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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Photothermally tunable silicon-microring-based optical add-drop filter through integrated light absorber.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 11-18-2014
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An optically pumped thermo-optic (TO) silicon ring add-drop filter with fast thermal response is experimentally demonstrated. We propose that metal-insulator-metal (MIM) light absorber can be integrated into silicon TO devices, acting as a localized heat source which can be activated remotely by a pump beam. The MIM absorber design introduces less thermal capacity to the device, compared to conventional electrically-driven approaches. Experimentally, the absorber-integrated add-drop filter shows an optical response time of 13.7 ?s following the 10%-90% rule (equivalent to a exponential time constant of 5 ?s) and a wavelength shift over pump power of 60 pm/mW. The photothermally tunable add-drop filter may provide new perspectives for all-optical routing and switching in integrated Si photonic circuits.
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Trade-offs between survival, longevity, and reproduction, and variation of survival tolerance in Mediterranean Bemisia tabaci after temperature stress.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The invasive Mediterranean Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) has emerged as one of the most common agricultural pests in the world. In the present study, we examined the cross-tolerance, fitness costs, and benefits of thermal tolerance and the variation in the responses of life history traits after heat-shock selection. The results showed that survival and longevity of Mediterranean B. tabaci were decreased significantly after direct or cross temperature stress and that the number of eggs per female was not reduced significantly. Furthermore, heat-shock selection dramatically increased the survival of Mediterranean B. tabaci within two generations, and it did not significantly affect the egg number per female within five generations. These results indicated that there was a trade-off between survival, longevity, and reproduction in Mediterranean B. tabaci after temperature stress. The improvement in reproduction was costly in terms of decreased survival and longevity, and there was a fitness consequence to temperature stress. In addition, heat tolerance in Mediterranean B. tabaci increased substantially after selection by heat shock, indicating a considerable variation for survival tolerance in this species. This information could help us better understand the thermal biology of Mediterranean B. tabaci within the context of climate change.
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Antimicrobial Activity of Platelet-Rich Plasma and Other Plasma Preparations Against Periodontal Pathogens.
J. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Background: Other than releasing a pool of growth factors upon activation, platelets also have many features that indicate their role in the anti-infective host defense. We evaluate the antimicrobial activities of platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and related plasma preparations against periodontal disease associated bacteria. Methods: Four distinct plasma fractions were extracted in the formulation commonly used in dentistry and were tested their antibacterial properties against three periodontal bacteria: Porphyromonas gingivalis, Aggregatibacter actinomycetemcomitans and Fusobacterium nucleatum. The minimum inhibitory concentration of each plasma preparation was determined and in vitro time-kill assays were used to detect their abilities to inhibit bacterial growth. Bacterial adhesion interference and the susceptibility of bacterial adherence by these plasma preparations were also conducted. Results: All plasma preparations can inhibit bacterial growth with PRP showing the superior activity. Bacterial growth inhibition by PRP occurred in the first 24 hours after application in the time-kill assay. PRP interfered with P. gingivalis and A. actinomycetemcomitans attachment and enhanced exfoliation of attached P. gingivalis but had no influences on F. nucleatum bacterial adherence. Conclusions: PRP expressed antibacterial properties, which may be attributed to platelets possessing additional antimicrobial molecules. The application of PRP on periodontal surgical sites is advisable due to its regenerative potential and its antibacterial effects.
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One-Year Outcomes of Emergency Department Patients With Atrial Fibrillation: A Prospective, Multicenter Registry in China.
Angiology
PUBLISHED: 10-26-2014
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There is lack of data about patient characteristics, practice patterns, and long-term adverse outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) attending emergency departments (EDs) in China. A total of 2016 patients from 20 representative EDs were included. During 1 year, all-cause mortality was 291 (14.6%) cases, stroke/noncentral nervous system systemic embolism rate was 159 (8.0%) cases, and major bleeding was 26 (1.3%) cases. Heart failure, the major cause of mortality, accounted for 43.0% of deaths. Of 375 (18.6%) patients who used warfarin at baseline, only 217 (57.9%) patients were still on anticoagulation therapy during 1-year follow-up. Compared with the patients who continued on warfarin, the mortality rate was higher in those who did not continue (15.9% vs 5.5%, P < .001). Patients seen in ED with AF appear to have a high incidence rate of long-term all-cause mortality and inadequate anticoagulation rate.
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The Effect of Heavy Metal-Induced Oxidative Stress on the Enzymes in White Rot Fungus Phanerochaete chrysosporium.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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Prevalence of heavy metals in the living environment causes chemical stress and reactive oxygen species (ROS) formation in Phanerochaete chrysosporium (P. chrysosporium). However, the mechanisms involved in ROS defense are still under investigation. In the present study, we evaluated the effect of lead- and cadmium-induced oxidative stress on the activities of catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), lignin peroxidase (LiP), and manganese peroxidase (MnP). A time-dependent change in all enzyme activities was observed following exposure to 50 ?M cadmium and 25 ?M lead. The lowest values were recorded at 4 h after exposure. Both cadmium and lead inhibited CAT and POD. The cytochrome P450 (CYP450) levels increased under 50-100 ?M cadmium or lead exposure and decreased when heavy metal concentration was under 50 ?M; this suggested that ROS is not the only factor that alters the CYP450 levels. The cadmium removal rate in the sample containing 900 ?M taxifolin (inhibitor of CYP450) and 100 ?M cadmium was reduced to 12.34 %, 9.73 % lower than that of 100 ?M cadmium-induced sample, indicating CYP450 may play an indirect but key role in the process of clearance of heavy metals. The pH of the substrate solution decreased steadily during the incubation process.
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Androgen receptor promotes gastric cancer cell migration and invasion via AKT-phosphorylation dependent upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2014
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Androgen receptor (AR) plays an important role in many kinds of cancers. However, the molecular mechanisms of AR in gastric cancer (GC) are poorly characterized. Here, we investigated the role of AR in GC cell migration, invasion and metastatic potential. Our data showed that AR expression was positively correlated with lymph node metastasis and late TNM stages. These findings were accompanied by activation of AKT and upregulation of matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9). AR overexpression induced increases in GC cell migration, invasion and proliferation in vitro and in vivo. These effects were attenuated by inhibition of AKT, AR and MMP9. AR overexpression upregulated MMP9 protein levels, whereas this effect was counteracted by AR siRNA. Inhibition of AKT by siRNA or an inhibitor (MK-2206 2HC) decreased AR protein expression in both stably transfected and parental SGC-7901 cells. Luciferase reporter and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays demonstrated that AR bound to the AR-binding sites of the MMP9 promoter. In summary, AR overexpression induced by AKT phosphorylation upregulated MMP9 by binding to its promoter region to promote gastric carcinogenesis. The AKT/AR/MMP9 pathway plays an important role in GC metastasis and may be a novel therapeutic target for GC treatment.
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Identification and characterization of alphavirus M1 as a selective oncolytic virus targeting ZAP-defective human cancers.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 10-06-2014
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Oncolytic virotherapy is a growing treatment modality that uses replicating viruses as selective antineoplastic agents. Safety and efficacy considerations dictate that an ideal oncolytic agent would discriminate between normal and cancer cells on the basis of common genetic abnormalities in human cancers. Here, we identify a naturally occurring alphavirus (M1) as a novel selective killer targeting zinc-finger antiviral protein (ZAP)-deficient cancer cells. In vitro, in vivo, and ex vivo studies showed potent oncolytic efficacy and high tumor tropism of M1. We showed that the selectivity depends on ZAP deficiency by systematic identification. A large-scale multicenter pathology study using tissue microarrays reveals that ZAP is commonly deficient in human cancers, suggesting extensive application prospects for M1. Additionally, M1 killed cancer cells by inducing endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated apoptosis. Our report provides novel insights into potentially personalized cancer therapy using oncolytic viruses.
