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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Inhibition of tumor growth by ?-elemene through downregulation of the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 in a murine intraocular melanoma model.
Melanoma Res.
PUBLISHED: 11-19-2014
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This paper explores the underlying mechanism through which ?-elemene inhibits the growth of intraocular melanoma in a mouse model. C57BL/6J mice were administered a subretinal injection of B16F10 melanoma cells and divided into two groups: treatment and control. The treatment group was administered ?-elemene through an intravitreal injection and the control group was injected with a blank emulsion. After 21 days of continuous treatment, tumor masses were removed and weighed. The mRNA expression levels of the urokinase-type plasminogen activator (uPA), uPA receptor (uPAR), matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, and MMP-9 were assayed by real-time PCR, and the protein expression levels of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were assayed by immunocytochemistry and western blotting. Tumor size was inhibited by ?-elemene in the treatment group, and the expressions of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9 were all downregulated at both the mRNA and the protein level compared with the control group. In a mouse model of intraocular melanoma, ?-elemene inhibits tumor growth by downregulating the expression of uPA, uPAR, MMP-2, and MMP-9.
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Whole plant foods intake is associated with fewer menopausal symptoms in Chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension or untreated hypertension.
Menopause
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2014
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Nutritional factors have been suggested to be associated with menopausal symptoms (MS). However, the role of overall diet in MS has seldom been examined in Asian populations. This study aims to examine the association of dietary patterns with MS in Chinese postmenopausal women.
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The stabilities and electronic structures of single-layer bismuth oxyhalides for photocatalytic water splitting.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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The stabilities and electronic/band structures of single-layer bismuth oxyhalides have been investigated by employing first-principles calculations. The results indicate that the single-layer bismuth oxyhalide materials, except for BiOF, have robust energetic and dynamical stabilities because of their low formation energies and the absence of imaginary frequencies within the entire Brillouin zone. Furthermore, calculations of the electronic structures and optical absorptions indicate that single-layer BiOI possesses a favorable band gap, suitable band edge positions, different orbital characteristics and different effective masses at the valence band maximum (VBM) and conduction band minimum (CBM), thus presenting excellent photocatalytic activity for water splitting. Moreover, the resulting compressive strains can shift the band edge positions of the single-layer materials to more suitable places to enhance their photocatalytic activities.
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Cholesterol cholelithiasis in pregnant women: pathogenesis, prevention and treatment.
Ann Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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Epidemiological and clinical studies have found that gallstone prevalence is twice as high in women as in men at all ages in every population studied. Hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy put women at higher risk. The incidence rates of biliary sludge (a precursor to gallstones) and gallstones are up to 30 and 12%, respectively, during pregnancy and postpartum, and 1-3% of pregnant women undergo cholecystectomy due to clinical symptoms or complications within the first year postpartum. Increased estrogen levels during pregnancy induce significant metabolic changes in the hepatobiliary system, including the formation of cholesterol-supersaturated bile and sluggish gallbladder motility, two factors enhancing cholelithogenesis. The therapeutic approaches are conservative during pregnancy because of the controversial frequency of biliary disorders. In the majority of pregnant women, biliary sludge and gallstones tend to dissolve spontaneously after parturition. In some situations, however, the conditions persist and require costly therapeutic interventions. When necessary, invasive procedures such as laparoscopic cholecystectomy are relatively well tolerated, preferably during the second trimester of pregnancy or postpartum. Although laparoscopic operation is recommended for its safety, the use of drugs such as ursodeoxycholic acid (UDCA) and the novel lipid-lowering compound, ezetimibe would also be considered. In this paper, we systematically review the incidence and natural history of pregnancy-related biliary sludge and gallstone formation and carefully discuss the molecular mechanisms underlying the lithogenic effect of estrogen on gallstone formation during pregnancy. We also summarize recent progress in the necessary strategies recommended for the prevention and the treatment of gallstones in pregnant women.
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[Epidemiological survey of early childhood caries for 5 year-old children in Langfang, Hebei in 2013].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-22-2014
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To explore the early childhood caries (ECC) status of 5 year-old preschool children in Langfang, Hebei province.
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Functional characterization of cotton genes responsive to Verticillium dahliae through bioinformatics and reverse genetics strategies.
J. Exp. Bot.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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Verticillium wilt causes dramatic cotton yield loss in China. Although some genes or biological processes involved in the interaction between cotton and Verticillium dahliae have been identified, the molecular mechanism of cotton resistance to this disease is still poorly understood. The basic innate immune response for defence is somewhat conserved among plant species to defend themselves in complex environments, which makes it possible to characterize genes involved in cotton immunity based on information from model plants. With the availability of Arabidopsis databases, a data-mining strategy accompanied by virus-induced gene silencing (VIGS) and heterologous expression were adopted in cotton and tobacco, respectively, for global screening and gene function characterization. A total of 232 Arabidopsis genes putatively involved in basic innate immunity were screened as candidate genes, and bioinformatic analysis suggested a role of these genes in the immune response. In total, 38 homologous genes from cotton were singled out to characterize their response to V. dahliae and methyl jasmonate treatment through quantitative real-time PCR. The results revealed that 24 genes were differentially regulated by pathogen inoculation, and most of these genes responded to both Verticillium infection and jasmonic acid stimuli. Furthermore, the efficiency of the strategy was illustrated by the functional identification of six candidate genes via heterologous expression in tobacco or a knock-down approach using VIGS in cotton. Functional categorization of these 24 differentially expressed genes as well as functional analysis suggest that reactive oxygen species, salicylic acid- and jasmonic acid-signalling pathways are involved in the cotton disease resistance response to V. dahliae. Our data demonstrate how information from model plants can allow the rapid translation of information into non-model species without complete genome sequencing, via high-throughput screening and functional identification of target genes based on data-mining and VIGS.
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Band gap engineering of FeS2 under biaxial strain: a first principles study.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2014
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The promising photovoltaic activity of pyrite (FeS2) is attributed to its excellent optical absorptivity and earth abundance, but its band gap, 0.95 eV, is slightly lower than the optimum value of 1.3 eV. Here we report the first investigation of strained FeS2, whose band gap can be increased by ?0.3 eV. The influence of uniaxial and biaxial strains on the atomic structure as well as the electronic and optical properties of bulk FeS2 is systematically examined by the first principles calculations. We found that the biaxial strain can effectively increase the band gap with respect to uniaxial strain. Our results indicate that the band gap increases with increasing tensile strain to its maximum value at 6% strain, but under the increasing compressive strain, the band gap decreases almost linearly. Moreover, the low intensity states at the bottom of the conduction band disappear and a sharp increase in the intensity appears at the lower energy level under the tensile strain, which causes the red shift of the absorption edge and enhances the overall optical absorption. With the increase of the band gap and enhanced optical absorption, FeS2 will make a better photovoltaic material.
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Hydrazine-mediated construction of nanocrystal self-assembly materials.
