JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Evidence of Polyethylene Biodegradation by Bacterial Strains from the Guts of Plastic-Eating Waxworms.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Polyethylene (PE) has been considered nonbiodegradable for decades. Although the biodegradation of PE by bacterial cultures has been occasionally described, valid evidence of PE biodegradation has remained limited in the literature. We found that waxworms, or Indian mealmoths (the larvae of Plodia interpunctella), were capable of chewing and eating PE films. Two bacterial strains capable of degrading PE were isolated from this worm's gut, Enterobacter asburiae YT1 and Bacillus sp. YP1. Over a 28-day incubation period of the two strains on PE films, viable biofilms formed, and the PE films' hydrophobicity decreased. Obvious damage, including pits and cavities (0.3-0.4 ?m in depth), was observed on the surfaces of the PE films using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and atomic force microscopy (AFM). The formation of carbonyl groups was verified using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and microattenuated total reflectance/Fourier transform infrared (micro-ATR/FTIR) imaging microscope. Suspension cultures of YT1 and YP1 (10(8) cells/mL) were able to degrade approximately 6.1 ± 0.3% and 10.7 ± 0.2% of the PE films (100 mg), respectively, over a 60-day incubation period. The molecular weights of the residual PE films were lower, and the release of 12 water-soluble daughter products was also detected. The results demonstrated the presence of PE-degrading bacteria in the guts of waxworms and provided promising evidence for the biodegradation of PE in the environment.
Related JoVE Video
Association of miR-193b Down-regulation and miR-196a up-Regulation with Clinicopathological Features and Prognosis in Gastric Cancer.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dysregulated expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) has been shown to be closely associated with tumor development, progression, and carcinogenesis. However, their clinical implications for gastric cancer remain elusive. To investigate the hypothesis that genome-wide alternations of miRNAs differentiate gastric cancer tissues from those matched adjacent non-tumor tissues (ANTTs), miRNA arrays were employed to examine miRNA expression profiles for the 5-pair discovery stage, and the quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qRT- PCR) was applied to validate candidate miRNAs for 48-pair validation stage. Furthermore, the relationship between altered miRNA and clinicopathological features and prognosis of gastric cancer was explored. Among a total of 1,146 miRNAs analyzed, 16 miRNAs were found to be significantly different expressed in tissues from gastric cancer compared to ANTTs (p<0.05). qRT-PCR further confirmed the variation in expression of miR-193b and miR-196a in the validation stage. Down-expression of miR-193b was significantly correlated with Lauren type, differentiation, UICC stage, invasion, and metastasis of gastric cancer (p<0.05), while over-expression of miR-196a was significantly associated with poor differentiation (p=0.022). Moreover, binary logistic regression analysis demonstrated that the UICC stage was a significant risk factor for down-expression of miR-193b (adjusted OR=8.69; 95%CI=1.06-56.91; p=0.043). Additionally, Kaplan-Meier survival curves indicated that patients with a high fold-change of down-regulated miR-193b had a significantly shorter survival time (n=19; median survival=29 months) compared to patients with a low fold-change of down-regulated miR-193b (n=29; median survival=54 months) (p=0.001). Overall survival time of patients with a low fold-change of up-regulated miR- 196a (n=27; median survival=52 months) was significantly longer than that of patients with a high fold-change of up-regulated miR-196a (n=21; median survival=46 months) (p=0.003). Hence, miR-193b and miR-196a may be applied as novel and promising prognostic markers in gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
[Testing of germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Germination rate of rice seeds was measured according to technical stipulation of germination testing for agricultural crop seeds at present. There existed many faults for this technical stipulation such as long experimental period, more costing and higher professional requirement. A rapid and non-invasive method was put forward to measure the germination rate of hybrid rice seeds based on near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy. Two varieties of hybrid rice seeds were aged artificially at temperature 45 degrees C and humidity 100% condition for 0, 24, 48, 72, 96, 120 and 144 h. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds with different aging time were acquired individually by near-infrared spectra analyzer. Spectral data of 280 samples for 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds were randomly divided into calibration set (168 samples) and prediction set (112 samples). Gormination rate of rice seed with different aging time was tested. Regression model was established by using partial least squares (PLS). The effect of the different spectral bands on the accuracy of models was analyzed and the effect of the different spectral preprocessing methods on the accuracy of models was also compared. Optimal model was achieved under the whole bands and by using standardization and orthogonal signal correction (OSC) preprocessing algorithms with CM2000 software for spectral data of 2 varieties of hybrid rice seeds, the coefficient of determination of the calibration set (Rc) and that of the prediction set (Rp) were 0.965 and 0.931 individually, standard error of calibration set (SEC) and that of prediction set (SEP) were 1.929 and 2.899 respectively. Relative error between tested value and predicted value for prediction set of rice seeds is below 4.2%. The experimental results show that it is feasible that rice germination rate is detected rapidly and nondestructively by using the near-infrared spectroscopy analysis technology.
Related JoVE Video
Downregulated miR-329 and miR-410 promote the proliferation and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma by targeting Wnt-7b.
Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
MicroRNA (miRNA) dysregulation contributes widely to human cancer but has not been fully assessed in oral cancers. In this study, we conducted a global microarray analysis of miRNA expression in 40 pairs of betel quid-associated oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) specimens and their matched non-tumorous epithelial counterparts. Eighty-four miRNAs were differentially expressed in the OSCC specimens compared to the matched tissue. Among these downregulated miRNAs, 19 miRNAs were found and mapped to the chromosome 14q32.2 miRNA cluster region, which resides within a parentally imprinted region designated Dlk-Dio3 and known to be important in development and growth. Bioinformatic analysis predicted two miRNAs from the cluster region, miR-329 and miR-410, which could potentially target Wnt-7b, an activator of the Wnt/?-catenin pathway, thereby attenuating the Wnt/?-catenin signaling pathway in OSCC. Stable ectopic expression of Wnt-7b in OSCC cells overexpressing miR-329 or miR-410 restored proliferation and invasion capabilities abolished by these miRNA. Combining a demethylation agent and a histone deacetylase inhibitor was sufficient to re-express miR-329, miR-410 and Meg3 consistent with epigenetic regulation of these miRNA in human OSCC. Specifically, arecoline, a major betel nut alkaloid, reduced miR-329, miR-410 and Meg3 gene expression. Overall, our results provide novel molecular insights into how betel quid contribute to oral carcinogenesis through epigenetic silencing of tumor suppressor miRNA which target Wnt/?-catenin signaling.
Related JoVE Video
[Profile nutrient distribution and sedimentary characteristics in typical marshes of Sanjiang Plain].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Profile distribution characteristics of organic carbon (C), total nitrogen (N), total phosphorus (P) and total sulfur (S) were studied in two typical marshes including Carex lasiocarpa marsh and Phragmites australis marsh in the Sanjiang Plain. Sedimentary characteristics of typical mashes were analyzed. The results showed that vertically these soil chemical elements also varied, showing obvious stratification and enrichment. In a soil profile, soil organic C under both vegetation communities gradually decreased; soil total N first increased and then decreased under both; total P under Carex lasiocarpa first decreased and then increased, whereas it decreased with the increasing depth under Carex lasiocarpa; total S was reduced with increasing depth under both marshes. Total N, total P and total S were all strongly correlated with soil organic C (P < 0.01); soil organic C was strongly correlated with bulk density (P < 0.01). Our study also illustrated that the vegetation types had different influences for organic C, total N, total P and total S of the marsh profiles. Environmental 137Cs and 210Pb dating techniques were applied to determine recent sedimentation rates, and the constant rate of supply (CRS) was applied to deduce the age of sediment core, and the results showed that the mean sedimentation rate was 0.33 cm x a(-1), and the sedimentation fluxes ranged 0.03-0.48 g x (cm2 x a)(-1) [Mean = 0.29 g x (cm2 x a) -1].
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Parabotia banarescui (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Parabotia banarescui is a small-sized fish species of the family Cobitidae. In this study, we determined the complete mitochondrial genome of P. banarescui. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. banarescui was 16,590?bp in length with the overall nucleotide base composition of A (31.00%), T (25.35%), G (16.02%) and C (27.63%), as well as an AT content of 56.35%. Besides, it contained 2 rRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region and an L-strand replication origin (OL).
Related JoVE Video
A monomeric photosensitizer for targeted cancer therapy.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A targeted photosensitizer used in photodynamic therapy (PDT) was fabricated by incorporation of zinc phthalocyanine (ZnPc) and folic acid (FA) into polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) micelles, which exhibits excellent anticancer performance revealed by both in vitro studies and in vivo tests.