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Influence of Sulfur Fumigation on the Chemical Constituents and Antioxidant Activity of Buds of Lonicera japonica.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 09-06-2014
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Lonicera japonica flos is widely used as a pharmaceutical resource and a commonly-employed ingredient in healthy food, soft beverages and cosmetics in China. Sometimes, sulfur fumigation is used during post-harvest handling. In this study, a comprehensive comparison of the chemical profile between sun-dried and sulfur-fumigated samples was conducted by HPLC fingerprints and simultaneous quantification of nine constituents, including secologanic acid, along with another eight usually-analyzed markers. Secologanic acid was destroyed, and its sulfonates were generated, whereas caffeoylquinic acids were protected from being oxidized. The residual sulfur dioxide in sulfur-fumigated samples was significantly higher than that in sun-dried samples, which might increase the potential incidence of toxicity to humans. Meanwhile, compared with sun-dried samples, sulfur-fumigated samples have significantly stronger antioxidant activity, which could be attributed to the joint effect of protected phenolic acids and flavonoids, as well as newly-generated iridoid sulfonates.
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Liver Resection for Metastatic Disease After Y90 Radioembolization: A Case Series with Long-Term Follow-Up.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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There are only few reports of liver resections for metastatic disease in patients previously treated with Y-90 radioembolization (RE), and long-term outcome data are sparse. We reviewed our center's experience in patients undergoing hepatectomy after hepatic RE.
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Gold nanoparticle transfer through photothermal effects in a metamaterial absorber by nanosecond laser.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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A non-complicated, controllable method of metallic nanoparticle fabrication at low operating light power is proposed. The method is based on laser-induced forward transfer, using a metamaterial absorber as the donor to significantly enhance the photothermal effect and reduce the operating light fluence to 35?mJ/cm(2), which is much lower than that in previous works. A large number of metallic nanoparticles can be transferred by one shot of focused nanosecond laser pulses. Transferred nanoparticles exhibit good size uniformity and the sizes are controllable. The optical properties of transferred particles are characterized by dark-field spectroscopy and the experimental results agree with the simulation results.
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Increased methylation of the MOR gene proximal promoter in primary sensory neurons plays a crucial role in the decreased analgesic effect of opioids in neuropathic pain.
Mol Pain
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
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The analgesic potency of opioids is reduced in neuropathic pain. However, the molecular mechanism is not well understood.
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Comparison of the clinical features and outcomes in two age-groups of elderly patients with atrial fibrillation.
Clin Interv Aging
PUBLISHED: 08-12-2014
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Atrial fibrillation (AF) disproportionately affects older adults. However, direct comparison of clinical features, medical therapy, and outcomes in AF patients aged 65-74 and ? 75 years is rare. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the differences in clinical characteristics and prognosis in these two age-groups of geriatric patients with AF.
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All-optical switching of silicon disk resonator based on photothermal effect in metal-insulator-metal absorber.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Efficient narrowband light absorption by a metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure can lead to high-speed light-to-heat conversion at a micro- or nanoscale. Such a MIM structure can serve as a heater for achieving all-optical light control based on the thermo-optical (TO) effect. Here we experimentally fabricated and characterized a novel all-optical switch based on a silicon microdisk integrated with a MIM light absorber. Direct integration of the absorber on top of the microdisk reduces the thermal capacity of the whole device, leading to high-speed TO switching of the microdisk resonance. The measurement result exhibits a rise time of 2.0 ?s and a fall time of 2.6 ?s with switching power as low as 0.5 mW; the product of switching power and response time is only about 1.3??mW·?s. Since no auxiliary elements are required for the heater, the switch is structurally compact, and its fabrication is rather easy. The device potentially can be deployed for new kinds of all-optical applications.
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Structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from the cyanobacterium Microcystis aeruginosa.
Acta Crystallogr. D Biol. Crystallogr.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
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Gas vesicles are gas-filled proteinaceous organelles that provide buoyancy for bacteria and archaea. A gene cluster that is highly conserved in various species encodes about 8-14 proteins (Gvp proteins) that are involved in the formation of gas vesicles. Here, the first crystal structure of the gas vesicle protein GvpF from Microcystis aeruginosa PCC 7806 is reported at 2.7?Å resolution. GvpF is composed of two structurally distinct domains (the N-domain and C-domain), both of which display an ?+? class overall structure. The N-domain adopts a novel fold, whereas the C-domain has a modified ferredoxin fold with an apparent variation owing to an extension region consisting of three sequential helices. The two domains pack against each other via interactions with a C-terminal tail that is conserved among cyanobacteria. Taken together, it is concluded that the overall architecture of GvpF presents a novel fold. Moreover, it is shown that GvpF is most likely to be a structural protein that is localized at the gas-facing surface of the gas vesicle by immunoblotting and immunogold labelling-based tomography.
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E3-ligase Skp2 predicts poor prognosis and maintains cancer stem cell pool in nasopharyngeal carcinoma.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC) is one of the severe head and neck carcinomas, which is rare in west countries but has high incidence in Southern Asia especially South China. Although NPC is relatively sensitive to radiotherapy, the prognosis of patients is poor due to the advanced stage at the time of diagnosis. Therefore, it is important to understand the mechanisms involved in tumorigenesis and develop early diagnostic techniques. S-phase kinase associated protein 2 (Skp2) is overexpressed in several human cancers and associates with poor prognosis. However, its function in NPC has not been fully addressed. In this study we found Skp2 was highly expressed in NPC specimen and correlated with poor prognosis. We generated Skp2 knockdown cells to further delineate its role in NPC development. Knockdown of Skp2 partially reduced cell proliferation, promoted cellular senescence, and decreased the population of stem cell like aldehyde dehydrogenase1 positive cells as well as their self-renewal ability. Our study not only interprets the predictive role of Skp2 in the poor prognosis of NPC patients, but also reveals that Skp2 regulates the NPC cancer stem cell maintenance, which shed lights on the target therapy and early diagnosis of NPC in clinical application.
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[Analysis of the common problems of standards during medical devices registration].
Zhongguo Yi Liao Qi Xie Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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According to the registered product standards specification of medical devices, combined with the standard reviewing work, the common problems of standards during medical devices registeration were analyzed and corresponding suggestions were proposed to standardize the standard of the registered product, accelerate the standardization and promote the industry standardized.
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A novel small molecule aurora kinase inhibitor attenuates breast tumor-initiating cells and overcomes drug resistance.
Mol. Cancer Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Chemoresistance is a major cause of cancer treatment failure. Tumor-initiating cells (TIC) have attracted a considerable amount of attention due to their role in chemoresistance and tumor recurrence. Here, we evaluated the small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor AKI603 as a novel agent against TICs in breast cancer. AKI603 significantly inhibited Aurora-A (AurA) kinase and induced cell-cycle arrest. In addition, the intragastric administration of AKI603 reduced xenograft tumor growth. Interestingly, we found that breast cancer cells that were resistant to epirubicin expressed a high level of activated AurA and also have a high CD24(Low)/CD44(High) TIC population. The inhibition of AurA kinase by AKI603 abolished the epirubicin-induced enrichment of TICs. Moreover, AKI603 suppressed the capacity of cells to form mammosphere and also suppressed the expression of self-renewal genes (?-catenin, c-Myc, Sox2, and Oct4). Thus, our work suggests the potential clinical use of the small molecule Aurora kinase inhibitor AKI603 to overcome drug resistance induced by conventional chemotherapeutics in breast cancer.