ACS Nano
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2014
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Self-assembly is the basic feature of supramolecular chemistry, which permits to integrate and enhance the functionalities of nano-objects. However, the conversion of self-assembled structures to practical materials is still laborious. In this work, on the basis of studying one-pot synthesis, spontaneous assembly, and in situ polymerization of aqueous semiconductor nanocrystals (NCs), NC self-assembly materials are produced and applied to design high performance white light-emitting diode (WLED). In producing self-assembly materials, the additive hydrazine (N2H4) is curial, which acts as the promoter to achieve room-temperature synthesis of aqueous NCs by favoring a reaction-controlled growth, as the polyelectrolyte to weaken inter-NC electrostatic repulsion and therewith facilitate the one-dimensional self-assembly, and in particular as the bifunctional monomers to polymerize with mercapto carboxylic acid-modified NCs via in situ amidation reaction. This strategy is versatile for mercapto carboxylic acid-modified aqueous NCs, for example CdS, CdSe, CdTe, CdSexTe1-x, and CdyHg1-yTe. Because of the multisite modification with carboxyl, the NCs act as macromonomers, thus producing cross-linked self-assembly materials with excellent thermal, solvent, and photostability. The assembled NCs preserve strong luminescence and avoid unpredictable fluorescent resonance energy transfer, the main problem in design WLED from multiple NC components. These advantages allow the fabrication of NC-based WLED with high color rendering index (86), high luminous efficacy (41 lm/W), and controllable color temperature.
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Progressive Learning Machine: A New Approach for General Hybrid System Approximation.
IEEE Trans Neural Netw Learn Syst
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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As the most important property of neural networks (NNs), the universal approximation capability of NNs is widely used in many applications. However, this property is generally proven for continuous systems. Most industrial systems are hybrid systems (e.g., piecewise continuous), which is a significant limitation for real applications. Recently, many identification methods have been proposed for hybrid system approximation; however, these methods only operate in linear hybrid systems. In this paper, the progressive learning machine-a new learning algorithm based on multi-NNs-is proposed for general hybrid nonlinear/linear system approximation. This algorithm classifies hybrid systems into several continuous systems and can approximate any hybrid system with zero output error. The performance of the proposed learning method is demonstrated via numerical examples and with experimental data from real applications.
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Whole Glucan Particles as a Vaccine Against Murine Aspergillosis.
J. Med. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-08-2014
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Vaccination with heat-killed Saccharomyces cerevisiae (HKY) protects against experimental infection by pathogenic fungi of five genera. Here we tested whether purified Saccharomyces cell wall ?-glucan induced protection against systemic aspergillosis. CD-1 mice were given 3 weekly vaccine doses subcutaneously prior to intravenous infection with Aspergillus fumigatus. Mice received PBS, 2.5 mg HKY, or whole glucan particles (WGP) or WGP conjugated to BSA (0.06 to 12 mg/dose); or a soluble medium molecular weight (MMW) ?-glucan alone or MMW-BSA (&le]24 mg/dose). Survival and CFU were determined, and cytokine induction and anti-?-glucan antibodies were assessed in vaccinated mice. Neither soluble MMW glucan, nor MMW-BSA were effective. HKY protected in two studies (survival and CFU reduction brain and kidney, all P < 0.004). WGP or WGP-BSA at 6 or 12 mg prolonged survival (P ? 0.004), and reduced CFU in each organ (P ? 0.015) in both experiments; the 0.6 mg dose of each prolonged survival (P ? 0.015) and reduced CFU (P ? 0.015) in one experiment. Cytokine profiles in serum and bronchoalveolar lavage from uninfected vaccinated mice showed an innate and adaptive immune profile (i.e., up-regulation of colony stimulating factors, interferons, TNF?, chemokines such as MCP-1, MIP-1?, RANTES, KC, and Th17- activating cytokines such as IL-6, IL-1?, IL-17). No anti-?-glucan antibodies were in the sera, suggestive of an adaptive T cell, not a B cell mediated protective response. Vaccination with WGP or WGP-BSA proved protective against systemic aspergillosis, equivalent to that of HKY, supporting the potential of particulate ?-glucans, alone or conjugated, as vaccines against aspergillosis.
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[Fermentation of Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain and preliminary study on its antagonistic substances].
Zhongguo Zhong Yao Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-03-2014
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Panax ginseng is one of the most important traditional Chinese herbal medicine, soil borne diseases influenced the yield and quality severely. In our previous work, endophytic Bacillus subtilis ge25 strain was isolated from ginseng root, and which showed significant antagonistic activity against several most destructive ginseng phytopathogens. In the present work, crude protein and lipopeptid extracts were prepared from LB and Landy supernate by salting out, acid precipitation methods respectively. The antagonistic activity of crude extracts and stability to temperature and protease digestion were examined by ginseng phytopathogen Alternaria panax. Results showed that, the antagonistic activity of crude protein extracts from LB culture was complete and partially lost when treated by high temperature and proteinase K. However, crude lipopeptid from Landy culture showed significant stabile antagonistic activity to them. Acid-hydrolyzation and TLC-bioautography analysis showed, that the crude lipopeptide contained at least one cyclic lipopeptide. In consideration of the stability and perfect antagonistic activity of ge25, further researches will promote the biocontrol of ginseng diseases in the field.
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Molecularly imprinted spin column extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography for the selective and simple determination of trace nitrophenols in water samples.
J Sep Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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In this study, we developed a simple and selective spin column extraction technology utilizing hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers as the sorbents for extracting nitrophenol pollutants in water samples (the East Lake, the Yangtze River, and wastewater). The whole procedure was achieved by centrifugation of the spin column, and multiple samples were simultaneously processed with a low volume of solvent and without evaporation. Under the optimized condition, recoveries of nitrophenol compounds on the spin column packed with hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers ranged from 87.3 to 92.9% and an excellent purification effect was obtained. Compared with activated carbon, multi-walled carbon nanotubes, LC-C18 sorbents, hydrophilic molecularly imprinted polymers exhibited a highly selective recognition ability for nitrophenol compounds and satisfactory sample extraction efficiency. Subsequently, the spin column extraction coupled with high-performance liquid chromatography was established, which was found to be linear in the range of 2-1000 ng/mL for 2,4-dinitropehnol and 2-nitrophenol, and 6-1000 ng/mL for 4-nitrophenol with correlation coefficients greater than 0.998. The detection limits ranged from 0.3-0.5 ng/mL. It is shown that the proposed method can be used for the determination of trace nitrophenol pollutants in complex samples, which is not only beneficial for water quality analysis but also for environmental risk assessment.
