-1 and histone deacetylase 3 (HDAC3) can be phosphorylated by the DNA-dependent protein kinase complex. In this study, we investigated the relationship between dysbindin-1 and HDAC3. We found that dysbindin-1 formed a protein complex with HDAC3 in human neuroblastoma cells and in mouse brain. The interaction between dysbindin-1 and HDAC3 occurred in an isoform-specific manner: HDAC3 coupled with dysbindin-1A and -1B, but not -1C. We also found that dysbindin-1B expression was increased in the nucleus in the presence of HDAC3, and, conversely, that the phosphorylation level of HDAC3 increased in the presence of dysbindin-1B. Taken together, these results identify a novel binding partner for dysbindin-1, which may potentially provide a new avenue for research into the neurological mechanisms of schizophrenia.
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Effects of co-treatment with sulforaphane and autophagy modulators on uridine 5'-diphospho-glucuronosyltransferase 1A isoforms and cytochrome P450 3A4 expression in Caco-2 human colon cancer cells.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Sulforaphane (SFN), which is highly enriched in cruciferous vegetables, has been investigated for its cancer chemopreventive properties and ability to induce autophagy. Uridine 5'-diphospho (UDP)-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT)1A induction is one of the mechanisms that is responsible for the cancer chemopreventive activity of SFN. The current study demonstrates that rapamycin may enhance the chemopreventive effects of SFN on Caco-2 cells; this may be partially attributed to nuclear translocation of nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2)- and human pregnane X receptor (hPXR)-mediated UGT1A1, UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 induction. These results indicate that targeting autophagy modulation may be a promising strategy for increasing the chemopreventive effects of SFN in cases of colon cancer.
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One-step hydrothermal synthesis of nitrogen-doped carbon nanotubes as an efficient electrocatalyst for oxygen reduction reactions.
Chem Asian J
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2014
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A high amount of heteroatom doping in carbon, although favorable for enhanced density of catalytically active sites, may lead to substantially decreased electroconductivity, which is necessary for the electrochemical oxygen reduction reaction. Herein, a relatively low amount of nitrogen was successfully doped into carbon nanotubes (CNTs) by a hydrothermal approach in one step, and the synthesized nitrogen-doped CNT (CNT-N) materials retained most of the original, excellent characteristics, such as the graphitic structure, tubular morphology, and high surface area, of CNTs. The resultant CNT-N materials, although containing a relatively low amount of nitrogen doping, exhibited high electrocatalytic ORR activity, comparable to that of 20?wt% Pt/C; long durability; and, more importantly, largely inhibited methanol crossover effect.
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Double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 regulates epithelial-mesenchymal transition and stem cell properties in prostate cancer cells.
Cell Tissue Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-12-2014
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The invasion and metastasis of tumors are triggered by an epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT), which is regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). EMT also promotes malignant tumor progression and the maintenance of the stem cell property, which endows cancer cells with the capabilities of self-renewal and immortalized proliferation. The transcriptional repressor zinc-finger E-box binding homeobox 2 (ZEB2), as an EMT activator, might be an important promoter of metastasis in some tumors. Here, we report that ZEB2 directly represses the transcription of miR-145, which is a strong repressor of EMT. In turn, ZEB2 is also a direct target of miR-145. Further, our findings show that the downregulation of ZEB2 not only represses invasion, migration, EMT, and the stemness of prostate cancer (PCa) cells, but also suppresses the capability of PC-3 cells to invade bone in vivo. Importantly, the expression level of ZEB2 as revealed by immunohistochemical analysis is positively correlated to bone metastasis, the serum free PSA level, the total PSA level, and the Gleason score in PCa patients and is negatively correlated with miR-145 expression in primary PCa specimens. Thus, our findings demonstrate a double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 and indicate that the ZEB2/miR-145 double-negative feedback loop plays a significant role in the control of EMT and stem cell properties during the bone metastasis of PCa cells. These results suggest that the double-negative feedback loop between ZEB2 and miR-145 contributes to PCa progression and metastasis and might have therapeutic relevance for the bone metastasis of PCa.
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A novel acetylcholinesterase biosensor based on carboxylic graphene coated with silver nanoparticles for pesticide detection.