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[Feasibility of delta-shaped gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy for gastric cancer].
Zhonghua Wei Chang Wai Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-27-2014
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To investigate the feasibility of delta-shaped(DS) gastroduodenostomy in totally laparoscopic distal gastrectomy(TLDG) for gastric cancer.
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Spatially defined microsatellite analysis reveals extensive genetic mosaicism and clonal complexity in intestinal metaplastic glands.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2014
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Intestinal metaplasia (IM) has been recognized as the first irreversible precancerous stage of intestinal-type gastric cancer at which genetic instabilities, such as microsatellite instability and loss of heterozygosity, can already be detected. However, the extent and clonal relationship of these genetic lesions in the precancerous tissues are not fully appreciated. In this work, we have used well established microsatellite markers to analyze the relatedness of spatially separated individual metaplastic glands as well as sub-segments within single glands from the same patients. We found that individual IM glands frequently show different marker lengths even for closely apposed IM glands, suggesting that these tissues have already gained the ability to independently evolve their genome regardless of whether or not they share a common origin. Furthermore, within individual IM glands, there is also significant intra-gland diversity in the microsatellite markers. Since most of these cells are not dividing and only have a limited lifespan, this result indicates that in each IM gland, a single dominant clone is rare, and new clones are constantly created by either progenitor cells or stem cells. This greatly enhanced ability to create de novo genetic alterations may underlie the importance of this stage in the eventual progression toward cancer. Given the widely observed phenotype switch in the early stages of many solid tumors, whether this associated genetic stability is also an intrinsic property of metaplastic transformation should be extensively characterized to further our understanding of cancer initiation. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.
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Maintenance treatment of trastuzumab for patients with advanced breast cancer to achieve long term survival: two case reports and literature review.
Chin. J. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Molecular subtyping of breast cancer may provide additional prognostic information regarding patient outcome. The epidermal growth factor receptor (HER2) overexpressing breast cancers are designated as HER2-postive (HER2+) breast cancer and carry a particularly unfavorable prognosis. We present two cases of HER2-postive metastatic breast cancer (MBC) who are found to be a challenge to treat, especially due to the occurrence of brain metastasis. Trastuzumab-based therapy improves clinical outcomes, even if the patient has undergone multi-line treatment. These case reports also emphasize the importance of retesting HER2 status because it can be discordance in receptor status between primary and recurrent breast cancer.
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Overexpression of lncRNA H19 enhances carcinogenesis and metastasis of gastric cancer.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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Long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) play key roles in the progression and metastasis of some carcinomas. We previously showed that the expression of lncRNA H19 (H19) was higher in gastric cancer (GC) tissues than that in paired noncanerous tissues. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. In this study, H19/miR-675 knockdown models in the MKN45 cell line and ectopic expression models in the SGC7901 cell line were established, and a co-expression network of H19 was generated to identify target genes by RIP and DLR. The results showed that overexpression of H19 promoted the features of GC including proliferation, migration, invasion and metastasis. An H19 co-expression network identified ISM1 as a binding protein of H19, and its expression was positively correlated with that of H19. CALN1 was identified as a target gene of miR-675 and its expression was negatively correlated with that of miR-675. H19 and MiR-675 function in a similar manner. However, H19 RNA actively binds to ISM1 and miR-675 targets CALN1. These differences suggest that H19 plays other roles besides encoding miR-675 in GC. Our results suggest that the effect of H19 in GC is mediated by the direct upregulation of ISM1 and the indirect suppression of CALN1 expression via miR-675.
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[Pretreatment with cisplatin plus hyperthermia kills different tumor cells but preserves the erythrocyte function in the intra-operative blood salvage in vitro].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To investigate the effects of cisplatin plus hyperthermia on erythrocytes and killing human hepatocarcinoma (HepG2), gastrocarcinoma (SGC7901) and colonic carcinoma (SW620) cells in the intra-operative blood salvage from cancer surgery in vitro.
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[Effects of washed autologous blood transfusion on erythrocytic fragility in salvaged blood from diabetics].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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To explore the effects of washed autologous blood transfusion on the recovery and hemolysis of erythrocytes from diabetic patients subjected to off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting (OP-CABG).
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Maternal embryonic leucine zipper kinase enhances gastric cancer progression via the FAK/Paxillin pathway.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Elevated MELK expression is featured in multiple tumors and correlated with tumorigenesis and tumor development. This study is aimed to investigate the mechanisms of MELK-mediated development of gastric cancer.
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[Advances on chemical constituents and pharmacological activity of genus Scilla].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The genus Scilla consists of 90 species widely distributed in Europe, Asia and Africa, one and its variant of which can be found in China Some species of the genus have been used in traditional medicine to treat various diseases related to inflammation and pain. Phytochemical studies have demonstrated the presence of triterpene and tritepenoid saponins derived from eucosterol, bufadienolides, alkaloids, stilbenoids and lignan in the plants of this genus. Various bioactivities such as antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anti-tumor and glycosidase inhibitory activities, have been reported. In this review, the advance of chemical constituents and pharmacological activities of the Scilla species are summarized for further development and utilization of the resource.
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Whispering gallery mode nanodisk resonator based on layered metal-dielectric waveguide.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
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This paper proposes a layered metal-dielectric waveguide consisting of a stack of alternating metal and dielectric films which enables an ultracompact mode confinement. The properties of whispering gallery modes supported by disk resonators based on such waveguides are investigated for achieving a large Purcell factor. We show that by stacking three layers of 10 nm thick silver with two layers of 50 nm dielectric layers (of refractive index n) in sequence, the disk radius can be as small as 61 nm ??(0)/(7n) and the mode volume is only 0.0175(?(0)/(2n))(3). When operating at 40 K, the cavity's Q-factor can be ~670; Purcell factor can be as large as 2.3×10(4), which is more than five times larger than that achievable in a metal-dielectric-metal disk cavity in the same condition. When more dielectric layers with smaller thicknesses are used, even more compact confinement can be achieved. For example, the radius of a cavity consisting of seven dielectric-layer waveguide can be shrunk down to ?(0)/(13.5n), corresponding to a mode volume of 0.005?(0)/(2n))(3), and Purcell factor can be enhanced to 7.3×10(4) at 40 K. The influence of parameters like thicknesses of dielectric and metal films, cavity size, and number of dielectric layers is also comprehensively studied. The proposed waveguide and nanodisk cavity provide an alternative for ultracompact light confinement, and can find applications where a strong light-matter interaction is necessary.
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Dopaminergic Neuron-Like Cells Derived from Bone Marrow Mesenchymal Stem Cells by Lmx1? and Neurturin Overexpression for Autologous Cytotherapy in Hemiparkinsonian Rhesus Monkeys.