Related JoVE Video
A Chiroptical Switch Based on DNA/Layered Double Hydroxide Ultrathin Films.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A highly oriented film was fabricated by layer-by-layer self-assembly of DNA and MgAl-layered double hydroxide nanosheets, and its application in chiroptical switch was demonstrated via intercalation and deintercalation of an achiral molecule into the DNA cavity. DNA molecules are prone to forming an ordered and dispersive state in the interlayer region of rigid layered double hydroxide (LDH) nanosheets as confirmed by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy. The induced chiroptical ultrathin film (UTF) is achieved via the intercalation of an achiral chromophore [5,10,15,20-tetrakis(4-N-methylpyridyl)porphine tetra(p-toluenesulfonate) (TMPyP)] into the spiral cavity of DNA stabilized in the LDH matrix [denoted as TMPyP-(DNA/LDH)20]. Fluorescence and circular dichroism spectroscopy are utilized to testify the intercalation of TMPyP into (DNA/LDH)20 UTF that involves two steps: the electrostatic binding of TMPyP onto the surface of (DNA/LDH)20 followed by intercalation into base pairs of DNA. In addition, the TMPyP-(DNA/LDH)20 UTF exhibits good reversibility and repeatability in induced optical chirality, based on the intercalation and deintercalation of TMPyP by alternate exposure to HCl and NH3/H2O vapor, which can be potentially used as a chiroptical switch in data storage.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Parabotia fasciata (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 10-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Parabotia fasciata is a small-sized benthopelagic fish species in the family Cobitidae. In the present study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of P fasciata. The complete mitochondrial genome of P. fasciata was 16,590?bp in length, which contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, a control region, and an L-strand replication origin (OL). Besides, its overall nucleotide base composition of mitogenome was 31.28% for A, 25.83% for T, 15.72% for G and 27.17% for C, as well as an AT content of 57.11%.
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Hyriopsis cumingii (Unionoida: Unionidae): genome description and related phylogenetic analyses.
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Hyriopsis cumingii is a freshwater pearl mussel in china, easily identified by a big sail-like bulging at back edge of the mussel. In the present study, we reported the complete mitochondrial genome of H. cumingii. It was 16,958?bp in length, and it contained 13 protein-coding genes, 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes. Besides, we conducted alignment with other two different individuals of H. cumingii and phylogenetic analysis with closely related species.
Related JoVE Video
[Isolation and identification of a strain converting levoglucosan to carotenoid].
Wei Sheng Wu Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In order to use cellulosic biomass effectively, we screened a strain that can convert levoglucosan efficiently to carotenoids.
Related JoVE Video
Paraneoplastic Ma Antigen-Like 1 as a Potential Prognostic Biomarker in Human Pancreatic Ductal Adenocarcinoma.
Pancreas
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The present study aimed to identify novel useful clinical biomarker at early stages and to elucidate the molecular background of carcinogenesis in human pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs).
Related JoVE Video
The complete mitochondrial genome of Leptobotia taeniaps (Cypriniformes: Cobitidae).
Mitochondrial DNA
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Leptobotia taeniaps is a small-sized benthopelagic fish species in the famally Cobitidae. In the present study, the complete mitochondrial genome of L. taeniaps was determined. The complete mitochondrial genome of L. taeniaps was 16,592?bp in length, containing 2 rRNA genes, 22 tRNA genes, 13 protein-coding genes, a control region, and an L-strand replication origin (OL). Its overall nucleotide base composition of mitogenome was 31.08% for A, 15.95% for G, 24.98% for T and 27.99% for C, as well as an AT content of 56.06%.
Related JoVE Video
[Effects of silicon on photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped cucumber seedlings].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The effects of spraying exogenous silicon (Si) (0, 1, 2, 3, 4 and 5 mmol L(-1)) on the growth, photosynthetic characteristics and activity of antioxidant enzymes in continuous-cropped 'Jinyan No. 4' cucumber seedlings were studied. The results showed that with the application of 1-3 mmol x L(-1) Si, electrolyte leakage (EL) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in leaves were significantly decreased, while the contents of chlorophyll a (Chl a), chlorophyll b (Chl b), carotenoids (Car), chlorophyll (a+b) and photosynthetic rate (Pn) in leaves were significantly improved, the activities of superoxidase (SOD), peroxidase (POD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbic acid peroxidase (APX) were significantly increased, and the plant height, stem diameter and dry mass accumulation of cucumber seedlings were promoted. Compared with the low Si concentrations, excessive Si (4-5 mmol x L(-1)) resulted in higher EL and MDA, which were still lower than that in control, decreased the antioxidant enzymes activity and photosynthesis, and inhibited the growth of cucumber seedlings. These findings indicated that exogenous Si could enhance the capacity of scavenging active oxygen species and improve photosynthesis, protect cucumber seedlings from the lipid peroxidation, and increase the resistance to continuous-cropped cucumber obstacle. The optimal silicon concentration was 2 mmol x L(-1).
Related JoVE Video
[Genetic diversity of rhizobia isolated from shrubby and herbaceous legumes in Shenmu arid area, Shaanxi, China].
Ying Yong Sheng Tai Xue Bao
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Legume, with a strong resistance to the adverse environmental conditions, is one of pioneer plants in the desert region and plays an important role in the protection of the ecological environment. In this study, the symbiosis of rhizobia associating with shrubby and herbaceous legumes in Shenmu area, Shaanxi, China was characterized by the 16S rRNA PCR-RFLP and sequence analysis of involved genes. A total of 55 strains were isolated and purified, including 30 strains from the shrubby legume Amorpha fruticosa and Caragana microphylla, and 25 strains from herbaceous plants Astragalus adsurgens, Medicago sativa and Astragalus melilotoides. Results showed that there were 11 16S rRNA genotypes. The strains isolated from herbaceous legumes belonged to five genus including Mesorhizobium, Ensifer, Rhizobium, Phyllobacterium and Agrobacterium, which were very close related to M. huakuii, M. mediterraneum, M. robiniae, E. fredii, E. meliloti, R. indigoferae, R. radiobacter, P. ifriqiyense and Ag. tumefaciens through the phylogenetic analysis. The strains isolated from shrubby legumes belonged to Mesorhizobium, and they were very close related to M. huakuii and M. mediterraneum which were shared simultaneously by shrubby and herbaceous legumes. All of these indicated the choice of rhizobia by the two types of legumes in the arid area was different, and it might depend on the species of host plant and environmental factors.
Related JoVE Video
A retrospective study of anesthesia during rigid bronchoscopy for airway foreign body removal in children: propofol and sevoflurane with spontaneous ventilation.
Paediatr Anaesth
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tracheobronchial foreign body aspiration is a significant cause of childhood morbidity and mortality. We analyzed our experience in management of aspirated foreign bodies, including methods of anesthesia used, over a 4-year period.
Related JoVE Video
Genetic Associations with Plasma B12, B6, and Folate Levels in an Ischemic Stroke Population from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) Trial.
Front Public Health
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
B vitamins play an important role in homocysteine metabolism, with vitamin deficiencies resulting in increased levels of homocysteine and increased risk for stroke. We performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) in 2,100 stroke patients from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) trial, a clinical trial designed to determine whether the daily intake of high-dose folic acid, vitamins B6, and B12 reduce recurrent cerebral infarction.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of Ginkgo biloba extract on periodontal pathogens and its clinical efficacy as adjuvant treatment.
Chin J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the effects of Ginkgo biloba extract (EGB) on major periodontal pathogens in subgingival plaque.
Related JoVE Video
Meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies in African Americans provides insights into the genetic architecture of type 2 diabetes.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Type 2 diabetes (T2D) is more prevalent in African Americans than in Europeans. However, little is known about the genetic risk in African Americans despite the recent identification of more than 70 T2D loci primarily by genome-wide association studies (GWAS) in individuals of European ancestry. In order to investigate the genetic architecture of T2D in African Americans, the MEta-analysis of type 2 DIabetes in African Americans (MEDIA) Consortium examined 17 GWAS on T2D comprising 8,284 cases and 15,543 controls in African Americans in stage 1 analysis. Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) association analysis was conducted in each study under the additive model after adjustment for age, sex, study site, and principal components. Meta-analysis of approximately 2.6 million genotyped and imputed SNPs in all studies was conducted using an inverse variance-weighted fixed effect model. Replications were performed to follow up 21 loci in up to 6,061 cases and 5,483 controls in African Americans, and 8,130 cases and 38,987 controls of European ancestry. We identified three known loci (TCF7L2, HMGA2 and KCNQ1) and two novel loci (HLA-B and INS-IGF2) at genome-wide significance (4.15 × 10(-94)
Related JoVE Video
[Biochemical indicators of anaphylactic shock and the application in forensic medicine].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Fatal anaphylactic shock is common in forensic practice. However, it is difficult to diagnose for lacking specific pathological and morphologic changes in forensic autopsy. The application of some biochemical indicators is of great significance. This paper reviews the biological characteristics of some biochemical indicators and detection methods. The forensic application, problems and prospects of these indicators are also introduced in details. The stable biochemical indicators, IgE, tryptase and chymase, show great potential and advantages in the identification of fatal anaphylactic shock in forensic medicine.
Related JoVE Video
Fine mapping and functional studies of risk variants for type 1 diabetes at chromosome 16p13.13.
Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in the chromosomal region 16p13.13 have been previously associated with risk for several autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes. To identify and localize specific risk variants for type 1 diabetes in this region and understand the mechanism of their action, we resequenced a 455-kb region in type 1 diabetic patients and unaffected control subjects, identifying 93 novel variants. A panel of 939 SNPs that included 46 of these novel variants was genotyped in 3,070 multiplex families with type 1 diabetes. Forty-eight SNPs, all located in CLEC16A, provided a statistically significant association (P < 5.32 × 10(-5)) with disease, with rs34306440 being most significantly associated (P = 5.74 × 10(-6)). The panel of SNPs used for fine mapping was also tested for association with transcript levels for each of the four genes in the region in B lymphoblastoid cell lines. Significant associations were observed only for transcript levels of DEXI, a gene with unknown function. We examined the relationship between the odds ratio for type 1 diabetes and the magnitude of the effect of DEXI transcript levels for each SNP in the region. Among SNPs significantly associated with type 1 diabetes, the common allele conferred an increased risk for disease and corresponded to lower DEXI expression. Our results suggest that the primary mechanism by which genetic variation at CLEC16A contributes to the risk for type 1 diabetes is through reduced expression of DEXI.