Mater Sci Eng C Mater Biol Appl
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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A novel acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensor based on Ag NPs, carboxylic graphene (CGR) and Nafion (NF) hybrid modified glass carbon electrode (GCE) has been successfully developed. Ag NPs-CGR-NF possessed predominant conductivity, catalysis and biocompatibility and provided a hydrophilic surface for AChE adhesion. Chitosan (CS) was used to immobilize AChE on the surface of Ag NPs-CGR-NF/GCE to keep the AChE activities. The AChE biosensor showed favorable affinity to acetylthiocholine chloride (ATCl) and could catalyze the hydrolysis of ATCl with an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant value of 133 ?M, which was then oxidized to produce a detectable and fast response. Under optimum conditions, the biosensor detected chlorpyrifos and carbaryl at concentrations ranging from 1.0×10(-13) to 1×10(-8) M and from 1.0×10(-12) to 1×10(-8) M. The detection limits for chlorpyrifos and carbaryl were 5.3×10(-14) M and 5.45×10(-13) M, respectively. The developed biosensor exhibited good sensitivity, stability, reproducibility and low cost, thus providing a promising tool for analysis of enzyme inhibitors. This study could provide a simple and effective immobilization platform for meeting the demand of the effective immobilization enzyme on the electrode surface.
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Humeral brown tumor as first presentation of primary hyperparathyroidism caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas: report of two cases and review of literature.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Two cases of brown tumor of the humerus caused by ectopic parathyroid adenomas were presented, which to our knowledge has not been previously documented in the international literature. There are two highlights in these two cases. First, brown tumors of the long bones may commonly involve femur and tibia, rarely involve humerus in association with primary hyperparathyroidism. Second, ectopic parathyroid adenomas of our patient had an unusual location of this disorder. We explored the role of ultrasound, MIBI scintigraphy as well as FNAB (fine needle aspiration biopsy) in diagnosis of brown tumor especially simultaneously occurrence of ectopic parathyroid adenomas and the importance of a thorough diagnostic work-up. The contemporary diagnosis and treatment options will be emphasized.
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Ginsenoside Rb1 Prevents H2O2-Induced HUVEC Senescence by Stimulating Sirtuin-1 Pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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We have previously reported that Ginsenoside Rb1 may effectively prevent HUVECs from senescence, however, the detailed mechanism has not demonstrated up to now. Recent studies have shown that sirtuin-1 (Sirt1) plays an important role in the development of endothelial senescence. The purpose of this study was to explore whether Sirt1 is involved in the action of Ginsenoside Rb1 regarding protection against H2O2-induced HUVEC Senescence.
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Tunable synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated zero-valent iron nanoparticles for degradation of organic dyes.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A series of nanocomposites consisting of zero-valent iron nanoparticles (ZVI NPs) encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres were successfully synthesized through a successive two-step method, i.e., the wet chemical reduction by borohydride followed by a modified Stöber method. The as-synthesized nanocomposites were characterized using X-ray diffraction, field emission scanning electron microscopy, vibrating sample magnetometer, and inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectrometer. The catalytic performance of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI nanocomposites for the degradation of organic dyes was investigated using methylene blue (MB) as the model dye in the presence of H2O2. The results showed that the degradation efficiency and apparent rate constant of the degradation reaction were significantly enhanced with increased ZVI NPs encapsulated in SiO2 microspheres, whereas the dosage of H2O2 remarkably promoted degradation rate without affecting degradation efficiency. The content-dependent magnetic property ensured the excellent magnetic separation of degradation products under an external magnet. This strategy for the synthesis of SiO2-encapsulated ZVI NPs nanocomposites was low cost and easy to scale-up for industrial production, thereby enabling promising applications in environmental remediation.
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Clinical efficacy of tumor antigen-pulsed DC treatment for high-grade glioma patients: evidence from a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The effectiveness of immunotherapy for high-grade glioma (HGG) patients remains controversial. To evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of dendritic cells (DCs) alone in the treatment of HGG, we performed a systematic review and meta-analysis in terms of patient survival with relevant published clinical studies.
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[Reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography separation of 2-( fluorophenyl) -5-methylbenzoxazole and 2-( chlorophenyl) -5-methylbenzoxazole positional isomers].