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Primary effects of extracellular enzyme activity and microbial community on carbon and nitrogen mineralization in estuarine and tidal wetlands.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Estuarine and tidal wetlands with high primary productivity and biological activity play a crucial role in coastal nutrient dynamics. Here, to better reveal the effects of extracellular enzymes and microbial community on carbon (C) and nitrogen (N) mineralization, the incubation experiments with different C and N addition patterns to the tidal sediments of the Yangtze Estuary (China) were conducted. The results suggested a significant increase in cumulative CO2 effluxes in the C and CN treatment experiments, while no significant difference in cumulative CO2 effluxes between the N treatment and control (CK) experiments was observed. In addition, the nutrient addition patterns had a great influence on dissolve organic C and N levels, but a small effect on microbial biomass C and N. Microbial community composition and microbial activity were found to be positively correlated with organic C (OC) and the molar ratio of C to N (C/N). Partial correlation analysis, controlling for C/N, supported direct effects of OC on the activity of carbon-cycling extracellular enzymes (cellulase and polyphenol oxidase), while C/N exhibited negatively correlations with urease and Gram-positive bacteria to Gram-negative bacteria (G+/G-). Strong relationships were found between CO2 efflux and mineral nitrogen with the activity of specific enzymes (sucrase, cellulase, and polyphenol oxidase) and abundances of Gram-negative bacteria, arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi, and fungi, suggesting the significant influences of microbial community and enzyme activity on C and N mineralization in the estuarine and tidal wetlands. Furthermore, this study could highlight the need to explore effects of nutrient supply on microbial communities and enzyme activity changes associated with the C and N mineralization in these wetlands induced by the climate change.
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A novel minimally invasive percutaneous nephrolithotomy technique: safety and efficacy report.
Scand J Urol
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2014
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Abstract Objective. The aim of this study was to evaluate the outcome and determine the complications of ultrasound-guided 16 F tract percutaneous nephrolithotomy (PCNL) by review of over 1000 cases in a Chinese hospital. Material and methods. A total of 1368 patients underwent 16 F tract PCNL in the hospital between March 2007 and July 2013. Surgery was performed under general anesthesia in all cases. Central venous puncture was chosen as a puncture device. Complications, residual stones, stone clearance and the need for auxiliary treatments were evaluated. Management experience was evaluated with respect to the complications. Results. Complications occurred in 275 out of 1368 patients (20.1%). There were 102 Clavien grade 1 (7.4%), 121 grade 2 (8.8%) and 48 grade 3 (3.5%) complications, but no grade 4 or 5 complications. Access to the kidney was established in 99.7% of cases and 82.0% of cases had complete stone clearance without undergoing further PCNL. Auxiliary treatments included shockwave lithotripsy in 135 patients, second-phase PCNL in 49 patients and ureteroscopy in 63 patients. Three cases of rare complications occurred, including a double-J stent translocated to the chest, and intraoperative acute pulmonary edema and heart failure. Severe intraoperative or postoperative complications should be managed immediately. Conclusion. An ultrasound-guided mini-tract PCNL is safe and convenient, even for patients with complicated stones.
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Isomeric folate-conjugated polymeric micelles bind to folate receptors and display anticancer effects.
Asian Pac. J. Cancer Prev.
PUBLISHED: 09-18-2014
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The present study aimed to prepare and evaluate polymeric micelles conjugated with folic acid through ?- or ?-carboxyl groups for antitumor efficacy. The isomeric block copolymers, ?- and ?-folate-polyethyleneglycol- distearoyl phosphatidylethanolamine (?- and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE), were produced by solid phase peptide synthesis. Three types of doxorubicin (DOX)-loaded polymeric micelles (MPEG-DSPE-DOX and ?- / ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE- DOX micelles) were prepared via the film formation method. Compared with MPEG-DSPE-DOX micelles, the ?- / ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE-DOX micelles presented a higher cellular uptake behavior in the live cell study. Cell viability percentages were 81.8%, 57.3%, 56.6% at 2 hours for MPEG-DSPE-DOX, ?- and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE- DOX micelles, respectively (p<0.05). Using the KB xenograft tumor model, both ?- and ?-folate-conjugated micelles were found to have better antitumor effects with lower toxicity in comparison with MPEG-DSPE-DOX micelles. No difference in in vivo antitumor efficacy was found between ?-and ?-Fol-PEG-DSPE-DOX micelles. The folate-conjugated micelles might be a potentially useful strategy for tumor targeting of therapeutic agents, whether grafting with folic acid through ?- or ?-carboxyl groups.
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A novel action mechanism for MPT0G013, a derivative of arylsulfonamide, inhibits tumor angiogenesis through up-regulation of TIMP3 expression.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2014
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Tissue inhibitors of metalloproteinases 3 (TIMP3) were originally characterized as inhibitors of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), acting as potent antiangiogenic proteins. In this study, we demonstrated that the arylsulfonamide derivative MPT0G013 has potent antiangiogenic activities in vitro and in vivo viainducing TIMP3 expression. Treatments with MPT0G013 significantly inhibited endothelial cell functions, such as cell proliferation, migration, and tube formation, as well as induced p21 and cell cycle arrest at the G0/G1 phase. Subsequent microarray analysis showed significant induction of TIMP3 gene expression by MPT0G013, and siRNA-mediated blockage of TIMP3 up-regulation abrogated the antiangiogenic activities of MPT0G013 and prevented inhibition of p-AKT and p-ERK proteins. Importantly, MPT0G013 exhibited antiangiogenic activities in in vivo Matrigel plug assays, inhibited tumor growth and up-regulated TIMP3 and p21 proteins in HCT116 mouse xenograft models. These data suggest potential therapeutic application of MPT0G013 for angiogenesis-related diseases such as cancer.
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Birth weight and blood pressure: 'J' shape or linear shape? Findings from a cross-sectional study in Hong Kong Chinese women.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2014
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To investigate the association between birth weight and blood pressure (BP) and to determine the effect of body size change from birth to adulthood on BP.
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Whole body periodic acceleration is an effective therapy to ameliorate muscular dystrophy in mdx mice.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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Duchenne muscular dystrophy (DMD) is a genetic disorder caused by the absence of dystrophin in both skeletal and cardiac muscles. This leads to severe muscle degeneration, and dilated cardiomyopathy that produces patient death, which in most cases occurs before the end of the second decade. Several lines of evidence have shown that modulators of nitric oxide (NO) pathway can improve skeletal muscle and cardiac function in the mdx mouse, a mouse model for DMD. Whole body periodic acceleration (pGz) is produced by applying sinusoidal motion to supine humans and in standing conscious rodents in a headward-footward direction using a motion platform. It adds small pulses as a function of movement frequency to the circulation thereby increasing pulsatile shear stress to the vascular endothelium, which in turn increases production of NO. In this study, we examined the potential therapeutic properties of pGz for the treatment of skeletal muscle pathology observed in the mdx mouse. We found that pGz (480 cpm, 8 days, 1 hr per day) decreased intracellular Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished serum levels of creatine kinase (CK) and reduced intracellular accumulation of Evans Blue. Furthermore, pGz increased muscle force generation and expression of both utrophin and the carboxy-terminal PDZ ligand of nNOS (CAPON). Likewise, pGz (120 cpm, 12 h) applied in vitro to skeletal muscle myotubes reduced Ca(2+) and Na(+) overload, diminished abnormal sarcolemmal Ca(2+) entry and increased phosphorylation of endothelial NOS. Overall, this study provides new insights into the potential therapeutic efficacy of pGz as a non-invasive and non-pharmacological approach for the treatment of DMD patients through activation of the NO pathway.