Related JoVE Video
The over-expression of aquaporin-1 alters erythroid gene expression in human erythroleukemia K562 cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aquaporin genes are differentially expressed in primitive versus definitive erythropoiesis. Our previous research results showed that over-expression of aquaporin-1 (AQP1) gene greatly promotes the erythroid differentiation of erythroleukemia K562 cells, using benzidine staining and quantitative reverse-transcriptase polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) analysis for representative erythroid-related genes, including ?-globin. But the molecular mechanisms underlying erythroid-specific gene regulation remain unknown. In this study, we demonstrated that AQP1 induced hemoglobins expression and altered erythroid gene expression by microarray analysis in K562 cells. The retroviral expression vector of AQP1 (pBABE-puro-AQP1) was constructed and infected K562 cells to establish a stable AQP1 over-expression cell line (K562-AQP1). AQP1 over-expression effectively inhibited cell proliferation and induced cell growth arrest in G1 phase of K562 cells. Then microarray profile was applied to analyze the differentially expressed genes which involved the mechanism of AQP1 in erythroid differentiation induction. The DAVID functional annotation clustering tool was used to identify biological functions enriched with the differentially expressed genes (n?=?466 genes) and to group genes into clusters based on their functional similarity. Significant enrichment of genes involved in "oxygen transporter activity" (p?=?3.8E-7) including hemoglobins (HBD, HBG, HBB, HBE1, and HBQ1), HEMGN, and EBP42 were validated by qRT-PCR. Moreover, silencing of HEMGN by RNA interference in K562-AQP1 cells resulted in down-regulation of these genes. These data provide a better understanding of the role of AQP1 in erythroid differentiation, by promoting HEMGN induction and other potential signaling pathways associated with hemoglobin induction.
Related JoVE Video
Nitric oxide, as a downstream signal, plays vital role in auxin induced cucumber tolerance to sodic alkaline stress.
Plant Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Nitric oxide (NO) and auxin (indole-3-acetic acid; IAA) play vital roles in regulating plants tolerance to abiotic stresses. This study showed that both NO and IAA could induce cucumber plants tolerance to sodic alkaline stress, which depended on their roles in regulating reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging, antioxidative enzymes activities, Na(+) accumulation and protecting photosystems II (PSII) from damage. In addition, IAA has significant effect on NO accumulation in cucumber root, which could be responsible for IAA-induced sodic alkaline stress tolerance. Further investigation indicated that the function of IAA could be abolished by NO scavenger (cPTIO). On the contrary, IAA transport inhibitor (NPA) showed no significant effects on abolishing the function of NO. Based on these results, it could be concluded that NO is an essential downstream signal for IAA-induced cucumber tolerance to sodic alkaline stress.
Related JoVE Video
HLA-DRB1*07:01 is associated with a higher risk of asparaginase allergies.
Blood
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Asparaginase is a therapeutic enzyme used to treat leukemia and lymphoma, with immune responses resulting in suboptimal drug exposure and a greater risk of relapse. To elucidate whether there is a genetic component to the mechanism of asparaginase-induced immune responses, we imputed human leukocyte antigen (HLA) alleles in patients of European ancestry enrolled on leukemia trials at St. Jude Children's Research Hospital (n = 541) and the Children's Oncology Group (n = 1329). We identified a higher incidence of hypersensitivity and anti-asparaginase antibodies in patients with HLA-DRB1*07:01 alleles (P = 7.5 × 10(-5), odds ratio [OR] = 1.64; P = 1.4 × 10(-5), OR = 2.92, respectively). Structural analysis revealed that high-risk amino acids were located within the binding pocket of the HLA protein, possibly affecting the interaction between asparaginase epitopes and the HLA-DRB1 protein. Using a sequence-based consensus approach, we predicted the binding affinity of HLA-DRB1 alleles for asparaginase epitopes, and patients whose HLA genetics predicted high-affinity binding had more allergy (P = 3.3 × 10(-4), OR = 1.38). Our results suggest a mechanism of allergy whereby HLA-DRB1 alleles that confer high-affinity binding to asparaginase epitopes lead to a higher frequency of reactions. These trials were registered at www.clinicaltrials.gov as NCT00137111, NCT00549848, NCT00005603, and NCT00075725.
Related JoVE Video
Tanshinone IIA attenuates hypoxic pulmonary hypertension via modulating KV currents.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The voltage-gated K(+) (KV) channels play an essential role in the etiology of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension (CH-PH).Tanshinone IIA (TIIA), a major active component of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge (S. miltiorrhiza), has many biological protective effects. In the present study, we investigated whether KV channels were responsible for the protective effect of TIIA on CH-PH. In acute hypoxia experiments, the [Formula: see text] currents of pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells (PASMCs) isolated from healthy rats were determined in the absence or presence of TIIA (5?g/ml or 25?g/ml) or 4-AP (1mM). In chronic hypoxia experiments, rats were challenged by intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia exposure for 4 weeks with or without TIIA (10mg/kg) treatment. Subsequently, the hemodynamic data and the pathomorphological changes of pulmonary arteries were gathered. The expressions of KV2.1 and KV1.5 in pulmonary arteries were tested by Western blotting and RT-PCR, respectively. PASMCs were detached from intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia exposure rats to evaluate the [Formula: see text] currents. Results showed that TIIA markedly recovered acute hypoxia-induced the down-regulation of [Formula: see text] currents in PASMCs. Moreover, TIIA significantly restrained chronic intermittent hypoxia or sustained hypoxia-induced pulmonary artery wall remodeling, accompanied with modulating the expressions of KV2.1 and KV1.5, and reversing the down-regulation of [Formula: see text] currents. TIIA is thus an attractive potential therapy for CH-PH.
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of gene expression in autoimmune disease loci and the genetic basis of proliferation in CD4+ effector memory T cells.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 06-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Genome-wide association studies (GWAS) and subsequent dense-genotyping of associated loci identified over a hundred single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) variants associated with the risk of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), type 1 diabetes (T1D), and celiac disease (CeD). Immunological and genetic studies suggest a role for CD4-positive effector memory T (CD+ TEM) cells in the pathogenesis of these diseases. To elucidate mechanisms of autoimmune disease alleles, we investigated molecular phenotypes in CD4+ effector memory T cells potentially affected by these variants. In a cohort of genotyped healthy individuals, we isolated high purity CD4+ TEM cells from peripheral blood, then assayed relative abundance, proliferation upon T cell receptor (TCR) stimulation, and the transcription of 215 genes within disease loci before and after stimulation. We identified 46 genes regulated by cis-acting expression quantitative trait loci (eQTL), the majority of which we detected in stimulated cells. Eleven of the 46 genes with eQTLs were previously undetected in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. Of 96 risk alleles of RA, T1D, and/or CeD in densely genotyped loci, eleven overlapped cis-eQTLs, of which five alleles completely explained the respective signals. A non-coding variant, rs389862A, increased proliferative response (p=4.75 × 10-8). In addition, baseline expression of seventeen genes in resting cells reliably predicted proliferative response after TCR stimulation. Strikingly, however, there was no evidence that risk alleles modulated CD4+ TEM abundance or proliferation. Our study underscores the power of examining molecular phenotypes in relevant cells and conditions for understanding pathogenic mechanisms of disease variants.
Related JoVE Video
Radiation pneumonitis after radiotherapy of neck lymphoma.
Case Rep Pulmonol
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiotherapy is still one of the effective means for treatment of malignant tumors up to now. Particularly, it is an indispensable effective measure for treatment of some lymphoma patients. In routine work, radiation pneumonitis (RP) is the most significant complication of acute treatment-related toxicities in lung cancer; however, serious radioactive pneumonia is rare for the radiotherapy of neck lymphoma because the volume of the lungs affected by radiation dose was very small. We report a lymphoma case, where the patient had undergone radiotherapy for the bilateral neck and bilateral supraclavicular/infraclavicular area. Following completion of radiotherapy, the patient developed severe radiation pneumonitis.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of critical process parameters on luminescence properties of Eu2+/Dy3+ co-doped high silica luminescence glass].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the present work, Eu2+/Dy3+ co-doped high silica glasses with different process parameters were prepared and the effect of critical process parameters including phase separation temperature, solution concentration and sintering temperature on the luminescence properties of Eu2+/Dy3+ co-doped high silica glasses was investigated by means of measuring pore surface parameters of porous glasses, emission spectra, infrared absorption spectra and densities of high silica glasses. Pore structure parameters of porous glass samples and emission spectra of corresponding high silica glass samples with different phase separation temperatures show that the phase separation temperature has indirect effect on luminescence properties of high silica glass by influencing specific surface area value of corresponding porous glass. Specific surface area of porous glass changes when phase separation temperature changes. High silica glass achieves maximum emission intensity when the maximum specific surface area of porous glass is obtained. Luminescence intensity of high silica glass increases when specific surface area of porous glass increases. Emission spectra of high silica glass samples with different solution concentrations show that the emission intensities of Eu2+ and Dy3+ in high silica glass are enhanced with the increase in the Dy3+ concentration in solution; when the Dy3+ concentration is beyond 0.1 mol x L(-1), the emission intensities of Eu2+ and Dy3+ in high silica glass are both decreased due to the occurring of concentration quench of Dy3+ in the glass. Emission spectra and infrared absorption spectra of high silica glass samples with different sintering temperatures show that the emission intensity of high silica glass is increased with the increase in the sintering temperature because the content of residual hydroxyl groups -OH in the glass is decreased; when the sintering temperature is beyond 1000 degrees C, the high silica glass exhibits crystalline and the luminescence intensity decreases.