Se Pu
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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The analytical method of 2-( fluorophenyl)-5-methylbenzoxazole ortho-, meta-, para-positional isomers and 2-( chlorophenyl) -5-methylbenzoxazole ortho-, meta-, para-positional isomers was developed with a commercial common liquid chromatography column. The separation was performed on an Inertsil ODS-SP C18 column (250 mm x 4.6 mm, 5 microm) at 40 degrees C with a linear gradient elution by mobile phases of acetonitrile (A) (from 60% to 80% within 15 min) and water (B) at a flow rate of 1.5 mL/min. The samples were detected by a diode array detector at 310 nm. Good linearities were obtained in the range of 2 - 200 mg/L for the six isomers. The limits of detection (LODs) (S/N = 3) of 2- (fluorophenyl) -5-methylbenzoxazole ortho-, meta-, para-isomers and 2-( chlorophenyl)-5-methylbenzoxazole ortho-, meta-, para-isomers were 0.0307, 0.0293, 0.0315, 0.0226, 0.0237, 0.0226 mg/L, respectively. The method provides not only a rapid detection method for the preparation of the isomers through hydrocarbon activation coupling reaction between the 5-methylbenzoxazole and fluorobenzene or chlorobenzene but also a reference for the separation and detection of 2-arylbenzoxazole isomers.
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Changes in pulmonary tissue structure and KL-6/MUC1 expression in a newborn rat model of hyperoxia-Induced bronchopulmonary dysplasia.
Exp. Lung Res.
PUBLISHED: 12-05-2013
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ABSTRACT Following preterm birth, levels of Krebs von den Lungen-6/mucin 1 (KL-6/MUC1) in serum correlate closely with the development of advanced bronchopulmonary dysplasia (BPD), but the role of KL-6/MUC1 in the development of BPD is unclear. To explore whether a relationship exists between KL-6/MUC1 and pathological changes in BPD and verify such a clinical finding, we established a newborn rat model of 95% oxygen-induced BPD. The development of pulmonary alveoli was evaluated by determining the radial alveolar count (RAC) and examining the location, distribution, and expression of KL-6/MUC1 in pulmonary tissues using a fluorescent immunoassay, Western blot, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The synchronic expression levels of KL-6/MUC1 in serum, bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and pulmonary tissues were examined using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The mean RAC in the hyperoxia group was significantly lower than in normoxia controls, whereas the expression levels of KL-6/MUC1 were higher. On days 1, 3, 7, and 14, the mean RACs in hyperoxic rats were 15.00, 12.67, 12.00, and 11.33, respectively. The expression levels of KL-6/MUC1 peaked in the experimental group on day 1, and began to decrease slightly after day 3. The expression levels of KL-6/MUC1 in serum and BALF were associated with KL-6/MUC1 expression in pulmonary tissues. We suggest that increased lung KL-6/MUC1 expression appears to be closely associated with impairment of alveolarization in a newborn rat model of hyperoxia-induced BPD. Changes in lung KL-6/MUC1 expression can be evaluated effectively and less invasively by monitoring KL-6/MUC1 in serum and BALF.
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A pilot study: Application of hemoglobin and cortisol levels, and a memory test to evaluate the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
Int. J. Biol. Markers
PUBLISHED: 11-29-2013
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Background:Short-term memory (STM) decline in breast cancer patients resulting from chemotherapy was evaluated by means of blood biomarkers, a questionnaire, and a computerized STM test. Methods:This study was conducted from January 2013 to June 2013, recruiting 90 subjects: 30 breast cancer patients beginning the 3rd of 4th cycles of docetaxel and cyclophosphamide chemotherapy, 30 recovered patients (who completed 4 cycles of docetaxel for a minimum of 6 months), and 30 healthy subjects (disease-free females). The levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol in serum, and a computerized STM test were analyzed to estimate the effects of chemotherapy on STM. A questionnaire was given to all subjects to assess quality of life. Results:Statistically significant differences were observed for the blood parameters (hemoglobin, red and white blood cells, and cortisol levels) between healthy and on-treatment subjects (respectively 13.47±0.96 g/dL vs 5.37±0.38 g/dL, 4.58±0.41 1012/L vs 2.07±0.13 1012/L, and 6.15±1.03 109/L vs 0.86±0.41 109/L). Scores of the STM test were significantly lower for patients compared to healthy subjects. As indicated by the results of the questionnaire, breast cancer patients had a higher tendency to forget than healthy controls (X2=3.15; p<0.0001) and recovered subjects (X2=3.15; p<0.0001). Conclusion:We found depleted levels of hemoglobin, red and white blood cells as a result of chemotherapy, and elevated levels of stress correlated with poor performances in the computerized STM test. A higher cortisol level might be an important precursor of STM deterioration. Monitoring cortisol would be beneficial for evaluating the quality of life of breast cancer patients on chemotherapy.