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Toxic effects of maternal zearalenone exposure on intestinal oxidative stress, barrier function, immunological and morphological changes in rats.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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The present study was conducted to investigate the effects of maternal zearalenone (ZEN) exposure on the intestine of pregnant Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats and its offspring. Ninety-six pregnant SD rats were randomly divided into four groups and were fed with diets containing ZEN at concentrations of 0.3 mg/kg, 48.5 mg/kg, 97.6 mg/kg or 146.0 mg/kg from gestation days (GD) 1 to 7. All rats were fed with mycotoxin-free diet until their offspring were weaned at three weeks of age. The small intestinal fragments from pregnant rats at GD8, weaned dams and pups were collected and studied for toxic effects of ZEN on antioxidant status, immune response, expression of junction proteins, and morphology. The results showed that ZEN induced oxidative stress, affected the villous structure and reduced the expression of junction proteins claudin-4, occludin and connexin43 (Cx43) in a dose-dependent manner in pregnant rats. Different effects on the expression of cytokines were also observed both in mRNA and protein levels in these pregnant groups. Ingestion of high levels of ZEN caused irreversible damage in weaned dams, such as oxidative stress, decreased villi hight and low expression of junction proteins and cytokines. Decreased expression of jejunal interleukin-8 (IL-8) and increased expression of gastrointestinal glutathione peroxidase (GPx2) mRNA were detected in weaned offspring, indicating long-term damage caused by maternal ZEN. We also found that the Nrf2 expression both in mRNA and protein levels were up-regulated in the ZEN-treated groups of pregnant dams and the high-dose of ZEN group of weaned dams. The data indicate that modulation of Nrf2-mediated pathway is one of mechanism via which ZEN affects gut wall antioxidant and inflammatory responses.
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A first-principles study of lithium-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains for hydrogen storage.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 09-01-2014
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First-principles calculations are performed to investigate the adsorption of hydrogen onto Li-decorated hybrid boron nitride and graphene domains of (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes with x = 1, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 0, and B0.125C0.875. The most stable adsorption sites for the nth hydrogen molecule in the lithium-decorated (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes are systematically discussed. The most stable adsorption sites were affected by the charge localization, and the hydrogen molecules were favorably located above the C-C bonds beside the Li atom. The results show that the nitrogen atoms in the substrate planes could increase the hybridization between the 2p orbitals of Li and the orbitals of H2. The results revealed that the (BN)(x)C(1-x) complexes not only have good thermal stability but they also exhibit a high hydrogen storage of 8.7% because of their dehydrogenation ability.
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MiR-124 represses vasculogenic mimicry and cell motility by targeting amotL1 in cervical cancer cells.
Cancer Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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miRNAs have extensive functions in differentiation, metabolism, programmed cell death, and tumor metastasis by post-transcriptional regulation. Vasculogenic mimicry is an important pathway in tumor metastasis. Many factors can regulate vasculogenic mimicry, including miRNAs. In previous studies, miR-124 was found to repress proliferation and metastasis in different types of cancers, but whether it functions in cervical cancer remained unknown. Here, we demonstrate that miR-124 can repress vasculogenic mimicry, migration and invasion in HeLa and C33A cells in vitro. Furthermore, we reveal that the effect of miR-124 on vasculogenic mimicry, migration and invasion results from its interaction with AmotL1. MiR-124 regulates AmotL1 negatively by targeting its 3'untranslated region (3'UTR). We found that miR-124 can repress the EMT process. Together, these results improve our understanding of the function of miR-124 in tumor metastasis and will help to provide new potential target sites for cervical cancer treatment.
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Deep sequencing-based comparative transcriptional profiles of Cymbidium hybridum roots in response to mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal beneficial fungi.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 08-31-2014
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The Orchidaceae is one of the largest families in the plant kingdom and orchid mycorrhizae (OM) are indispensable in the life cycle of all orchids under natural conditions. In spite of this, little is known concerning the mechanisms underlying orchid- mycorrhizal fungi interactions. Our previous work demonstrated that the non-mycorrhizal fungus Umbelopsis nana ZH3A-3 could improve the symbiotic effects of orchid mycorrhizal fungus Epulorhiza repens ML01 by co-cultivation with Cymbidium hybridum plantlets. Thus, we investigated the C. hybridum transcript profile associated with different beneficial fungi.
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Hierarchical NiCo2 O4 Nanosheets Grown on Ni Nanofoam as High-Performance Electrodes for Supercapacitors.
Small
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2014
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A high-performance electrode for supercapacitors is designed and synthesized by growing electroactive NiCo2 O4 nanosheets on conductive Ni nanofoam. Because of the structural advantages, the as-prepared Ni@NiCo2 O4 hybrid nanostructure exhibits significantly improved electrochemical performance with high capacitance, excellent rate capability, and good cycling stability.
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The stability and electronic properties of novel three-dimensional graphene-MoS2 hybrid structure.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2014
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Three-dimensional (3D) hybrid layered materials receive a lot of attention because of their outstanding intrinsic properties and wide applications. In this work, the stability and electronic structure of three-dimensional graphene-MoS2 (3DGM) hybrid structures are examined based on first-principle calculations. The results reveal that the 3DGMs can easily self-assembled by graphene nanosheet and zigzag MoS2 nanoribbons, and they are thermodynamically stable at room temperature. Interestingly, the electronic structures of 3DGM are greatly related to the configuration of joint zone. The 3DGM with odd-layer thickness MoS2 nanoribbon is semiconductor with a small band gap of 0.01-0.25?eV, while the one with even-layer thickness MoS2 nanoribbon exhibits metallic feature. More importantly, the 3DGM with zigzag MoS2 nanoribbon not only own the large surface area and effectively avoid the aggregation between the different nanoribbons, but also can remarkably enhance Li adsorption interaction, thus the 3DGM have the great potential as high performance lithium ion battery cathodes.
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Indole-3-ethylsulfamoylphenylacrylamides: potent histone deacetylase inhibitors with anti-inflammatory activity.
Eur J Med Chem
PUBLISHED: 08-07-2014
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A series of 2-methyl-1H-indol-3-ethylsulfamoylphenylacrylamides based on LBH589-PXD101 core have been synthesized and evaluated for their histone deacetylase (HDAC) inhibitory and anti-inflammatory activity. In vitro, compounds 9-12 show 2.6-fold better HDAC inhibition and 3-fold better IL-6 suppression compared to LBH589·HCl (1·HCl). Furthermore, these compounds did not show apparent cell viability suppression on macrophages while in contrast, treatment with 1·HCl resulted in significant reduction in cell viability as demonstrated by an MTT assay. Repressed expression of iNOS, COX-2 and reduced phosphorylation of p65 revealed the inhibitory effect of these analogues on inflammatory mediator release which is related to inhibited NF-?B signals. (N-Hydroxy-3-{3-[2-(2-methyl-1H-indol-3-yl)-ethylsulfamoyl]-phenyl}-acrylamide) (9), exhibited ability superior to that of 1·HCl, was able to reduce carrageenan-induced acute inflammation in an animal model. Compounds 9-12 have potential anti-inflammatory activity and compound 9 can serve as lead compound for further development.