Related JoVE Video
Calpain-1 contributes to IgE-mediated mast cell activation.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Mast cells play a central role in allergy through secretion of both preformed and newly synthesized mediators. Mast cell mediator secretion is controlled by a complex network of signaling events. Despite intensive studies, signaling pathways in the regulation of mast cell mediator secretion remain incompletely defined. In this study, we examined the role of calpain in IgE-dependent mast cell activation. IgE-mediated activation of mouse bone marrow-derived mast cells enhanced calpain activity. Inhibition of calpain activity by a number of calpain inhibitors reduced IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation both in vitro and in vivo. Calpain inhibitors blocked IgE-mediated TNF and IL-6 production in vitro and reduced late-phase allergic response in vivo. Importantly, mouse calpain-1 null bone marrow-derived mast cells showed reduced IgE-mediated mast cell degranulation in vitro and in vivo, diminished cytokine and chemokine production in vitro, and impaired late-phase allergic response in vivo. Further studies revealed that calpain-1 deficiency led to specific attenuation of I?B-NF-?B pathway and IKK-SNAP23 pathway, whereas calcium flux, MAPK, Akt, and NFAT pathway proceed normally in IgE-activated calpain-1 null mast cells. Thus, calpain-1 is identified as a novel regulator in IgE-mediated mast cell activation and could serve as a potential therapeutic target for the management of allergic inflammation.
Related JoVE Video
Enrichment of anodic biofilm inoculated with anaerobic or aerobic sludge in single chambered air-cathode microbial fuel cells.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Aerobic sludge after anaerobic pretreatment and anaerobic sludge were separately used as inoculum to start up air-cathode single-chamber MFCs. Aerobic sludge-inoculated MFCs arrived at 0.27 V with a maximum power density of 5.79 W m(-3), while anaerobic sludge-inoculated MFCs reached 0.21 V with 3.66 W m(-3). Microbial analysis with DGGE profiling and high-throughput sequencing indicated that aerobic sludge contained more diverse bacterial populations than anaerobic sludge. Nitrospira species dominated in aerobic sludge, while anaerobic sludge was dominated by Desulfurella and Acidithiobacillus species. Microbial community structure and composition in anodic biofilms enriched, respectively from aerobic and anaerobic sludges tended gradually to be similar. Potentially exoelectrogenic Geobacter and Anaeromusa species, biofilm-forming Zoogloea and Acinetobacter species were abundant in both anodic biofilms. This study indicated that aerobic sludge performed better for MFCs startup, and the enrichment of anodic microbial consortium with different inocula but same substrate resulted in uniformity of functional microbial communities.
Related JoVE Video
A hybrid qPCR/SNP array approach allows cost efficient assessment of KIR gene copy numbers in large samples.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Killer Immunoglobulin-like Receptors (KIRs) are surface receptors of natural killer cells that bind to their corresponding Human Leukocyte Antigen (HLA) class I ligands, making them interesting candidate genes for HLA-associated autoimmune diseases, including type 1 diabetes (T1D). However, allelic and copy number variation in the KIR region effectively mask it from standard genome-wide association studies: single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) probes targeting the region are often discarded by standard genotype callers since they exhibit variable cluster numbers. Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR) assays address this issue. However, their cost is prohibitive at the sample sizes required for detecting effects typically observed in complex genetic diseases.
Related JoVE Video
Enhanced decolorization of azo dye in a small pilot-scale anaerobic baffled reactor coupled with biocatalyzed electrolysis system (ABR-BES): a design suitable for scaling-up.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A four-compartment anaerobic baffled reactor (ABR) incorporated with membrane-less biocatalyzed electrolysis system (BES) was tested for the treatment of azo dye (alizarin yellow R, AYR) wastewater (AYR, 200 mg L(-1); glucose, 1000 mg L(-1)). The ABR-BES was operated without and with external power supply to examine AYR reduction process and reductive intermediates with different external voltages (0.3, 0.5 and 0.7 V) and hydraulic retention times (HRT: 8, 6 and 4h). The decolorization efficiency in the ABR-BES (8h HRT, 0.5 V) was higher than that in ABR-BES without electrolysis, i.e. 95.1 ± 1.5% versus 86.9 ± 6.3%. Incorporation of BES with ABR accelerated the consumption of VFAs (mainly acetate) and attenuated biogas (methane) production. Higher power supply (0.7 V) enhanced AYR decolorization efficiency (96.4 ± 1.8%), VFAs removal, and current density (24.1 Am(-3) TCV). Shorter HRT increased volumetric AYR decolorization rates, but decreased AYR decolorization efficiency.
Related JoVE Video
Biofuel production from microalgae as feedstock: current status and potential.
Crit. Rev. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract Algal biofuel has become an attractive alternative of petroleum-based fuels in the past decade. Microalgae have been proposed as a feedstock to produce biodiesel, since they are capable of mitigating CO2 emission and accumulating lipids with high productivity. This article is an overview of the updated status of biofuels, especially biodiesel production from microalgae including fundamental research, culture selection and engineering process development; it summarizes research on mathematical and life cycle modeling on algae growth and biomass production; and it updates global efforts of research and development and commercialization attempts. The major challenges are also discussed.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide meta-analysis of homocysteine and methionine metabolism identifies five one carbon metabolism loci and a novel association of ALDH1L1 with ischemic stroke.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Circulating homocysteine levels (tHcy), a product of the folate one carbon metabolism pathway (FOCM) through the demethylation of methionine, are heritable and are associated with an increased risk of common diseases such as stroke, cardiovascular disease (CVD), cancer and dementia. The FOCM is the sole source of de novo methyl group synthesis, impacting many biological and epigenetic pathways. However, the genetic determinants of elevated tHcy (hyperhomocysteinemia), dysregulation of methionine metabolism and the underlying biological processes remain unclear. We conducted independent genome-wide association studies and a meta-analysis of methionine metabolism, characterized by post-methionine load test tHcy, in 2,710 participants from the Framingham Heart Study (FHS) and 2,100 participants from the Vitamin Intervention for Stroke Prevention (VISP) clinical trial, and then examined the association of the identified loci with incident stroke in FHS. Five genes in the FOCM pathway (GNMT [p = 1.60 × 10(-63)], CBS [p = 3.15 × 10(-26)], CPS1 [p = 9.10 × 10(-13)], ALDH1L1 [p = 7.3 × 10(-13)] and PSPH [p = 1.17 × 10(-16)]) were strongly associated with the difference between pre- and post-methionine load test tHcy levels (?POST). Of these, one variant in the ALDH1L1 locus, rs2364368, was associated with incident ischemic stroke. Promoter analyses reveal genetic and epigenetic differences that may explain a direct effect on GNMT transcription and a downstream affect on methionine metabolism. Additionally, a genetic-score consisting of the five significant loci explains 13% of the variance of ?POST in FHS and 6% of the variance in VISP. Association between variants in FOCM genes with ?POST suggest novel mechanisms that lead to differences in methionine metabolism, and possibly the epigenome, impacting disease risk. These data emphasize the importance of a concerted effort to understand regulators of one carbon metabolism as potential therapeutic targets.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association study for circulating tissue plasminogen activator levels and functional follow-up implicates endothelial STXBP5 and STX2.
Jie Huang, Jennifer E Huffman, Munekazu Yamakuchi, Munekazu Yamkauchi, Stella Trompet, Folkert W Asselbergs, Maria Sabater-Lleal, David-Alexandre Trégouët, Wei-Min Chen, Nicholas L Smith, Marcus E Kleber, So-Youn Shin, Diane M Becker, Weihong Tang, Abbas Dehghan, Andrew D Johnson, Vinh Truong, Lasse Folkersen, Qiong Yang, Tiphaine Oudot-Mellkah, Brendan M Buckley, Jason H Moore, Frances M K Williams, Harry Campbell, Günther Silbernagel, Veronique Vitart, Igor Rudan, Geoffrey H Tofler, Gerjan J Navis, Anita DeStefano, Alan F Wright, Ming-Huei Chen, Anton J M de Craen, Bradford B Worrall, Alicja R Rudnicka, Ann Rumley, Ebony B Bookman, Bruce M Psaty, Fang Chen, Keith L Keene, Oscar H Franco, Bernhard O Böhm, André G Uitterlinden, Angela M Carter, J Wouter Jukema, Naveed Sattar, Joshua C Bis, Mohammad A Ikram, , Michèle M Sale, Barbara McKnight, Myriam Fornage, Ian Ford, Kent Taylor, P Eline Slagboom, Wendy L McArdle, Fang-Chi Hsu, Anders Franco-Cereceda, Alison H Goodall, Lisa R Yanek, Karen L Furie, Mary Cushman, Albert Hofman, Jacqueline C M Witteman, Aaron R Folsom, Saonli Basu, Nena Matijevic, Wiek H van Gilst, James F Wilson, Rudi G J Westendorp, Sekar Kathiresan, Muredach P Reilly, Russell P Tracy, Ozren Polašek, Bernhard R Winkelmann, Peter J Grant, Hans L Hillege, Francois Cambien, David J Stott, Gordon D Lowe, Timothy D Spector, James B Meigs, Winfried März, Per Eriksson, Lewis C Becker, Pierre-Emmanuel Morange, Nicole Soranzo, Scott M Williams, Caroline Hayward, Pim van der Harst, Anders Hamsten, Charles J Lowenstein, David P Strachan, Christopher J O'Donnell.