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Concise and high-yield synthesis of T808 and T808P for radiosynthesis of [(18)F]-T808, a PET tau tracer for Alzheimers disease.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2013
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The authentic standard T808 and its corresponding mesylate precursor T808P were synthesized in six steps using ethyl vinyl ether and trichlorocetyl chloride as starting materials. The overall chemical yields of T808 and T808P were 35% and 52%, respectively. [(18)F]-T808 was synthesized from T808P by the nucleophilic substitution with K[(18)F]F/Kryptofix 2.2.2 and isolated by HPLC combined with solid-phase extraction (SPE) purification in 35-45% radiochemical yield with 37-370GBq/?mol specific activity at end of bombardment (EOB).
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Cardiac Fibroblasts Recruit Th17 Cells Infiltration Into Myocardium by Secreting CCL20 in CVB3-Induced acute Viral Myocarditis.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2013
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Aims: Th17 cells contributed to myocardial inflammatory injury in acute viral myocarditis (AVMC), and the migration of these cells were mainly mediated by CCL20-secreting inflammatory cells. However, whether and how the resident cells such as cardiomyocytes and cardiac fibroblasts could mediate Th17 cell migration into the heart remains unclear in AVMC. Methods: The effect of CCL20 on the dynamic alterations of intracardiac Th17 cells and disease severity were investigated through the neutralization of CCL20 in AVMC mice. The key cells releasing CCL20 in the heart and the effects of CCL20-secreting cells on Th17 cell arrest, migration and differentiation were detected in vitro. Results : Neutralization of CCL20 efficiently repressed the myocardial inflammation along with the reduction of Th17 cell infiltrations in the course of AVMC. In vitro, after stimulations of TNF-?, IL-1? and IL-17, cardiac fibroblasts rather than cardiomyocytes could be dominantly induced for CCL20 production. CCL20-secreting cardiac fibroblasts boosted Th17 cell arrest on endothelium, and induce Th17 cell migration. However, CCL20 produced by cardiac fibroblasts had no effect on Th17 cell differentiation and IL-17 production. Conclusions: It firstly suggested that cardiac fibroblasts could recruit Th17 cells infiltration into myocardium by secreting CCL20 in AVMC. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.
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Photodynamic therapy with decacationic [60]fullerene monoadducts: Effect of a light absorbing electron-donor antenna and micellar formulation.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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We report the synthesis and anticancer photodynamic properties of two new decacationic fullerene (LC14) and red light-harvesting antenna-fullerene conjugated monoadduct (LC15) derivatives. The antenna of LC15 was attached covalently to C60>with distance of only <3.0 ? to facilitate ultrafast intramolecular photoinduced-electron-transfer (for type-I photochemistry) and photon absorption at longer wavelengths. Because LC15 was hydrophobic we compared formulation in Cremophor EL micelles with direct dilution from dimethylacetamide. LC14 produced more (1)O2 than LC15, while LC15 produced much more HO·than LC14 as measured by specific fluorescent probes. When delivered by DMA, LC14 killed more HeLa cells than LC15 when excited by UVA light, while LC15 killed more cells when excited by white light consistent with the antenna effect. However LC15 was more effective than LC14 when delivered by micelles regardless of the excitation light. Micellar delivery produced earlier apoptosis and damage to the endoplasmic reticulum as well as to lysosomes and mitochondria.
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Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide CPS-2 protects human mesangial cells from PDGF-BB-induced proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-?1/Smad pathways.
Mol. Cell. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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CPS-2, a Cordyceps sinensis polysaccharide, has been demonstrated to have significant therapeutic activity against chronic renal failure. However, little is known about the underlying molecular mechanism. In this study, we found that CPS-2 could inhibit PDGF-BB-induced human mesangial cells (HMCs) proliferation in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, CPS-2 notably suppressed the expression of ?-SMA, PDGF receptor-beta (PDGFR?), TGF-?1, and Smad 3 in PDGF-BB-treated HMCs. Furthermore, PDGF-BB-stimulated ERK activation was significantly inhibited by CPS-2, and this inhibitory effect was synergistically potentiated by U0126. CPS-2 could prevent the PDGFR? promoter activity induced by PDGF-BB, and return expression of PDGFR?, TGF-?1, and TGF?RI to normal levels while cells were under PDGFR? and ERK silencing conditions and transfected with DN-ERK. Taken together, these findings demonstrated that CPS-2 reduces PDGF-BB-induced cell proliferation through the PDGF/ERK and TGF-?1/Smad pathways, and it may have bi-directional regulatory effects on the PDGF/ERK cellular signaling pathway.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.