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CYLD mediates ciliogenesis in multiple organs by deubiquitinating Cep70 and inactivating HDAC6.
Cell Res.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Cilia are hair-like organelles extending from the cell surface with important sensory and motility functions. Ciliary defects can result in a wide range of human diseases known as ciliopathies. However, the molecular mechanisms controlling ciliogenesis remain poorly defined. Here we show that cylindromatosis (CYLD), a tumor suppressor protein harboring deubiquitinase activity, plays a critical role in the assembly of both primary and motile cilia in multiple organs. CYLD knockout mice exhibit polydactyly and various ciliary defects, such as failure in basal body anchorage and disorganization of basal bodies and axenomes. The ciliary function of CYLD is partially attributed to its deconjugation of the polyubiquitin chain from centrosomal protein of 70 kDa (Cep70), a requirement for Cep70 to interact with ?-tubulin and localize at the centrosome. In addition, CYLD-mediated inhibition of histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), which promotes tubulin acetylation, constitutes another mechanism for the ciliary function of CYLD. Small-molecule inhibitors of HDAC6 could partially rescue the ciliary defects in CYLD knockout mice. These findings highlight the importance of protein ubiquitination in the modulation of ciliogenesis, identify CYLD as a crucial regulator of this process, and suggest the involvement of CYLD deficiency in ciliopathies.
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Large-scale transcriptome comparison reveals distinct gene activations in wheat responding to stripe rust and powdery mildew.
BMC Genomics
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Stripe rust (Puccinia striiformis f. sp. tritici; Pst) and powdery mildew (Blumeria graminis f. sp. tritici; Bgt) are important diseases of wheat (Triticum aestivum) worldwide. Similar mechanisms and gene transcripts are assumed to be involved in the host defense response because both pathogens are biotrophic fungi. The main objective of our study was to identify co-regulated mRNAs that show a change in expression pattern after inoculation with Pst or Bgt, and to identify mRNAs specific to the fungal stress response.
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Evaluating the effect of a novel molluscicide in the endemic schistosomiasis japonica area of China.
Int J Environ Res Public Health
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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Oncomelania hupensis is the sole intermediate host snail of Schistosoma japonicum in China. Snail control by molluscicide remains one of the most effective measures of schistosomiasis japonica control. A 50% wettable powder of niclosamide ethanolamine salt (WPN) is widely used for snail control in China. However, WPN is costly and toxic to fish. A novel molluscicide named LDS, the salt of quinoid-2', 5-dichloro-4'-nitrosalicylanilide from niclosamide, has been developed. To evaluate the effects of large-scale field application of LDS on field snail control, tests were conducted in 15 counties of Hubei Province, China. Active adult snails, were immersed in 0.2, 0.4, and 0.6 g/m3 of 10% LDS, 1.0 g/m3 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were investigated after 1, 2, and 3 days. In addition, four active concentrations of 10% LDS (0.4, 0.6, 0.8 and 1.0 g/m2) were applied by spraying and powdering in the field. 1.0 g/m2 of 50% WPN was used as the molluscicide control, and then the mortality rates of snails were observed after 1, 3, and 7 days. The results indicated that 0.4 g/m3 LDS applied by the immersion or 0.6 g/m2 LDS applied by spraying and powdering achieved the same molluscicidal effect as that of WPN, regardless of exposure time. By using different methods, the snail mortality rates in the molluscicide groups were related to exposure time and concentration, respectively. LDS costs less than WPN; thus, LDS is suitable and applicable for use as a molluscicide in schistosomiasis japonica epidemic areas.
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Improved solubility and stability of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin at different temperatures and pH values through complexation with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
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The inclusion complex of 7-hydroxy-4-methylcoumarin (7H4MC) with sulfobutyl ether-?-cyclodextrin (SBE-?-CD) was investigated by means of UV-vis, circular dichroism and (1)H NMR spectroscopy in phosphate buffer solutions at different temperatures and pH values. The stoichiometric ratio of the complexation was found to be 1:1 and the stability constants (KC) were estimated from phase solubility analysis. The thermodynamic parameters of standard Gibbs free energy change, ?G(o), enthalpy change, ?H(o), and entropy change, ?S(o), for the complexation process were obtained by using the van't Hoff equation and Gibbs-Helmholtz equation. The large negative ?H(o) and the small negative or positive ?S(o) (|?H(o)|>|T?S(o)|) demonstrated that the inclusion interaction was an enthalpy-driven process. The positive signal of circular dichroism indicated that 7H4MC penetrated the cavity in such a way that the transition moment of the guest chromophore was parallel to the long axis of SBE-?-CD cavity. Moreover, the (1)H NMR spectrum showed that the entire 7H4MC molecule, except the hydroxyl group, was included in the SBE-?-CD cavity.
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A novel class I HDAC inhibitor, MPT0G030, induces cell apoptosis and differentiation in human colorectal cancer cells via HDAC1/PKC? and E-cadherin.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 07-13-2014
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Accumulation of genetic and epigenetic changes contributes to cancer development and progression. Compared with gene mutations or deletions, epigenetic changes are reversible, which alter the chromatin structure remodeling instead of changes in DNA sequence, and therefore become a promising strategy for chemotherapy. Histone deacetylases (HDACs) are a class of enzymes that responsible for the epigenetic regulation of gene expression. MPT0G030 is a potent and selective class I HDAC inhibitor which showed broad-spectrum cytotoxicity against various human cancer cell lines. in vitro fluorometric HDAC activity assay showed that MPT0G030 effectively inhibited Class I HDACs (HDAC1~3), which were overexpressed in many malignant neoplasms. Interestingly, MPT0G030 not only induced histone acetylation and tumor suppressor p21 transcription, but also redistributed E-cadherin and activated Protein Kinase C ? (PKC?), which was linked to cell apoptosis and differentiation. Further, activation of PKC? was demonstrated to be modulated through HDAC1. The in vivo anticancer activity of MPT0G030 and the importance of PKC? were confirmed in the HT-29 tumor xenograft models. Taken together, those results indicate that MPT0G030, a class I HDAC inhibitor, has great potential as a new drug candidate for cancer therapy.