Arterioscler. Thromb. Vasc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Tissue plasminogen activator (tPA), a serine protease, catalyzes the conversion of plasminogen to plasmin, the major enzyme responsible for endogenous fibrinolysis. In some populations, elevated plasma levels of tPA have been associated with myocardial infarction and other cardiovascular diseases. We conducted a meta-analysis of genome-wide association studies to identify novel correlates of circulating levels of tPA.
Related JoVE Video
Physiological and electrochemical effects of different electron acceptors on bacterial anode respiration in bioelectrochemical systems.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To understand the interactions between bacterial electrode respiration and the other ambient bacterial electron acceptor reductions, alternative electron acceptors (nitrate, Fe2O3, fumarate, azo dye MB17) were added singly or multiply into Shewanella decolorationis microbial fuel cells (MFCs). All the added electron acceptors were reduced simultaneously with current generation. Adding nitrate or MB17 resulted in more rapid cell growth, higher flavin concentration and higher biofilm metabolic viability, but lower columbic efficiency (CE) and normalized energy recovery (NER) while the CE and NER were enhanced by Fe2O3 or fumarate. The added electron acceptors also significantly influenced the cyclic voltammetry profile of anode biofilm probably via altering the cytochrome c expression. The highest power density was observed in MFCs added with MB17 due to the electron shuttle role of the naphthols from MB17 reduction. The results provided important information for MFCs applied in practical environments where contains various electron acceptors.
Related JoVE Video
Expression of TRPV1 in the C57BL/6 mice brain hippocampus and cortex during development.
Neuroreport
PUBLISHED: 02-04-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) channel has been found to be expressed in a variety of tissues over the last few years, including the central nervous system (CNS). However, the distribution of TRPV1 in the CNS remains a controversial question. Here, we reveal that the expression of TRPV1 can be detected in the C57BL/6 mouse hippocampus and cortex using real-time PCR and western blot. Beyond that, mRNA and protein expression levels of TRPV1 show dynamic changes during brain development. Compared with the earliest timepoint examined at 2 weeks, the expression levels of mRNA progressively increased at 4 and 8 weeks, peaking at the later timepoint, then declined at 16 weeks but remained elevated. However, compared with 2-week-old mice, the expression levels of the other three groups (4-, 8-, and 16-week-old mice) increased overall. These results indicate that TRPV1 channel expression is detectable in the CNS and it varies during postnatal development.
Related JoVE Video
Biodegradation and kinetic analysis of phthalates by an Arthrobacter strain isolated from constructed wetland soil.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A bacterial strain C21 isolated from constructed wetland soil was identified as Arthrobacter sp. based on 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis and physio-biochemical characteristics and was capable of utilizing di-n-butyl phthalate (DBP) as a carbon and energy source for growth. Strain C21 can also utilize other phthalates (PAEs) up to a molecular weight of 390.56 and phthalic acid (PA). The biodegradability of these compounds decreased with the increase in the length of phthalate alkyl chains and molecular weight. Kinetic analysis indicated that the strain C21 cell growth on DBP fitted well with Haldane-Andrews' model (R (2)?>?0.98) with ? max, K s, and K i of 0.12/h, 4.2 mg/L, and 204.6 mg/L, respectively. When the initial DBP concentration was lower than 100 mg/L, DBP biodegradation reaction fitted with the first-order kinetics. The results suggested that Arthrobacter strain C21 played an active role in the bioremediation of the wetland contaminated with phthalates.
Related JoVE Video
Using rigidly fixed autogenous tooth graft to repair bone defect: an animal model.
Dent Traumatol
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study describes a new approach to regenerate bone defect using autogenous tooth.
Related JoVE Video
Effects of clasp retention forces and abrasion on different cast crowns.
J Prosthet Dent
PUBLISHED: 01-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Dental alloys have different mechanical properties compared with enamel. However, few studies have been conducted to determine the effects of the retention forces of clasps when applied on different cast crowns.
Related JoVE Video
A method for gene-based pathway analysis using genomewide association study summary statistics reveals nine new type 1 diabetes associations.
Genet. Epidemiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Pathway analysis can complement point-wise single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) analysis in exploring genomewide association study (GWAS) data to identify specific disease-associated genes that can be candidate causal genes. We propose a straightforward methodology that can be used for conducting a gene-based pathway analysis using summary GWAS statistics in combination with widely available reference genotype data. We used this method to perform a gene-based pathway analysis of a type 1 diabetes (T1D) meta-analysis GWAS (of 7,514 cases and 9,045 controls). An important feature of the conducted analysis is the removal of the major histocompatibility complex gene region, the major genetic risk factor for T1D. Thirty-one of the 1,583 (2%) tested pathways were identified to be enriched for association with T1D at a 5% false discovery rate. We analyzed these 31 pathways and their genes to identify SNPs in or near these pathway genes that showed potentially novel association with T1D and attempted to replicate the association of 22 SNPs in additional samples. Replication P-values were skewed (P=9.85×10-11) with 12 of the 22 SNPs showing P<0.05. Support, including replication evidence, was obtained for nine T1D associated variants in genes ITGB7 (rs11170466, P=7.86×10-9), NRP1 (rs722988, 4.88×10-8), BAD (rs694739, 2.37×10-7), CTSB (rs1296023, 2.79×10-7), FYN (rs11964650, P=5.60×10-7), UBE2G1 (rs9906760, 5.08×10-7), MAP3K14 (rs17759555, 9.67×10-7), ITGB1 (rs1557150, 1.93×10-6), and IL7R (rs1445898, 2.76×10-6). The proposed methodology can be applied to other GWAS datasets for which only summary level data are available.
Related JoVE Video
Gene Expressing Difference in Sclerotial Formation of Morchella conica.
Indian J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The difference of gene expression between sclerotia-producing and non-sclerotia-producing single spore isolates from Morchella conica were preliminary analyzed by mRNA differential display reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique and 67 differential gene fragments were obtained. Fifty-eight of their second PCR products were cloned and sequenced. Thirteen special differential gene fragments related to sclerotial formation were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Some gene fragments had certain homologies with lipoprotein, cyclin-dependent kinase C-3, glycerophosphoryl diester phosphodiesterase, Rho GDP-dissociation inhibitor, gamma-aminobutyrate permease, OmpA family protein, Transcript antisense to ribosomal RNA protein, sodium-calcium exchange protein and keratin-associated proteins 5, 6. In addition, the putative protein of some DNA fragments had higher similarity with hypothetical protein-coding gene in NCBI database, as well as some were only putative gene fragments. All these fragments were speculated to be the functional gene associated with sclerotial formation in morel.
Related JoVE Video
Prospective memory performance in non-psychotic first-degree relatives of patients with schizophrenia: a controlled study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We aimed at investigating prospective memory and its socio-demographic and neurocognitive correlates in non-psychotic, first-degree relatives (FDRs) of patients with schizophrenia compared to patients with first episode schizophrenia (FES), and healthy controls (HCs).
Related JoVE Video
Regulation of Kv4.2 A-Type Potassium Channels in HEK-293 Cells by Hypoxia.
Front Cell Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We previously observed that A-type potassium currents were decreased and membrane excitability increased in hippocampal dentate granule cells after neonatal global hypoxia associated with seizures. Here, we studied the effects of hypoxia on the function and expression of Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 ? subunit channels, which encode rapidly inactivating A-type K currents, in transfected HEK-293 cells to determine if hypoxia alone could regulate IA in vitro. Global hypoxia in neonatal rat pups resulted in early decreased hippocampal expression of Kv4.2 mRNA and protein with 6 or 12?h post-hypoxia. Whole-cell voltage-clamp recordings revealed that similar times after hypoxia (1%) in vitro decreased peak currents mediated by recombinant Kv4.2 but not Kv4.3 channels. Hypoxia had no significant effect on the voltage-dependencies of activation and inactivation of Kv4.2 channels, but increased the time constant of activation. The same result was observed when Kv4.2 and Kv4.3 channels were co-expressed in a 1:1 ratio. These data suggested that hypoxia directly modulates A-type potassium channels of the subfamily typically expressed in principal hippocampal neurons, and does so in a manner to decrease function. Given the role of IA to slow action potential firing, these data are consistent with a direct effect of hypoxia to decrease IA as a mechanism of increased neuronal excitability and promotion of seizures.