Curr Stem Cell Res Ther
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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Bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells hold great potential for cytotherapeutics of neurodegenerative disorders, including Parkinson's disease. The neurotrophic factor neurturin can rescue dopaminergic neurons damaged during the disease process. Lmx1? can promote mesencephalic dopaminergic differentiation during embryogenesis. In this study, we tested a cytotherapeutic strategy combining NTN/Lmx1? gene therapy and cell transplantation to ameliorate disease progression in hemiparkinsonian rhesus. Rhesus BMSCs were prepared for autologous grafting by transfection with recombinant adenoviral vectors expressing secreted NTN and Lmx1?, and cultured in the presence of induce factors, particularly the Lmx1? regulatory factor sonic hedgehog, to guide dopaminergic differentiation. These induced rh-BMSCs exhibited gene/protein expression phenotypes resembling nigral dopaminergic neurons. They survived and retained dopaminergic function following stereotaxic injection into the MPTP-lesioned right-side substantia nigra as indicated by SPECT measurement of DAT activity. Injected cells preserved and supplemented the remaining endogenous population of dopamine neurons (TH-positive cell ipsilateral/contralateral ratio was 56.81% ± 7.28% vs. 3.86%±1.22% in vehicle-injected controls; p<0.05). Cell injection also partially restored motor function and reduce apomorphine-evoked rotation (p<0.05). Moreover, function recovery occurred earlier than in previous studies on injected BMSCs. Our findings demonstrate a promising strategy for restoration of PD-associated motor dysfunction by transplantation of autologous BMSCs overexpressing NTN/Lmx1?
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Biglycan enhances gastric cancer invasion by activating FAK signaling pathway.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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Biglycan (BGN) is an important member of small leucine-rich proteoglycans family, and has been implicated in oncogenesis and development of various human cancer types. Here we report that BGN promotes tumor invasion and metastasis of gastric cancer both in vitro and in vivo. BGN expression is significantly higher in gastric cancer tissues and associated with lymph node metastasis, depth of tumor invasion and TNM stage. BGN enhances gastric cancer cell wound healing, migration and invasion ability as well as the tube formation ability of endothelial cells in vitro. Animal experiments results in vivo are consistent with outcomes in vitro. BGN induces increased phosphorylation of FAK (Tyr576/577, Tyr925 and Tyr397) and Paxillin. These results indicate that BGN is upregulated, and plays an oncogenic role, in gastric cancer metastasis by activating the FAK signaling pathway.
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Synthetic triterpenoid induces 15-PGDH expression and suppresses inflammation-driven colon carcinogenesis.
J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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Colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) develops as a result of inflammation-induced epithelial transformation, which occurs in response to inflammatory cytokine-dependent downregulation of 15-hydroxyprostaglandin dehydrogenase (15-PGDH) and subsequent suppression of prostaglandin metabolism. Agents that both enhance 15-PGDH expression and suppress cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) production may more effectively prevent CAC. Synthetic triterpenoids are a class of small molecules that suppress COX-2 as well as inflammatory cytokine signaling. Here, we found that administration of the synthetic triterpenoid 2-cyano-3,12-dioxooleana-1,9(11)-dien-C28-methyl ester (CDDO-Me) suppresses CAC in mice. In a spontaneous, inflammation-driven intestinal neoplasia model, deletion of Smad4 specifically in T cells led to progressive production of inflammatory cytokines, including TNF-?, IFN-?, iNOS, IL-6, IL-1?; as well as activation of STAT1 and STAT3; along with suppression of 15-PGDH expression. Oral administration of CDDO-Me to mice with SMAD4-deficient T cells increased survival and suppressed intestinal epithelial neoplasia by decreasing production of inflammatory mediators and increasing expression of 15-PGDH. Induction of 15-PGDH by CDDO-Me was dose dependent in epithelial cells and was abrogated following treatment with TGF-? signaling inhibitors in vitro. Furthermore, CDDO-Me-dependent 15-PGDH induction was not observed in Smad3-/- mice. Similarly, CDDO-Me suppressed azoxymethane plus dextran sodium sulfate-induced carcinogenesis in wild-type animals, highlighting the potential of small molecules of the triterpenoid family as effective agents for the chemoprevention of CAC in humans.
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Aqueous Two-Phase Extraction Combined with Chromatography: New Strategies for Preparative Separation and Purification of Capsaicin from Capsicum Oleoresin.
Appl. Biochem. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2014
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Capsaicin was preparatively separated and purified from capsicum oleoresin with a new method combined with aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) and chromatography. Screening experiments of ATPE systems containing salts and hydrophilic alcohols showed that potassium carbonate/ethanol system was the most suitable system for capsaicin recovery among the systems considered. Response surface methodology was used to determine an optimized aqueous two-phase system for the extraction of capsaicin from capsaicin oleoresin. In a 20 % (w/w) ethanol/22.3 % (w/w) potassium carbonate system, 85.4 % of the capsaicin was recovered in the top ethanol-rich phase while most oil and capsanthin ester were removed in the interphase. The capsaicinoid extract was then subjected to two chromatographic steps using D101 macroporous resin and inexpensive SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin first applied for the purification of capsaicin. After simple optimization of loading/elution conditions for D101 macroporous resin chromatography and SKP-10-4300 reverse-phase resin chromatography, the purities of capsaicin were improved from 7 to 85 %. In the two chromatography processes, the recoveries of capsaicin were 93 and 80 % respectively; the productivities of capsaicin were 1.86 and 4.2 (g capsaicin/L resin) per day respectively. It is worth mentioning that a by-product of capsaicin production was also obtained with a high purity (90 %).
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IKK? restoration via EZH2 suppression induces nasopharyngeal carcinoma differentiation.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Lack of cellular differentiation is a key feature of nasopharyngeal carcinoma (NPC), but it also presents as a unique opportunity for intervention by differentiation therapy. Here using RNA-seq profiling analysis and functional assays, we demonstrate that reduced IKK? expression is responsible for the undifferentiated phenotype of NPC. Conversely, overexpression of IKK? induces differentiation and reduces tumorigenicity of NPC cells without activating NF-?B signalling. Importantly, we describe a mechanism whereby EZH2 directs IKK? transcriptional repression via H3K27 histone methylation on the IKK? promoter. The differentiation agent, retinoic acid, increases IKK? expression by suppressing EZH2-mediated H3K27 histone methylation, resulting in enhanced differentiation of NPC cells. In agreement, an inverse correlation between IKK? (low) and EZH2 (high) expression is associated with a lack of differentiation in NPC patient samples. Collectively, these findings demonstrate a role for IKK? in NPC differentiation and reveal an epigenetic mechanism for IKK? regulation, unveiling a new avenue for differentiation therapy.
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Combination of aqueous two-phase extraction and cation-exchange chromatography: new strategies for separation and purification of alliin from garlic powder.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 02-22-2014
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In this study, a two-step process combining aqueous two-phase extraction (ATPE) with chromatography was developed for extraction and purification of alliin from garlic powder. The partition coefficient and yield value of alliin in different types of aqueous two-phase system (ATPS) were compared and response surface methodology (RSM) was used for analyzing and optimizing the extraction process. The optimal extraction conditions of 19% (w/w) (NH4)2SO4, 20% (w/w) 1-prpanol, at 30°C, pH 2.35 with 8.54% (w/w) NaCl was chosen based on the higher yield. Compared to the results obtained with the conventional extraction method, this method had an evident advantage on yield (20.4mg/g versus the original yield of 15.0mg/g) and the concentration of alliin in extract solution by ATPE was close to three times of that with conventional extraction. The purification of alliin was carried out with the ammonium form of sulfonic acid cation-exchange resins 001×7. Sample solution with alliin concentration of 1mg/mL was passed through resins and the desorption of alliin was accomplished by water at the flow velocity of 0.5mL/min, 1.5mL/min, respectively. The purity and recovery of alliin after purification were 80% and 76%, respectively.