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Selected emerging organic contaminants in the Yangtze Estuary, China: A comprehensive treatment of their association with aquatic colloids.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2014
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Contaminants that are becoming detected in the environment but are not yet generally regulated or monitored are known collectively as emerging contaminants. In the present study, the occurrence and distribution of 42 emerging organic compounds (EOCs) were investigated in the Yangtze River Estuary and adjacent East China Sea coastal areas. Study compounds were mainly pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, hormones and sterols, and also included two industrial endocrine disruptors. Samples were analyzed using cross-flow ultrafiltration (CFUF) and ultra-performance liquid chromatograph-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS). Results revealed that chloramphenicols, sulfonamides and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were the dominant compounds in filtered samples with relatively high concentrations and detection frequencies. EOC levels varied with location, with the highest concentrations being observed around rivers discharging into the estuary, and near sewage outfalls. Colloids that were separated by CFUF tended to be a sink for EOCs with up to 60% being colloid-associated in the water phase. In addition, colloidal properties, including hydrodynamic size, zeta-potential and organic carbon composition, were found to be the main factors controlling the association of EOCs with aquatic colloids. Moreover, these colloidal properties were all significantly related to salinity, indicating the critical role played by increasing salinity in EOCs-colloids interaction in an estuarine system.
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Proteomic identification and functional characterization of MYH9, Hsc70, and DNAJA1 as novel substrates of HDAC6 deacetylase activity.
Protein Cell
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6), a predominantly cytoplasmic protein deacetylase, participates in a wide range of cellular processes through its deacetylase activity. However, the diverse functions of HDAC6 cannot be fully elucidated with its known substrates. In an attempt to explore the substrate diversity of HDAC6, we performed quantitative proteomic analyses to monitor changes in the abundance of protein lysine acetylation in response to HDAC6 deficiency. We identified 107 proteins with elevated acetylation in the liver of HDAC6 knockout mice. Three cytoplasmic proteins, including myosin heavy chain 9 (MYH9), heat shock cognate protein 70 (Hsc70), and dnaJ homolog subfamily A member 1 (DNAJA1), were verified to interact with HDAC6. The acetylation levels of these proteins were negatively regulated by HDAC6 both in the mouse liver and in cultured cells. Functional studies reveal that HDAC6-mediated deacetylation modulates the actin-binding ability of MYH9 and the interaction between Hsc70 and DNAJA1. These findings consolidate the notion that HDAC6 serves as a critical regulator of protein acetylation with the capability of coordinating various cellular functions.
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Elevated levels of miR-155 in blood and urine from patients with nephrolithiasis.
Biomed Res Int
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
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Both circulating and urinary miRNAs may represent a potential noninvasive molecular biomarker capable of predicting chronic kidney disease, and, in the present study, we will investigate the serum and urinary levels of miR-155 in patients with nephrolithiasis.
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[Anterior decompression and fusion with n-HA/PA66 cage for the treatment of lower cervical fracture and dislocation].
Zhongguo Gu Shang
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2014
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To explore the clinical effects of anterior decompression and fusion with a nano-hydroxyapatite/ polyamide 66 (n-HA/PA66) cage in treating lower cervical fracture and dislocation.
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Ezetimibe prevents the formation of oestrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice.
Eur. J. Clin. Invest.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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Oestrogen is an important risk factor for cholesterol cholelithiasis not only in women of childbearing age taking oral contraceptives and postmenopausal women undergoing hormone replacement therapy, but also in male patients receiving oestrogen therapy for prostatic cancer. In women, hormonal changes occurring during pregnancy markedly increase the risk of developing gallstones. We investigated whether the potent cholesterol absorption inhibitor ezetimibe could prevent the formation of oestrogen-induced cholesterol gallstones in mice.
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Azaindolylsulfonamides, with a more selective inhibitory effect on histone deacetylase 6 activity, exhibit antitumor activity in colorectal cancer HCT116 cells.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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A series of indolylsulfonylcinnamic hydroxamates has been synthesized. Compound 12, (E)-3-(3-((1H-pyrrolo[2,3-b]pyridin-1-yl)sulfonyl)phenyl)-N-hydroxyacrylamide, which has a 7-azaindole core cap, was shown to have antiproliferative activity against KB, H460, PC3, HSC-3, HONE-1, A549, MCF-7, TSGH, MKN45, HT29, and HCT116 human cancer cell lines. Pharmacological studies indicated that 12 functions as a potent HDAC inhibitor with an IC50 value of 0.1 ?M. It is highly selective for histone deacetylase 6 (HDAC6) and is 60-fold more active than against HDAC1 and 223-fold more active than against HDAC2. It has a good pharmacokinetic profile with oral bioavailability of 33%. In in vivo efficacy evaluations in colorectal HCT116 xenografts, compound 12 suppresses tumor growth more effectively than SAHA (1, N-hydroxy-N'-phenyloctanediamide) and is therefore seen as a suitable candidate for further investigation.
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[A novel pol SAR image classification method with subsequent category adjustment by terrain scattering characteristic].
Guang Pu Xue Yu Guang Pu Fen Xi
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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The present paper,on the basis of analyzing the terrain scattering characteristics, proposed a novel supervised classification method combined with complex Wishart classifier ideology. This method used coherent matrix which almost contains all the polarization information to make subsequent adjustments for the supervised classification result to achieve higher accuracy division categories. For the first beginning, supervised classification was carried out on the Cloude & Pottier polarimetric characteristics combination to get the initial classification result. Then, in order to achieve the purpose to correct the mistakes resulting from just using the spatial distribution of feature vectors in supervised classification, we did some analysis as follow. The accuracy analysis of the classification results and the analysis of study area feature scattering similarity play an important role in our study to help us make the determination that the pixels need to be adjusted. Furthermore, taking the mean value of each category coherence matrix as the initial cluster centers of subsequent iterations, and using Kernel Fuzzy C-Means algorithm to adjust the fixed pixel set categories by subsequent category iterative correction, the fine and high-accuracy classification results were obtained, combined with complex Wishart distribution of coherence matrix. The domestic X-band full polarization SAR data of Lingshui area in Hainan province was applied in this classification experiment. The experiment results demonstrate that the proposed method can obtain a favorable classification accuracy polarization SAR image classification results, and better meet the scattering characteristics of the surface objects compared to the original method.
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The methanol extract of Euonymus laxiflorus, Rubia lanceolata and Gardenia jasminoides inhibits xanthine oxidase and reduce serum uric acid level in rats.
Food Chem. Toxicol.
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2014
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Chinese herbal medicinal plants, Euonymus laxiflorus (EL), Rubia lanceolata (RL) and Gardenia jasminoides (GJ), have been used wildly to treat arthritis and gout in Taiwan for decades. To understand the beneficial effects of these three plants, their xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibitory activity in vitro and hypouricaemic activity in vivo were investigated. Our results suggested that methanol extracts were better than water extracts for inhibition of XO activity and 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging activity, except the water extract of GJ, which exhibited the strongest radical scavenging effect. In animal study, the serum urate level was significantly decreased after oral administration of higher dose (0.39g/kg) methanol extract of the mixture of three plants (ERG). In addition, methanol extract of ERG reduced the pain reaction time in the second phase of formalin induced pain. The results provide useful information on the pharmacological activities of these plants for the potential in treating hyperuricemia.