Related JoVE Video
Overexpression of Rsf-1 correlates with pathological type, p53 status and survival in primary breast cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The incidence of breast cancer in developing countries still increasing, to identify novel molecular markers associated with carcinogenesis and prognosis of breast cancer still being implemented. The largest subunit of Remodeling and spacing factor (RSF), Rsf-1, mediates ATPase-dependent chromatin remodeling. Its oncogenic properties have been demonstrated in certain carcinomas. The aim of this study was to examine the prognostic value of Rsf-1 in patients with primary breast carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Synthesis and antibacterial activities of acylide derivatives bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl chain.
Drug Des Devel Ther
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Seventeen acylides bearing an aryl-tetrazolyl alkyl-substituted side chain were synthesized, starting from clarithromycin, via several reactions including hydrolysis, acetylating, esterification, carbamylation, and Michael addition. The structures of all new compounds were confirmed by (1)H nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, (13)C nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and mass spectrometry. All these synthesized acylides were evaluated for in vitro antimicrobial activities against gram-positive pathogens (Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis) and gram-negative pathogens (Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli), using the broth microdilution method. Results showed that compounds 10 e, 10 f, 10 g, 10 h, 10 o have good antibacterial activities.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation of replication of variants associated with genetic risk of otitis media.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The first Genome Wide Association Study (GWAS) of otitis media (OM) found evidence of association in the Western Australian Pregnancy Cohort (Raine) study, but lacked replication in an independent OM population. The aim of this study was to investigate association at these loci in our family-based sample of chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media (COME/ROM). Autosomal SNPs were selected from the Raine OM GWAS results. SNPs from the Raine cohort GWAS genotyped in our GWAS of COME/ROM had P-values ranging from P?=?0.06-0.80. After removal of SNPs previously genotyped in our GWAS of COME/ROM (N?=?21) and those that failed Fluidigm assay design (N?=?1), 26 SNPs were successfully genotyped in 716 individuals from our COME/ROM family population. None of the SNP associations replicated in our family-based population (unadjusted P?=?0.03-0.93). Replication in an independent sample would confirm that these represent novel OM loci, and that further investigation is warranted.
Related JoVE Video
[Effect of bortezomib combined with bisphosphonates on bone metabolism index in multiple myeloma].
Zhongguo Shi Yan Xue Ye Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was aimed to investigate the effect of bortezomib combined with bisphosphonates on serum levels of DKK-1 and RANKL in multiple myeloma patients, and to evaluate its role in the therapy of osteolytic lesion. Fourty-three patients with newly diagnosed and relapsed myeloma were divided into 2 groups. Twenty-three patients were treated with bortezomib combined with bisphosphonates (A group) and 20 patients were treated with bisphosphonates combined with traditional chemotherapy(B group). Serum levels of DKK-1 and RANKL were measured by ELISA before and after 4 cycles of chemotherapy. The results indicated that serum DKK-1 level significantly decreased in patients of A group (43.2 µg/L before vs 30.4 µg/L after 4 cycles of chemotherapy), and so did for serum RANKL level in A group (0.83 pmmol/L before vs 0.45 pmmol/L after 4 cycles of chemotherapy). While there was no significant differences in DKK-1 and RANKL serum level before therapy between A and B groups, but there was significant differences in DKK-1 and RANKL levels after 4 cycles of chemotherapy (P < 0.05). It is concluded that bortezomib combined with bisphosphonates obviously reduce the serum levels of DKK-1 and RANKL, thus has beneficial effect on osteolytic lesion.
Related JoVE Video
Role of TRPV1 in susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizure following repeated hyperthermia challenges in neonatal mice.
Epilepsy Behav
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
This study was designed to investigate the role of experimental febrile seizures in the induction of generalized clonic seizures and the involvement of heat-sensitive channel TRPV1. Pentylenetetrazol-induced clonic seizure was used as the seizure model, and Trpv1 gene knock-out and wild-type C57/BL6 mice were used as experimental subjects. Electroencephalograph and seizure behavior were recorded for the evaluation of the severity of seizures. Increased frequency of the experimental febrile seizures facilitated PTZ-induced generalized clonic seizures. Trpv1 gene deficiency decreased the properties of generalized clonic seizure. The intensity of experimental febrile seizures reduced the threshold to generalized clonic seizure, and Trpv1 gene deficiency decreased the susceptibility to PTZ-induced seizures following early-life hyperthermia challenges in mice.
Related JoVE Video
[Repeatability of three-dimensional measurements based on cone-beam CT images].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the repeatability of three-dimensional (3-D) cephalometric measurements for the clinical application of 3-D cephalometry.
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis and anti-inflammatory evaluation of novel 5-benzylidene-3,4-dihalo-furan-2-one derivatives.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rosiglitazone has shown promising anti-inflammation effect. To develop preferable anti-inflammatory agents, twenty-two rosiglitazone analogs were synthesized and their anti-inflammatory activity was evaluated. Among these compounds, 6i and 6k displayed excellent inhibitory activities on the production of inflammatory mediators, including nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukin-6 (IL-6). Furthermore, 6i and 6k showed suppression effects on the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-?B) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways, and this suppression effects could be partially reversed by GW9662, which is a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? (PPAR?) antagonist. Additionally, our docking results exhibited the well combination of 6i and 6k to PPAR?. So the anti-inflammation activity of 6i and 6k was due at least in part, to their interaction with PPAR?.
Related JoVE Video
Methanogenesis facilitated by geobiochemical iron cycle in a novel syntrophic methanogenic microbial community.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Production and emission of methane have been increasing concerns due to its significant effect on global climate change and the carbon cycle. Here we report facilitated methane production from acetate by a novel community of methanogens and acetate oxidizing bacteria in the presence of poorly crystalline akaganeite slurry. Comparative analyses showed that methanogenesis was significantly enhanced by added akaganeite and acetate was mostly stoichiometrically converted to methane. Electrons produced from anaerobic acetate oxidation are transferred to akaganeite nanorods that likely prompt the transformation into goethite nanofibers through a series of biogeochemical processes of soluble Fe(II) readsorption and Fe(III) reprecipitation. The methanogenic archaea likely harness the biotransformation of akaganeite to goethite by the Fe(III)-Fe(II) cycle to facilitate production of methane. These results provide new insights into biogeochemistry of iron minerals and methanogenesis in the environment, as well as the development of sustainable methods for microbial methane production.
Related JoVE Video
Metagenomic analysis reveals significant changes of microbial compositions and protective functions during drinking water treatment.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The metagenomic approach was applied to characterize variations of microbial structure and functions in raw (RW) and treated water (TW) in a drinking water treatment plant (DWTP) at Pearl River Delta, China. Microbial structure was significantly influenced by the treatment processes, shifting from Gammaproteobacteria and Betaproteobacteria in RW to Alphaproteobacteria in TW. Further functional analysis indicated the basic metabolic functions of microorganisms in TW did not vary considerably. However, protective functions, i.e. glutathione synthesis genes in oxidative stress and detoxification subsystems, significantly increased, revealing the surviving bacteria may have higher chlorine resistance. Similar results were also found in glutathione metabolism pathway, which identified the major reaction for glutathione synthesis and supported more genes for glutathione metabolism existed in TW. This metagenomic study largely enhanced our knowledge about the influences of treatment processes, especially chlorination, on bacterial community structure and protective functions (e.g. glutathione metabolism) in ecosystems of DWTPs.
Related JoVE Video
[Expression of BNP in rat myocardial tissue after acute cardiac dysfunction].
Fa Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the expression of brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in rat myocardial tissue after acute cardiac dysfunction and to explore the role of BNP in diagnosis of cardiac dysfunction in forensic practice.
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide analysis of blood pressure variability and ischemic stroke.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 08-08-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Visit-to-visit variability in blood pressure (vBP) is associated with ischemic stroke. We sought to determine whether such variability has genetic causes and whether genetic variants associated with BP variability are also associated with ischemic stroke.
Related JoVE Video
Heritability of metabolic syndrome traits in a large population-based sample.
J. Lipid Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heritability estimates of metabolic syndrome traits vary widely across studies. Some studies have suggested that the contribution of genes may vary with age or sex. We estimated the heritability of 11 metabolic syndrome-related traits and height as a function of age and sex in a large population-based sample of twin families (N = 2,792-27,021, for different traits). A moderate-to-high heritability was found for all traits [from H(2) = 0.47 (insulin) to H(2) = 0.78 (BMI)]. The broad-sense heritability (H(2)) showed little variation between age groups in women; it differed somewhat more in men (e.g., for glucose, H(2) = 0.61 in young females, H(2) = 0.56 in older females, H(2) = 0.64 in young males, and H(2)= 0.27 in older males). While nonadditive genetic effects explained little variation in the younger subjects, nonadditive genetic effects became more important at a greater age. Our findings show that in an unselected sample (age range, ~18-98 years), the genetic contribution to individual differences in metabolic syndrome traits is moderate to large in both sexes and across age. Although the prevalence of the metabolic syndrome has greatly increased in the past decades due to lifestyle changes, our study indicates that most of the variation in metabolic syndrome traits between individuals is due to genetic differences.