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Risk factors and incidence of stroke and MACE in Chinese atrial fibrillation patients presenting to emergency departments: a national wide database analysis.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 02-15-2014
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Contemporary clinical risk stratification schemata for predicting stroke and thromboembolism in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) are largely derived from western cohorts. The purpose of the present study is to assess the potential risk factors for stroke and major adverse cardiac events (MACE) in a large population of Chinese AF patients presenting to emergency department.
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Pregnenolone, a cholesterol metabolite, induces glioma cell apoptosis via activating extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 02-07-2014
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Gliomas are one of the most common types of malignant tumors worldwide, however, an effective therapeutic strategy not yet been fully determined. The present study aimed to investigate the anti-glioma activity and underlying mechanisms of pregnenolone, which originates from cholesterol and is metabolized into important steroid hormones in the body. The results demonstrated that 100 ?M pregnenolone induced a significant loss of cell viability in various malignant glioma cell lines. In the U-87 MG, LN-18 and C6 cell lines, the loss of cell viability resulted from cell apoptosis, which was evidenced by apoptotic nuclear morphology changes and caspase 3 activation. Moreover, the increased activities of caspase 8 and 9 strongly indicated that pregnenolone activated the extrinsic and intrinsic pathways of apoptosis. Additionally, glioma cell apoptosis was prevented by the general caspase inhibitor, Z-VAD-FMK. In the C6 cells, upregulation of Fas and Fas ligand triggered the activation of the extrinsic pathway, whereas knockdown of Fas significantly abrogated the cell apoptosis that was induced by pregnenolone. Furthermore, downregulation of the anti-apoptotic protein, B-cell lymphoma 2 and upregulation of pro-apoptotic proteins, such as Bax and Bak, activated the intrinsic pathway. In conclusion, pregnenolone induced glioma cell apoptosis in a caspase-dependent manner, which was mediated by activation of the extrinsic and intrinsic apoptotic pathways.
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CEACAM6 promotes tumor migration, invasion, and metastasis in gastric cancer.
Acta Biochim. Biophys. Sin. (Shanghai)
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
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Carcinoembryonic antigen-related cell adhesion molecule 6 (CEACAM6) shows increased expression in a wide variety of human cancers, and its over-expression is associated with enhanced migration, invasion, and in vivo metastasis. Here, we reported that CEACAM6 was up-regulated in gastric cancer (GC) cell lines and tumor tissues. Over-expression of CEACAM6 in MKN-45 and SGC-7901 GC cells promoted migration and invasion in vitro and metastasis in athymic mice, whereas migration and invasion of MKN-28 and SNU-16 GC cells were suppressed by knockdown of CEACAM6. We also observed that steroid receptor coactivator (C-SRC) phosphorylation was increased when CEACAM6 was over-expressed in SGC-7901 cells. Taken together, these results suggested that CEACAM6 functions as an oncoprotein in GC and may be an important metastatic biomarker and therapeutic target.
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Who will benefit from noncurative resection in patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis?
Am Surg
PUBLISHED: 02-01-2014
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The value of noncurative resection for patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis is still debatable. This study was undertaken to evaluate the survival benefit of resection in those patients. From 2006 to 2009, 119 patients with gastric cancer with single peritoneal metastasis were identified during surgery. Sixty-three of them had noncurative resection; the remainder had nonresection. Clinicopathological variables and survival were analyzed. Overall survival of patients in the noncurative resection group was longer than that in the nonresection group (14.869 vs 7.780 months). This survival advantage was still significantly better in the P1/P2 patients who underwent noncurative resection (mean survival time 21.164 vs 7.636 months, P = 0.001), but not in the P3 group (P = 0.489). Multivariate analysis indicated that only noncurative resection retained a significant association with better prognosis in P1/P2 patients. The perioperative mortality rate in the resection group was not significantly higher than that of the noncurative group (P = 0.747). Noncurative resection can prolong the survival of patients with gastric cancer with single P1/P2 peritoneal metastasis. This surgical approach should not be taken into account for those patients with P3 gastric cancer.
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Overweight is associated with improved survival and outcomes in patients with atrial fibrillation.
Clin Res Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the association of body mass index (BMI) with mortality and cardiovascular events in Chinese patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
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Tumor suppressor miR-24 restrains gastric cancer progression by downregulating RegIV.
Mol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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microRNAs are small noncoding RNAs that modulate a variety of cellular processes by regulating multiple targets, which can promote or inhibit the development of malignant behaviors. Accumulating evidence suggests miR-24 plays important roles in human carcinogenesis. However, its precise biological role remains largely elusive. This study examined the role of miR-24 in gastric cancer (GC).
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Inhibitory modulation of CART peptides in accumbal neuron through decreasing interaction of CaMKII? with dopamine D3 receptors.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
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Previous studies in rats have shown that microinjections of cocaine- and amphetamine-regulated transcript (CART) peptide into the nucleus accumbens (NAc; the area of the brain that mediates drug reward and reinforcement) attenuate the locomotor effects of psychostimulants. CART peptide has also been shown to induce decreased intracellular concentrations of calcium (Ca(2+)) in primary cultures of hippocampus neurons. The purpose of this study was to characterize the interaction of Ca(2+)/calmodulin-dependent kinases (CaMKII?) with dopamine D3 (D3) receptors (R) in primary cultures of accumbal neurons. This interaction is involved in inhibitory modulation of CART peptides. In vitro, CART (55-102) peptide (0.1, 0.5 or 1?M) was found to dose-dependently inhibit K(+) depolarization-elicited Ca(2+) influx and CaMKII? phosphorylation in accumbal neurons. Moreover, CART peptides were also found to block cocaine (1?M)-induced Ca(2+) influx, CaMKII? phosphorylation, CaMKII?-D3R interaction, and CREB phosphorylation. In vivo, repeated microinjections of CART (55-102) peptide (2?g/1?l/side) into the NAc over a 5-day period had no effect on behavioral activity but blocked cocaine-induced locomotor activity. These results indicate that D3R function in accumbal neurons is a target of CART (55-102) peptide and suggest that CART peptide by dephosphorylating limbic D3Rs may have potential as a treatment for cocaine abuse.
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MiR-133b is frequently decreased in gastric cancer and its overexpression reduces the metastatic potential of gastric cancer cells.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Emerging evidence has shown that microRNAs are involved in gastric cancer development and progression. Here we examine the role of miR-133b in gastric cancer.
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Baseline characteristics and 1-year follow-up of Chinese atrial fibrillation patients according to age: a registry study.
Pacing Clin Electrophysiol
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2014
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The prevalence of atrial fibrillation (AF) increases with age, and may lead to complications and reduced quality of life. The aim of this study was to determine the characteristics, management, and prognosis of Chinese AF patients and whether there were differences according to age.
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CD20-positive plasmablastic lymphoma with excellent response to bortezomib combined with rituximab.
Eur. J. Haematol.
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2014
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As a distinct type of aggressive mature large B-cell lymphoma, plasmablastic lymphoma (PBL) poses diagnostic and treatment challenges. PBL is distinguished from other B-cell lymphomas by the presence of plasmacytic differentiation markers such as CD38, CD138, and MUM1. Clinically, PBLs from oral and extra-oral sites are rapidly progressive tumors with frequent relapse after treatment with standard diffuse large B-cell lymphoma regimens. Here, we report a near-complete response of one patient with relapsed PBL following treatment with a non-cytotoxic regimen containing bortezomib, rituximab, and dexamethasone.
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HER2 aberrations in cancer: implications for therapy.