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Effect of whole soy and purified isoflavone daidzein on renal function--a 6-month randomized controlled trial in equol-producing postmenopausal women with prehypertension.
Clin. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The aim of the study was to examine the long-term effect of commonly used whole soy foods (soy flour) and purified daidzein (one major isoflavone and the precursor of equol) on renal function among prehypertensive postmenopausal women who are also equol producers, a population most likely to benefit from soy intervention.
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PPAR-? promotes endothelial cell migration By inducing the expression of Sema3g.
J. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 04-03-2014
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In addition to regulating lipid and glucose metabolism, the nuclear receptor PPAR-? has emerged as a potentially relevant player in regulating endothelial cell function. Despite the identification of numerous PPAR-? targets involved in vascular development, the targets downstream of PPAR-? that directly affect endothelial cell function remain to be elucidated. In this report, we identify Sema3g as a novel PPAR-?-regulated gene playing a substantial role in endothelial biology, particularly with respect to endothelial cell migration. Sema3g expression is induced by either overexpression of PPAR-? or PPAR-? ligands treatment in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and transient transfection assays revealed that PPAR-? binds to the Sema3g promoter and activates transcription. Furthermore, we show that overexpression of Sema3g augments PPAR-?-driven HUVECs migration, whereas silencing of Sema3g expression almost completely abrogates PPAR-? or Sema3g-mediated cell migration. Accordingly, the anti-neuropilin-2 (Sema3g receptor) neutralizing antibody treatment markedly inhibits Sema3g-induced cell migration. Collectively, these results identify Sema3g as one of the downstream effectors of PPAR-?, which is centrally involved in regulating endothelial cell migration. J. Cell. Biochem. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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A systematic review of the diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance for pulmonary hypertension.
Can J Cardiol
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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The diagnostic accuracy of cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR) for pulmonary hypertension (PH) compared with right heart catheterization were assessed. The purpose of this systematic review was to comprehensively evaluate the diagnostic accuracy of CMR in evaluating PH.
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Recurrent intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor: Remarkable response to radiotherapy.
Ann Thorac Med
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2014
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Solitary Fibrous Tumor of the Pleura (SFTP) is an uncommon neoplasm which grows slowly. For some cases, surgery is warranted. However, for unresectable ones, the standard strategy has not been established yet. We presented a rare case of recurrent malignant intrathoracic solitary fibrous tumor. It was impossible to resect the tumor. Radiotherapy alone achieved a significant improvement effect.
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Decreased expression of miR-133a correlates with poor prognosis in colorectal cancer patients.
World J. Gastroenterol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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To investigate microRNA-133a (miR-133a) expression in colorectal cancer (CRC) and its relationship with tumorigenesis and disease prognosis.
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Synthesis and characterization of core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers for solid-phase extraction and determination of Rhodamine B in food.
Food Chem
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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Core-shell magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) nanoparticles (NPs), in which a Rhodamine B-imprinted layer was coated on Fe3O4 NPs. were synthesized. First, Fe3O4 NPs were prepared by a coprecipitation method. Then, amino-modified Fe3O4 NPs (Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2) was prepared. Finally, the MIPs were coated on the Fe3O4@SiO2-NH2 surface by the copolymerization with functional monomer, acrylamide, using a cross-linking agent, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate; an initiator, azobisisobutyronitrile and a template molecule, Rhodamine B. The Fe3O4@MIPs were characterized using a scanning electron microscope, Fourier transform infrared spectrometer, vibrating sample magnetometer, and re-binding experiments. The Fe3O4@MIPs showed a fast adsorption equilibrium, a highly improved imprinting capacity, and significant selectivity; they could be used as a solid-phase extraction material and detect illegal addition Rhodamine B in food. A method was developed for the selective isolation and enrichment of Rhodamine B in food samples with recoveries in the range 78.47-101.6% and the relative standard deviation was <2%.
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Multiple radiographic projections in detecting intra-articular screw penetration during fixation of femoral neck fractures.
Orthopedics
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2014
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The authors performed a cadaveric study to evaluate the efficacy of multiple fluoroscopic projections in detecting intra-articular penetration of the screws during femoral neck fracture fixation and also to determine the most suitable radiographic projection. Models of intra-articular penetration in 8 normal proximal femur specimens were created by placing the pins in different quadrants of the femoral head and extending 1 mm beyond the femoral head surface. The tip-to-surface distance was measured on anteroposterior (AP) and lateral views, with the femur positioned at varying degrees of rotation, flexion, adduction, and abduction. After correcting for differences in magnification, associations between the tip-to-surface distance and femur position were noted. In certain femur positions and K-wire placements, conventional AP and lateral views did not show that the wire extended beyond the surface of the femoral head. The tip-to-surface distance on an AP radiograph with the femur in the neutral position was not comparable to that on the lateral view with the femur positioned at 20° of adduction (P=.821). However, the tip-to-surface distance on an AP radiograph with the femur in the neutral position varied significantly (P<.001) from all other tip-to-surface distances on either the AP or lateral projection. A linear association was found between the tip-to-surface distance and femur rotation angles on AP views and between femur adduction and abduction angles on lateral views. In conclusion, fluoroscopy in varied projections at different angles can detect unrecognized intra-articular screw penetration during internal fixation of femoral neck fracture. Additional special projection methods are suggested to identify and prevent intra-articular screw penetration.
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Diverse and tunable electronic structures of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides for photocatalytic water splitting.
J Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2014
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The family of bulk metal phosphorus trichalcogenides (APX3, A = M(II), M(I)(0.5)M(III)(0.5); X = S, Se; M(I), M(II), and M(III) represent Group-I, Group-II, and Group-III metals, respectively) has attracted great attentions because such materials not only own magnetic and ferroelectric properties, but also exhibit excellent properties in hydrogen storage and lithium battery because of the layered structures. Many layered materials have been exfoliated into two-dimensional (2D) materials, and they show distinct electronic properties compared with their bulks. Here we present a systematical study of single-layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides by density functional theory calculations. The results show that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides have very low formation energies, which indicates that the exfoliation of single layer APX3 should not be difficult. The family of single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides exhibits a large range of band gaps from 1.77 to 3.94 eV, and the electronic structures are greatly affected by the metal or the chalcogenide atoms. The calculated band edges of metal phosphorus trichalcogenides further reveal that single-layer ZnPSe3, CdPSe3, Ag0.5Sc0.5PSe3, and Ag0.5In0.5PX3 (X = S and Se) have both suitable band gaps for visible-light driving and sufficient over-potentials for water splitting. More fascinatingly, single-layer Ag0.5Sc0.5PSe3 is a direct band gap semiconductor, and the calculated optical absorption further convinces that such materials own outstanding properties for light absorption. Such results demonstrate that the single layer metal phosphorus trichalcogenides own high stability, versatile electronic properties, and high optical absorption, thus such materials have great chances to be high efficient photocatalysts for water-splitting.