Related JoVE Video
A genome-wide association study of chronic otitis media with effusion and recurrent otitis media identifies a novel susceptibility locus on chromosome 2.
J. Assoc. Res. Otolaryngol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chronic otitis media with effusion (COME) and recurrent otitis media (ROM) have been shown to be heritable, but candidate gene and linkage studies to date have been equivocal. Our aim was to identify genetic susceptibility factors using a genome-wide association study (GWAS). We genotyped 602 subjects from 143 families with 373 COME/ROM subjects using the Illumina Human CNV370-Duo DNA Bead Chip (324,748 SNPs). We carried out the GWAS scan and imputed SNPs at the regions with the most significant associations. Replication genotyping in an independent family-based sample was conducted for 53 SNPs: the 41 most significant SNPs with P?
Related JoVE Video
Genome-wide association of body fat distribution in African ancestry populations suggests new loci.
Ching-Ti Liu, Keri L Monda, Kira C Taylor, Leslie Lange, Ellen W Demerath, Walter Palmas, Mary K Wojczynski, Jaclyn C Ellis, Mara Z Vitolins, Simin Liu, George J Papanicolaou, Marguerite R Irvin, Luting Xue, Paula J Griffin, Michael A Nalls, Adebowale Adeyemo, Jiankang Liu, Guo Li, Edward A Ruiz-Narváez, Wei-Min Chen, Fang Chen, Brian E Henderson, Robert C Millikan, Christine B Ambrosone, Sara S Strom, Xiuqing Guo, Jeanette S Andrews, Yan V Sun, Thomas H Mosley, Lisa R Yanek, Daniel Shriner, Talin Haritunians, Jerome I Rotter, Elizabeth K Speliotes, Megan Smith, Lynn Rosenberg, Josyf Mychaleckyj, Uma Nayak, Ida Spruill, W Timothy Garvey, Curtis Pettaway, Sarah Nyante, Elisa V Bandera, Angela F Britton, Alan B Zonderman, Laura J Rasmussen-Torvik, Yii-Der Ida Chen, Jingzhong Ding, Kurt Lohman, Stephen B Kritchevsky, Wei Zhao, Patricia A Peyser, Sharon L R Kardia, Edmond Kabagambe, Ulrich Broeckel, Guanjie Chen, Jie Zhou, Sylvia Wassertheil-Smoller, Marian L Neuhouser, Evadnie Rampersaud, Bruce Psaty, Charles Kooperberg, JoAnn E Manson, Lewis H Kuller, Heather M Ochs-Balcom, Karen C Johnson, Lara Sucheston, José M Ordovás, Julie R Palmer, Christopher A Haiman, Barbara McKnight, Barbara V Howard, Diane M Becker, Lawrence F Bielak, Yongmei Liu, Matthew A Allison, Struan F A Grant, Gregory L Burke, Sanjay R Patel, Pamela J Schreiner, Ingrid B Borecki, Michele K Evans, Herman Taylor, Michèle M Sale, Virginia Howard, Christopher S Carlson, Charles N Rotimi, Mary Cushman, Tamara B Harris, Alexander P Reiner, L Adrienne Cupples, Kari E North, Caroline S Fox.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Central obesity, measured by waist circumference (WC) or waist-hip ratio (WHR), is a marker of body fat distribution. Although obesity disproportionately affects minority populations, few studies have conducted genome-wide association study (GWAS) of fat distribution among those of predominantly African ancestry (AA). We performed GWAS of WC and WHR, adjusted and unadjusted for BMI, in up to 33,591 and 27,350 AA individuals, respectively. We identified loci associated with fat distribution in AA individuals using meta-analyses of GWA results for WC and WHR (stage 1). Overall, 25 SNPs with single genomic control (GC)-corrected p-values<5.0 × 10(-6) were followed-up (stage 2) in AA with WC and with WHR. Additionally, we interrogated genomic regions of previously identified European ancestry (EA) WHR loci among AA. In joint analysis of association results including both Stage 1 and 2 cohorts, 2 SNPs demonstrated association, rs2075064 at LHX2, p = 2.24×10(-8) for WC-adjusted-for-BMI, and rs6931262 at RREB1, p = 2.48×10(-8) for WHR-adjusted-for-BMI. However, neither signal was genome-wide significant after double GC-correction (LHX2: p = 6.5 × 10(-8); RREB1: p = 5.7 × 10(-8)). Six of fourteen previously reported loci for waist in EA populations were significant (p<0.05 divided by the number of independent SNPs within the region) in AA studied here (TBX15-WARS2, GRB14, ADAMTS9, LY86, RSPO3, ITPR2-SSPN). Further, we observed associations with metabolic traits: rs13389219 at GRB14 associated with HDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and fasting insulin, and rs13060013 at ADAMTS9 with HDL-cholesterol and fasting insulin. Finally, we observed nominal evidence for sexual dimorphism, with stronger results in AA women at the GRB14 locus (p for interaction = 0.02). In conclusion, we identified two suggestive loci associated with fat distribution in AA populations in addition to confirming 6 loci previously identified in populations of EA. These findings reinforce the concept that there are fat distribution loci that are independent of generalized adiposity.
Related JoVE Video
[Diagnosis and treatment of upper arm radial neuritis by ultrasonography].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the application of ultrasonography in diagnosis and treatment of the upper arm radial neuritis.
Related JoVE Video
Gender difference in epileptogenic effects of 2-BFI and BU224 in mice.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Imidazoline I2 receptors are involved in pain modulation and psychiatric disorders and its ligands may represent a new therapeutic strategy against pain and depression. In particular, 2-BFI and BU224 are the two most widely studied I2 receptor ligands and have antinociceptive and antidepressant-like activities in rodents. However, little is known of the toxicological effects and potential gender differences of these I2 receptor ligands. This study examined the epileptogenic activities of 2-BFI and BU224 in male and female mice and also examined their underlying receptor mechanisms. 2-BFI (10-40 mg/kg, i.p.) and BU224 (10-40 mg/kg) produced epileptic seizures in a dose-related manner, as did the epileptogenic agent, pentylenetetrazole (PTZ, 15-60 mg/kg). However, female mice were significantly more sensitive than male mice in all the measures. The commonly used I2 receptor antagonist, idazoxan (10mg/kg), did not block the onset and magnitude of the epileptic seizures or lethality induced by 2-BFI and BU224. When studied in combination, PTZ potentiated the epileptogenic effect of 2-BFI and BU224. The lack of antagonism by idazoxan of the epileptogenic activities of 2-BFI and BU224 suggests that the epileptogenic effects of 2-BFI and BU224 are mediated by non-imidazoline I2 receptors and that I2 receptors remain a viable therapeutic target for neurological disorders such as pain.
Related JoVE Video
Theacrine, a purine alkaloid obtained from Camellia assamica var. kucha, attenuates restraint stress-provoked liver damage in mice.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Theacrine (1,3,7,9-tetramethyluric acid), a purine alkaloid, has proven to be beneficial in maintaining several brain functions and is being studied for potential medicinal uses in recent years. In this study, we isolated theacrine from Camellia assamica var. kucha and investigated its protective effects on liver damage induced by restraint stress in mice. Results showed that 18 h of restraint stress could induce liver damage, with an obvious increase in levels of plasma alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and aspartate aminotransferase (AST). This finding was further confirmed by hepatic pathological examination, which showed inflammatory cell infiltration and focal necrosis of hepatocytes. However, oral administration of theacrine (10, 20, 30 mg/kg for 7 consecutive days) was found to decrease plasma ALT and AST levels, reduce hepatic mRNA levels of inflammatory mediators (IL-1?, TNF-?, IL-6, and IFN-?), and reverse the histologic damages in stressed mice. Simultaneously, theacrine also significantly decreased the content of malondialdehyde and increased oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC) level in the plasma and liver of stressed mice. These results suggested that the protective effects of theacrine on stress-induced liver damage might be correlated with its antioxidative activity. The antioxidative capacity of theacrine was further evaluated by in vitro ORAC and cellular antioxidant activity assay. The results suggested that the antioxidative capacity of theacrine was not due to the direct action on free radical clearance. Moreover, the elevated activities and gene expressions of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, as well as the reduced activity of xanthine oxidase by theacrine treatment in stressed mice suggested that the antioxidative activity might be due to the strengthening of the antioxidant system in vivo. On the basis of the above results, theacrine is possibly a good candidate for protecting against or treating lifestyle diseases and might contribute to the study of natural products.
Related JoVE Video
Molecular diversity and distribution of anammox community in sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong.
J. Appl. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim of this study was to characterize anaerobic ammonium oxidation (anammox) community in sediments of the Dongjiang River, a drinking water source of Hong Kong.