Cancer Treat. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Although anti-HER2 (human epidermal growth factor receptor 2) therapy is currently approved for breast, gastric, and gastroesophageal cancers overexpressing the HER2 protein or amplified for the HER2 gene, HER2 aberrations (gene amplification, gene mutations, and protein overexpression) are reported in other diverse malignancies. Indeed, about 1-37% of tumors of the following types harbor HER2 aberrations: bladder, cervix, colon, endometrium, germ cell, glioblastoma, head and neck, liver, lung, ovarian, pancreas, and salivary duct. Four HER2-targeted therapies have been approved for HER2-positive breast cancer: two antibodies (trastuzumab and pertuzumab), an antibody-drug conjugate (ado-trastuzumab emtansine), and a small molecule kinase inhibitor (lapatinib). In addition, afatinib, a small molecule kinase inhibitor that causes irreversible inhibition of EGFR (epidermal growth factor receptor) and HER2, was recently approved for EGFR-mutated non-small cell lung cancer. A large number of novel HER2-targeted agents are also in clinical trials. Herein we discuss the state of the art in understanding and targeting HER2 across anatomic tumor types.
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CEACAM6 Promotes Gastric Cancer Invasion and Metastasis by Inducing Epithelial-Mesenchymal Transition via PI3K/AKT Signaling Pathway.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Overexpressed CEACAM6 in tumor tissues plays important roles in invasion, metastasis and anoikis resistance in a variety of human cancers. We recently reported that CEACAM6 expression is upregulated in Gastric cancer (GC) tissues and promoted GC metastasis. Here, we report that CEACAM6 promotes peritoneal metastases in vivo and is negatively correlated with E-cadherin expression in GC tissues. Overexpressed CEACAM6 induced epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) in GC, as measured by increases in the EMT markers N-cadherin, Vimentin and Slug while E-cadherin expression was decreased in CEACAM6-overexpressing GC cells; opposing results were observed in CEACAM6-silenced cells. Furthermore, E-cadherin expression was negatively correlated with depth of tumor invasion, lymph node metastasis and TNM stage in GC tissues. Additionally, CEACAM6 elevated matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) activity in GC, and anti-MMP-9 antibody could reverse the increasing invasion and migration induced by CEACAM6. CEACAM6 also increased the levels of phosphorylated AKT, which is involved in the progression of a variety of human tumors. We further observed that LY294002, a PI3K inhibitor, could reverse CEACAM6-induced EMT via mesenchymal-epithelial transition. These findings suggest that CEACAM6 enhances invasion and metastasis in GC by promoting EMT via the PI3K/AKT signaling pathway.
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Aberrant neuronal synaptic connectivity in CA1 area of the hippocampus from pilocarpine-induced epileptic rats observed by fluorogold.
Int J Clin Exp Med
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we observed synaptic connectivity among neurons in CA1 region of pilocarpine-induced chronic seizures in rats. Twenty healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided randomly into an epilepsy group (n = 10) and a control group (n = 10). Approximately 60 days after status epilepticus (SE) , Fluorogold (FG) was injected into the CA1 area of the hippocampus in vivo. Somatostatin (SS) expression was observed using immunofluorescence. The distribution of FG-positive and FG/SS double-labeled neurons was observed using a confocal microscope. FG-labeled pyramidal cells could be seen remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area and in the subiculum in the experimental group. FG/SS double-labeled interneurons were distributed remotely from the FG-injected site in the CA1 area in the epileptic rats. These changes suggest aberrant neuronal connectivity in CA1 region, which may lead to the formation of aberrant excitatory and inhibitory circuitry, and may play an important role in the generation or compensation for temporal lobe epilepsy.
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Activation of Toll-like receptor-9 promotes cellular migration via up-regulating MMP-2 expression in oral squamous cell carcinoma.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Activation of Toll like receptors (TLRs) signaling has been implicated in promoting malignant cell invasion and metastatic potential. Previously we demonstrated that increased TLR-9 expression predicted poor survival in oral cancer patients. The objective of this study is to further investigate the roles and potential molecular mechanisms of TLR-9 signaling in human oral cancer cell invasion.
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[Analysis of risk factors for all cause-mortality in Chinese emergency atrial fibrillation patients].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-31-2013
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To explore the independent risk factors associated with one-year mortality in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF).
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[The impact of hypertension history and baseline blood pressure levels on the cardiovascular outcomes in Chinese emergency atrial fibrillation patients].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To explore the impact of hypertension history and baseline blood pressure levels on cardiovascular outcomes in Chinese emergency atrial fibrillation patients during 1 year follow-up.
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[Observational study of complications connected with the use of the laryngeal mask airway and sevoflurane anesthesia in children].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-24-2013
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To comparison of the type and the incidence of complications connected with the use of the Laryngeal Mask Airway (LMA) and sevoflurane anesthesia in different ages children.
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[Preparation and characterization of the recombinant hFGF21-containing lentiviral].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-11-2013
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To package the lentiviral particles carrying human fibroblast growth factor 21 (hFGF21) and identify the morphological characteristics and transduction capability for the target gene of human embryo kidney 293T (HEK293T) cells.
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[Risk factors of short term mortality in patients with acute ST-elevation myocardial infarction complicated with fatal arrhythmia].
Zhonghua Xin Xue Guan Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 11-30-2013
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To explore the independent risk factors associated with short term mortality in patients with ST-segment elevation acute myocardial infarction (STEMI) complicated with fatal arrhythmia.
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[Expression of Foxa2 and its early alarm value of cancerous in gastric polyps].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
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To explore the expression of Foxa2 in different pathological types of gastric polyps and examine the correlation with cancerous risk.
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Honeycomb-lattice plasmonic absorbers at NIR: anomalous high-order resonance.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
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We design, fabricate and characterize a plasmonic honeycomb lattice absorber with almost perfect absorption at 1140 nm over a wide incident angle range. This absorber also possesses a narrow-band, angle- and polarization-dependent high-order resonance in the short-wavelength range, with a bandwidth of 19 nm and angle sensitivity of 3 nm per degree. The nature of this high-order absorption band is analyzed through finite-element simulations. We believe it is due to Bragg coupling of the incident light to the backward-propagating surface plasmon polariton through the periodic modulation of the structure.Such fine absorption bands can find applications in plasmonic sensors and spectrally selective thermal emitters.
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Inhibition of mTOR pathway sensitizes acute myeloid leukemia cells to aurora inhibitors by suppression of glycolytic metabolism.
Mol. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Aurora kinases are overexpressed in large numbers of tumors and considered as potential therapeutic targets. In this study, we found that the Aurora kinases inhibitors MK-0457 (MK) and ZM447439 (ZM) induced polyploidization in acute myeloid leukemia (AML) cell lines. The level of glycolytic metabolism was significantly increased in the polyploidy cells, which were sensitive to glycolysis inhibitor 2-deoxy-D-glucose (2DG), suggesting that polyploidy cells might be eliminated by metabolism deprivation. Indeed, inhibition of mTOR pathway by mTOR inhibitors (rapamycin and PP242) or 2DG promoted not only apoptosis but also autophagy in the polyploidy cells induced by Aurora inhibitors. Mechanically, PP242 or2DGdecreased the level of glucose uptake and lactate production in polyploidy cells as well as the expression of p62/SQSTM1. Moreover, knockdown of p62/SQSTM1 sensitized cells to the Aurora inhibitor whereas overexpression of p62/SQSTM1 reduced drug efficacy. Thus, our results revealed that inhibition of mTOR pathway decreased the glycolytic metabolism of the polyploidy cells, and increased the efficacy of Aurora kinases inhibitors, providing a novel approach of combination treatment in AML.