Related JoVE Video
In situ bioremediation of uranium with emulsified vegetable oil as the electron donor.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A field test with a one-time emulsified vegetable oil (EVO) injection was conducted to assess the capacity of EVO to sustain uranium bioreduction in a high-permeability gravel layer with groundwater concentrations of (mM) U, 0.0055; Ca, 2.98; NO3(-), 0.11; HCO3(-), 5.07; and SO4(2-), 1.23. Comparison of bromide and EVO migration and distribution indicated that a majority of the injected EVO was retained in the subsurface from the injection wells to 50 m downgradient. Nitrate, uranium, and sulfate were sequentially removed from the groundwater within 1-2 weeks, accompanied by an increase in acetate, Mn, Fe, and methane concentrations. Due to the slow release and degradation of EVO with time, reducing conditions were sustained for approximately one year, and daily U discharge to a creek, located approximately 50 m from the injection wells, decreased by 80% within 100 days. Total U discharge was reduced by 50% over the one-year period. Reduction of U(VI) to U(IV) was confirmed by synchrotron analysis of recovered aquifer solids. Oxidants (e.g., dissolved oxygen, nitrate) flowing in from upgradient appeared to reoxidize and remobilize uranium after the EVO was exhausted as evidenced by a transient increase of U concentration above ambient values. Occasional (e.g., annual) EVO injection into a permeable Ca and bicarbonate-containing aquifer can sustain uranium bioreduction/immobilization and decrease U migration/discharge.
Related JoVE Video
Surge block method for controlling well clogging and sampling sediment during bioremediation.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A surge block treatment method (i.e. inserting a solid rod plunger with a flat seal that closely fits the casing interior into a well and stocking it up and down) was performed for the rehabilitation of wells clogged with biomass and for the collection of time series sediment samples during in situ bioremediation tests for U(VI) immobilization at a the U.S. Department of Energy site in Oak Ridge, TN. The clogging caused by biomass growth had been controlled by using routine surge block treatment for 18 times over a nearly four year test period. The treatment frequency was dependent of the dosage of electron donor injection and microbial community developed in the subsurface. Hydraulic tests showed that the apparent aquifer transmissivity at a clogged well with an inner diameter (ID) of 10.16 cm was increased by 8-13 times after the rehabilitation, indicating the effectiveness of the rehabilitation. Simultaneously with the rehabilitation, the surge block method was successfully used for collecting time series sediment samples composed of fine particles (clay and silt) from wells with ID 1.9-10.16 cm for the analysis of mineralogical and geochemical composition and microbial community during the same period. Our results demonstrated that the surge block method provided a cost-effective approach for both well rehabilitation and frequent solid sampling at the same location.
Related JoVE Video
Different types of toxins targeting TRPV1 in pain.
Toxicon
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The transient receptor potential vanilloid 1(TRPV1) channels are members of the transient receptor potential (TRP) superfamily. Members of this family are expressed in primary sensory neurons and are best known for their role in nociception and sensory transmission. Multiple painful stimuli can activate these channels. In this review, we discussed the mechanisms of different types of venoms that target TRPV1, such as scorpion venom, botulinum neurotoxin, spider toxin, ciguatera fish poisoning (CFP) and neurotoxic shellfish poisoning (NSP). Some of these toxins activate TRPV1; however, some do not. Regardless of TRPV1 inhibition or activation, they occur through different pathways. For example, BoNT/A decreases TRPV1 expression levels by blocking TRPV1 trafficking to the plasma membrane, although the exact mechanism is still under debate. Vanillotoxins from tarantula (Psalmopoeus cambridgei) are proposed to activate TRPV1 via interaction with a region of TRPV1 that is homologous to voltage-dependent ion channels. Here, we offer a description of the present state of knowledge for this complex subject.
Related JoVE Video
Accelerated reduction of chlorinated nitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol by biocathode.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Chlorinated nitroaromatic antibiotic chloramphenicol (CAP) is a priority pollutant in wastewaters. A fed-batch bioelectrochemical system (BES) with biocathode with applied voltage of 0.5 V (served as extracellular electron donor) and glucose as intracellular electron donor was applied to reduce CAP to amine product (AMCl2). The biocathode BES converted 87.1 ± 4.2% of 32 mg/L CAP in 4 h, and the removal efficiency reached 96.0 ± 0.9% within 24 h. Conversely, the removal efficiency of CAP in BES with an abiotic cathode was only 73.0 ± 3.2% after 24 h. When the biocathode was disconnected (no electrochemical reaction but in the presence of microbial activities), the CAP removal rate was dropped to 62.0% of that with biocathode BES. Acetylation of one hydroxyl of CAP was noted exclusive in the biocatalyzed process, while toxic intermediates, hydroxylamino (HOAM), and nitroso (NO), from CAP reduction were observed only in the abiotic cathode BES. Electrochemical hydrodechlorination and dehalogenase were responsible for dechlorination of AMCl2 to AMCl in abiotic and microbial cathode BES, respectively. The cyclic voltammetry (CV) highlighted higher peak currents and lower overpotentials for CAP reduction at the biocathode compared with abiotic cathode. With the biocathode BES, antibacterial activity of CAP was completely removed and nitro group reduction combined with dechlorination reaction enhanced detoxication efficiency of CAP. The CAP cathodic transformation pathway was proposed based on intermediates analysis. Bacterial community analysis indicated that the dominate bacteria on the biocathode were belonging to ?, ?, and ?-Proteobacteria. The biocathode BES could serve as a potential treatment process for CAP-containing wastewater.
Related JoVE Video
Construction and evaluation of an exopolysaccharide-producing engineered bacterial strain by protoplast fusion for microbial enhanced oil recovery.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 04-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Enterobacter cloacae strain JD, which produces water-insoluble biopolymers at optimal temperature of 30°C, and a thermophilic Geobacillus strain were used to construct an engineered strain for exopolysaccharide production at high temperatures by protoplast fusion. The obtained fusant strain ZR3 produced exopolysaccharides at up to 45°C with optimal growth temperature at 35°C. The fusant produced exopolysaccharides of approximately 7.5 g/L or more at pH between 7.0 and 9.0. The feasibility of the enhancement of crude oil recovery with the fusant was tested in a sand-packed column at 40°C. The results demonstrated that bioaugmentation of the fusant was promising approach for MEOR. Mass growth of the fusant was confirmed in fermentor tests.
Related JoVE Video
MiR-487a resensitizes mitoxantrone (MX)-resistant breast cancer cells (MCF-7/MX) to MX by targeting breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2).
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer resistance protein (BCRP/ABCG2) specifically transports various chemotherapeutic agents and is involved in the development of multidrug resistance (MDR) in cancer cells. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) can play an important role in modulating the sensitivity of cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. Therefore, after confirming that BCRP was increased in the mitoxantrone (MX)-resistant MCF-7 breast cancer cell line MCF-7/MX compared with its parental sensitive MCF-7 cell line, we aimed to explore the miRNAs that regulate BCRP expression and sensitize breast cancer cells to chemotherapeutic agents. In the present study, bioinformatic analysis indicated that miR-487a was one of the miRNAs that could bind to the 3 untranslated region (3UTR) of BCRP. Quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR) analysis demonstrated that the expression of miR-487a was reduced in MCF-7/MX cells, and a luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that miR-487a directly bound to the 3UTR of BCRP. Moreover, ectopic miR-487a down-regulated BCRP expression at the mRNA and protein levels, increasing the intracellular accumulation and cytotoxicity of MX in resistant MCF-7/MX breast cancer cells. Meanwhile, inhibition of miR-487a increased BCRP expression at the mRNA and protein levels and induced MX resistance in sensitive MCF-7 breast cancer cells. Furthermore, the reduced expression of BCRP and increased antitumor effects of MX were also detected in MCF-7/MX xenograft tumors treated with the miR-487a agmir. Thus, our results suggested that miR-487a can directly regulate BCRP expression and reverse chemotherapeutic drug resistance in a subset of breast cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Functional IL6R 358Ala allele impairs classical IL-6 receptor signaling and influences risk of diverse inflammatory diseases.
PLoS Genet.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inflammation, which is directly regulated by interleukin-6 (IL-6) signaling, is implicated in the etiology of several chronic diseases. Although a common, non-synonymous variant in the IL-6 receptor gene (IL6R Asp358Ala; rs2228145 A>C) is associated with the risk of several common diseases, with the 358Ala allele conferring protection from coronary heart disease (CHD), rheumatoid arthritis (RA), atrial fibrillation (AF), abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA), and increased susceptibility to asthma, the variants effect on IL-6 signaling is not known. Here we provide evidence for the association of this non-synonymous variant with the risk of type 1 diabetes (T1D) in two independent populations and confirm that rs2228145 is the major determinant of the concentration of circulating soluble IL-6R (sIL-6R) levels (34.6% increase in sIL-6R per copy of the minor allele 358Ala; rs2228145 [C]). To further investigate the molecular mechanism of this variant, we analyzed expression of IL-6R in peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) in 128 volunteers from the Cambridge BioResource. We demonstrate that, although 358Ala increases transcription of the soluble IL6R isoform (P?=?8.3×10?²²) and not the membrane-bound isoform, 358Ala reduces surface expression of IL-6R on CD4+ T cells and monocytes (up to 28% reduction per allele; P?5.6×10?²²). Importantly, reduced expression of membrane-bound IL-6R resulted in impaired IL-6 responsiveness, as measured by decreased phosphorylation of the transcription factors STAT3 and STAT1 following stimulation with IL-6 (P?5.2×10??). Our findings elucidate the regulation of IL-6 signaling by IL-6R, which is causally relevant to several complex diseases, identify mechanisms for new approaches to target the IL-6/IL-6R axis, and anticipate differences in treatment response to IL-6 therapies based on this common IL6R variant.
Related JoVE Video
simple hit counter

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.