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A cohort study and meta-analysis between histopathological classification and prognosis of gastric carcinoma.
Anticancer Agents Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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To determine the correlation of histopathological classification and patient outcomes, we performed a meta-analysis of histological subtypes on postoperative survival in gastric cancer.
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Hypertrophied myocardium is refractory to sevoflurane-induced protection with alteration of reperfusion injury salvage kinase/glycogen synthase kinase 3? signals.
Shock
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetic postconditioning confers myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion injury through activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway. As RISK has been shown to be impaired by ventricular hypertrophy, we investigate whether anesthetic-induced cardiac protection was maintained in rat hearts with ventricular hypertrophy. Transverse aortic constriction operation was performed on male Sprague-Dawley rats to induce left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy, then sham-operated or hypertrophied rat hearts were subjected to 40 min of global ischemia and 2 h of reperfusion. The isolated hearts received 3% sevoflurane for 10 min or six cycles of 10-s ischemia/10-s reperfusion after reperfusion. The hemodynamics, infarct size, PTEN (phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten), phosphorylated Akt, phosphorylated extracellular regulated protein kinase (ERK) 1/2, and phosphorylated glycogen synthase kinase 3? (GSK3?) were determined. We found the myocardial expression of PTEN, phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and phosphorylated GSK3? did not significantly differ between sham-operated and transverse aortic constriction-control groups. Both sevoflurane and ischemic postconditioning significantly improved LV hemodynamics, reduced infarct size, and increased the phosphorylation of Akt, ERK1/2, and their downstream target of GSK3? in the sham-operated rat hearts. In contrast, neither sevoflurane nor ischemic postconditioning improved LV hemodynamic, reduced infarct size, and increased the phosphorylated Akt, ERK1/2, and GSK3? in hypertrophied myocardium. All the results above indicate that ventricular hypertrophy abrogated sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury by alteration of RISK/GSK3? signals.
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[Synthesis and luminescence properties of Mg2Y8Si6O26 : Ce3+, Mn2+ phosphor].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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Mg2Y8Si6O26 : Ce3+, Mn2+ phosphor was synthesized by the high temperature solid-state reaction, and the structure and luminescence properties were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and fluorescence spectrophotometer. The XRD pattern demonstrated that the synthetic material belongs to the hexagonal phase of Mg2Y8Si6O26 crystal without detectable impurity and space group P6(3)/m. The excitation and emission spectrum showed that there exist two lattice positions for Ce3+ in Mg2Y8Si6O26 crystal and their luminescence properties were compared. There are two emission peaks at 400 and 600 nm in the emission spectra under excitation at 286 nm, which come from Ce3+ and Mn2+ emission, respectively. It was demonstrated that there exists energy transfer between Ce3+ and Mn2+. The white light can be achieved by changing Mn2+ concentration. It can be used as a potential single-phased white phosphor excited by ultraviolet light.
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Targeted therapy: tailoring cancer treatment.
Chin J Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Targeted therapies include small-molecule inhibitors and monoclonal antibodies, have made treatment more tumor-specific and less toxic, and have opened new possibilities for tailoring cancer treatment. Nevertheless, there remain several challenges to targeted therapies, including molecular identification, drug resistance, and exploring reliable biomarkers. Here, we present several selected signaling pathways and molecular targets involved in human cancers including Aurora kinases, PI3K/mTOR signaling, FOXO-FOXM1 axis, and MDM2/MDM4-p53 interaction. Understanding the molecular mechanisms for tumorigenesis and development of drug resistance will provide new insights into drug discovery and design of therapeutic strategies for targeted therapies.
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Metallopanstimulin-1 regulates invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells partially through integrin ?4.
Carcinogenesis
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2013
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MPS-1 (metallopanstimulin-1), also known as ribosomal protein S27, was overexpressed in gastric cancer cells. However, how MPS-1 contributes to gastric carcinogenesis has not been well characterized. Here, we show that high expression of MPS-1 was observed in gastric cancer tissues and associated with gastric cancer cell metastasis. Alteration of MPS-1 expression regulates invasion and migration of gastric cancer cells both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, by using Signal-Net and cluster analyses of microarray data we identified integrin ?4 (ITGB4) as a downstream target of MPS-1 that mediates its effects on cell metastasis. Knockdown of MPS-1 expression in gastric cancer cells led to significant reduction of ITGB4 expression at both the RNA and protein levels. Mechanically, we found that overexpression of ITGB4 in MPS-1 knockdown cells largely recovers the ability of invasion and migration. Conversely, knockdown of ITGB4 partially reduced cell invading/migrating ability induced by MPS-1 overexpression. Moreover, MPS-1 and ITGB4 expressions are positively correlated in gastric cancer cell lines and tissues. Finally, the survival analyses show that the expression of MPS-1 and ITGB4 is associated with poor outcomes in gastric cancer patients. Collectively, our findings suggest that MPS-1 regulates cell invasiveness and migration partially through ITGB4 and that MPS-1/ITGB4 signaling axis may serve as therapeutic targets in the treatment of gastric cancer.
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Effect of bisphenol A on rat metabolic profiling studied by using capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry.
Environ. Sci. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Bisphenol A (BPA), a chemical widely used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastics, has raised considerable concern in recent decades because of its hormone-like properties. Whether BPA exposure is a health risk remains controversial in many countries. A metabolomics study based on capillary electrophoresis time-of-flight mass spectrometry (CE-TOF/MS) was performed to study the urine metabolic profiles of Sprague-Dawley rats fed with four dose levels of BPA (0, 1, 10, and 100 ?g/kg body weight) for 45 days. Multivariate pattern recognition directly reflected the metabolic perturbations caused by BPA. On the basis of univariate analysis, 42 metabolites including amino acids, polyamines, nucleosides, organic acids, carbohydrates, pterins, polyphenols, and sugar phosphates were found as the most significantly differential metabolites. The marked perturbations were related with valine, leucine and isoleucine biosynthesis, D-glutamine and D-glutamate metabolism, etc. Significant alterations of neurotransmitters (glutamate, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and noradrenaline) and neurotransmitter-related metabolites (tyrosine, histamine, valine, and taurine) suggested that the toxic effects of small-dose BPA (below 50 mg/kg/day) may contribute to its interactions with the neuromediating system. Our study demonstrated that metabolomics may offer more specific insights into the molecular changes underlying the physiological effects of BPA.
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PNKP knockdown by RNA interference inhibits herpes simplex virus-1 replication in astrocytes.
Virol Sin
PUBLISHED: 06-13-2013
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Herpes simplex virus-1 (HSV-1) is a major pathogen that causes various central nervous system (CNS) diseases, including herpes simplex encephalitis and meningitis. According to recent studies, PNKP significantly affects the proliferation of HSV-1 in astrocytes. Here, we used viral proliferation curves to confirm the significant inhibitory effects of PNKP on HSV-1 proliferation. PNKP downregulation was also confirmed by analyzing the transcription of viral genes. We found that PNKP downregulation affects the viral DNA copy number. This study preliminarily confirms that PNKP affects viral proliferation by affecting HSV-1 genome cyclization. These results also suggest that astrocytes play a specific role in preventing HSV-1 infection.
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Activation of Akt and cardioprotection against reperfusion injury are maximal with only five minutes of sevoflurane postconditioning in isolated rat hearts.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 06-05-2013
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It had been proved that administration of sevoflurane for the first two minutes of reperfusion effectively protects the heart against reperfusion injury in rats in vivo. Our aim was to investigate the duration of effective sevoflurane administration and its underlying mechanism in isolated rat hearts exposed to global ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into six groups (n=12): a sham-operation group, an I/R group, and four sevoflurane postconditioning groups (S2, S5, S10, and S15). In the S2, S5, S10, and S15 groups, the duration times of sevoflurane administration were 2, 5, 10, and 15 min after the onset of reperfusion, respectively. The isolated rat hearts were mounted on the Langendorff system, and after a period of equilibrium were subjected to 40 min global ischemia and 120 min reperfusion. Left ventricular (LV) hemodynamic parameters were monitored throughout each experiment and the data at 30 min of equilibrium and 30, 60, 90, and 120 min of reperfusion were analyzed. Myocardial infarct size at the end of reperfusion (n=7 in each group) and the expression of myocardial phosphorylated Akt (p-Akt) after 15-min reperfusion were determined in a duplicate set of six groups of rat hearts (n=5 in each group). Compared with the I/R group, the S5, S10, and S15 groups had significantly improved left ventricular end-diastolic pressure (LVEDP), left ventricular developed pressure (LVDP), and the maximal rate of rise or fall of the LV pressure (±dP/dtmax), and decreased myocardial infarct size (P<0.05), but not the S2 group. After 15 min of reperfusion, the expression of p-Akt was markedly up-regulated in the S5, S10, and S15 groups compared with that in the I/R group (P<0.05), but not in the S2 group. Sevoflurane postconditioning for 5 min was sufficient to activate Akt and exert maximal cardioprotection against I/R injury in isolated rat hearts.
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[Synthesis and upconversion luminescence properties of BaIn6 Y2O13 : Yb3+, Er3+].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2013
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BaIn6 Y2O13 phosphors with different doping concentrations of Yb3+ and Er3+ were prepared via the high temperature solid-state reaction method. XRD data showed that BaIn6 Y2O13 phosphors belong to hexagonal system and the introduction of doping agent Yb3+ and Er3+ did not change the lattice structure of the host. The upconversion emission spectrum and power were measured by 971 nm LD laser with different excitation powers and the energy efficiencies of the samples were calculated. The obtained data showed that the ratio of green power to red power kept decreasing with the increase in doping agent concentration when the excitation density remains constant, increasing with the increase in the excitation density at the same concentration of doping agent. The analyses revealed that the former was attributed to the increasing cross relaxation between Er3+ ions, while the latter came from the raise of the energy transfer between Yb3+ and Er3+ ions and the excited state absorption of Er3+ ions due to the higher excitation density. With the increase in the excitation density, at the beginning the green luminescence power was proportional to the square of the excitation power, which agrees with the reported result. The maximum values of the fluorescence efficiencies of the samples were obtained as 0.38% (the doping concentrations of Yb3+ and Er3+ are 3%, 1%)and 0.06% (the doping concentrations of Yb3+ and Er3+ are 9%, 3%). It can be attributed to the long lifetime of 4 I13/2 energy level so it can gather a large number of electrons and reduce the population of ground state, resulting in lower pump efficiency.
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A synthetic steroid 5?-androst-3?,5,6?-triol blocks hypoxia/reoxygenation-induced neuronal injuries via protection of mitochondrial function.
Steroids
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2013
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Ischemic stroke is a leading cause of death worldwide, yet therapies are limited. During periods of ischemia following reperfusion in ischemic stroke, not only loss of energy supply, but a few other factors including mitochondrial dysfunction and oxidative stress also make vital contribution to neuronal injury. Here we synthesized a steroid compound 5?-androst-3?,5,6?-triol by 3 steps starting from dehydroepiandrosterone and examined its effect on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in primary cultured cortical neurons exposed to hypoxia followed by reoxygenation. 5?-Androst-3?,5,6?-triol dose-dependently protected cortical neurons from hypoxia/reoxygenation exposure. Rates of reduction in neuronal viability, loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, disruption of ATP production and oxidative stress were ameliorated in 5?-androst-3?,5,6?-triol pretreated cultures. In summary, these results suggest that 5?-androst-3?,5,6?-triol is neuroprotective against hypoxia/reoxygenation induced neuronal injuries through mediation of mitochondrial function and oxidative stress.
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MiRNA-199a-3p: A potential circulating diagnostic biomarker for early gastric cancer.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2013
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Tumor-associated miRNAs have been detected in serum or plasma. We investigated whether plasma miRNA-199a-3p could be a potential circulating biomarker for early gastric cancer (EGC).
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Hypercholesterolemia blocked sevoflurane-induced cardioprotection against ischemia-reperfusion injury by alteration of the MG53/RISK/GSK3? signaling.
Int. J. Cardiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2013
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Recent studies have demonstrated that volatile anesthetic preconditioning confers myocardial protection against ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury through activation of the reperfusion injury salvage kinase (RISK) pathway. As RISK has been shown to be impaired in hypercholesterolemia, we investigate whether anesthetic-induced cardiac protection was maintained in hypercholesterolemic rats.
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Social cognition and interaction training for patients with stable schizophrenia in Chinese community settings.
Psychiatry Res
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2013
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Accumulated evidence suggests that Social Cognition and Interaction Training (SCIT) is associated with improved performance in social cognition and social skills in patients diagnosed with psychotic disorders. The current study examined the clinical utility of SCIT in patients with schizophrenia in Chinese community settings. Adults with stable schizophrenia were recruited from local community health institutions, and were randomly assigned to SCIT group (n=22) or a waiting-list control group (n=17). The SCIT group received the SCIT intervention plus treatment-as-usual, whereas the waiting-list group received only treatment-as-usual during the period of the study. All patients were administered the Chinese versions of the Personal and Social Performance Scale (PSP), Face Emotion Identification Task (FEIT), Eyes task, and Attributional Style Questionnaire (ASQ) at baseline of the SCIT treatment period and at follow-up, 6 months after completion of the 20-week treatment period. Patients in SCIT group showed a significant improvement in the domains of emotion perception, theory of mind, attributional style, and social functioning compared to those in waiting-list group. Findings indicate that SCIT is a feasible and promising method for improving social cognition and social functioning among Chinese outpatients with stable schizophrenia.
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High risk factors of brain metastases in 295 patients with advanced breast cancer.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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The incidence of brain metastases in patients with breast cancer is approximately 10% - 16%, and survival after diagnosis of brain metastases is usually short. This study was designed to evaluate the risk factors associated with brain metastases in advanced breast cancer patients, with a view to help predict patient groups with high risk of brain metastases.
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Light absorber based on nano-spheres on a substrate reflector.
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PUBLISHED: 04-03-2013
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We systematically study a type of plasmonic light absorber based on a monolayer of gold nano-spheres with less than 30 nm in diameters deposited on top of a continuous gold substrate. The influences of particle size, inter-particle distance, particle-substrate spacer size etc on the resonance are studied thoroughly with a 3D finite-element method. We identified that the high-absorption resonance is mainly due to gap plasmon (coupled through particle bodies) when the separation between neighboring nano-spheres is small enough, such as close to 1 nm; at larger particle separations, the resonance is dominated by particle dipoles (coupled through the host dielectric). Experimentally, an absorber was fabricated based on chemically-synthesized gold nanoparticles coated with silica shell. The absorber shows a characteristic absorption band around 810 nm with a maximum absorbance of approximately 90%, which agrees reasonably well with our numerical calculation. The fabrication technique can be easily adapted for devising efficient light absorbers of large areas.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.