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Combination of quercetin and hyperoside inhibits prostate cancer cell growth and metastasis via regulation of microRNA?21.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Previous studies have reported that hyperoside and quercetin in combination (QH; 1:1) inhibited the growth of human leukemia cells. The aim of the present study was to investigate the anti?cancer effect of QH on prostate cancer cells. The results demonstrated that QH decreased the production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and increased antioxidant capacity in PC3 cells at various concentrations (2.5?60 µg/ml) with peak inhibition and augmentation changes of 3.22? and 3.00?fold, respectively. Following treatment with QH for 48 and 72 h, the IC50-values on PC3 cells were 19.7 and 12.4 µg/ml, respectively. Western blot analysis revealed that QH induced apoptosis in human prostate cancer cells via activation of caspase?3 and cleavage of poly(adenosine diphosphate ribose) polymerase. In addition, QH significantly inhibited the invasion and migration of PC3 cells as well as reduced the expression of numerous prostate tumor?associated microRNAs (miRs), including miR?21, compared to that of untreated human prostate cancer cells. QH was also found to enhance the expression of tumor suppressor programmed cell death protein 4, which was negatively regulated by miR?21. Furthermore, induced overexpression of miR?21 using pre?miR?21 oligonucleotides attenuated the beneficial effect of QH on prostate cancer cells. In conclusion, the results of the present study indicated that QH exerted an anti?cancer effect on human prostate cancer cells, the mechanism of which proceeded, at least in part, via the inhibition of the miR?21 signaling pathway.
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Probing substrate influence on graphene by analyzing Raman lineshapes.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2014
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We provide a new approach to identify the substrate influence on graphene surface. Distinguishing the substrate influences or the doping effects of charged impurities on graphene can be realized by optically probing the graphene surfaces, included the suspended and supported graphene. In this work, the line scan of Raman spectroscopy was performed across the graphene surface on the ordered square hole. Then, the bandwidths of G-band and 2D-band were fitted into the Voigt profile, a convolution of Gaussian and Lorentzian profiles. The bandwidths of Lorentzian parts were kept as constant whether it is the suspended and supported graphene. For the Gaussian part, the suspended graphene exhibits much greater Gaussian bandwidths than those of the supported graphene. It reveals that the doping effect on supported graphene is stronger than that of suspended graphene. Compared with the previous studies, we also used the peak positions of G bands, and I2D/IG ratios to confirm that our method really works. For the suspended graphene, the peak positions of G band are downshifted with respect to supported graphene, and the I2D/IG ratios of suspended graphene are larger than those of supported graphene. With data fitting into Voigt profile, one can find out the information behind the lineshapes.
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Metastatic prostate adenocarcinoma posing as urothelial carcinoma of the right ureter: a case report and literature review.
Case Rep Urol
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2014
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This is a case report of a 67-year-old patient with distant metastasis of prostate cancer to the right ureter which caused hydronephrosis. At the beginning, both of the cytology of the morning urine and imaging findings were consistent with urothelial carcinoma. Nephroureterectomy was subsequently performed. Interestingly, the pathological examination of the excised ureter revealed that the malignancy was derived from the prostate. No skeletal metastasis was detected. However, after four months of follow-up, several abnormal signal shadows were reported in skeletal scintigraphy and the prostate specific antigen (PSA) was gradually increasing. We present such a case for its unique presentation. A review of the literature is also provided.
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Virtual screening of mandelate racemase mutants with enhanced activity based on binding energy in the transition state.
Enzyme Microb. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
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Mandelate racemase (MR) is a promising candidate for the dynamic kinetic resolution of racemates. However, the poor activity of MR towards most of its non-natural substrates limits its widespread application. In this work, a virtual screening method based on the binding energy in the transition state was established to assist in the screening of MR mutants with enhanced catalytic efficiency. Using R-3-chloromandelic acid as a model substrate, a total of 53 mutants were constructed based on rational design in the two rounds of screening. The number of mutants for experimental validation was brought down to 17 by the virtual screening method, among which 14 variants turned out to possess improved catalytic efficiency. The variant V26I/Y54V showed 5.2-fold higher catalytic efficiency (k(cat)/K(m)) towards R-3-chloromandelic acid than that observed for the wild-type enzyme. Using this strategy, mutants were successfully obtained for two other substrates, R-mandelamide and R-2-naphthylglycolate (V26I and V29L, respectively), both with a 2-fold improvement in catalytic efficiency. These results demonstrated that this method could effectively predict the trend of mutational effects on catalysis. Analysis from the energetic and structural assays indicated that the enhanced interactions between the active sites and the substrate in the transition state led to improved catalytic efficiency. It was concluded that this virtual screening method based on the binding energy in the transition state was beneficial in enzyme rational redesign and helped to better understand the catalytic properties of the enzyme.
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The effect of water on the structural, electronic and photocatalytic properties of graphitic carbon nitride.
Phys Chem Chem Phys
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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g-C3N4, as a typical metal-free catalyst for water splitting, has attracted special attention. The structural and electronic properties of water adsorption on g-C3N4 play a key role in understanding the water splitting mechanism at the atomic level. The properties of a single g-C3N4 sheet and the water adsorption on a single g-C3N4 sheet were thoroughly explored based on density functional theory (DFT) calculations. The results show that water adsorption on one side of the single g-C3N4 sheet will lead the initial flat structure to change to a buckle one, while water molecule adsorption on both sides of g-C3N4 will not disturb the flat structure. The flat g-C3N4 is an indirect semiconductor, and interestingly the band structure of g-C3N4 changes from an indirect to a direct one during the flat structure transformation from flat to buckle because of the water adsorption. Water molecules prefer to adsorb around the intrinsic vacancy of the single g-C3N4 sheet at low coverage, and further adsorbed water molecules stay around the intrinsic vacancy. Water adsorption also affects the band edge position of g-C3N4 for water splitting. These results provide a deep insight into the structure and adsorption properties of g-C3N4 in the water environment, which will greatly help to design a new type of metal-free catalyst for water-splitting.
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HDAC6 Deacetylase Activity Is Critical for Lipopolysaccharide-Induced Activation of Macrophages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Activated macrophages play an important role in both innate and adaptive immune responses, and aberrant activation of macrophages often leads to inflammatory and immune disorders. However, the molecular mechanisms of how macrophages are activated are not fully understood. In this study, we identify a novel role for histone deacetylse 6 (HDAC6) in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced macrophage activation. Our data show that suppression of HDAC6 activity significantly restrains LPS-induced activation of macrophages and production of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Further study reveals that the regulation of macrophage activation by HDAC6 is independent of F-actin polymerization and filopodium formation; instead, it is mediated by the effects of HDAC6 on cell adhesion and microtubule acetylation. These data thus suggest that HDAC6 is an important regulator of LPS-induced macrophage activation and might be a potential target for the management of inflammatory disorders.
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Modulation of the stability and activities of HIV-1 Tat by its ubiquitination and carboxyl-terminal region.
Cell Biosci
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The transactivator of transcription (Tat) protein of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) is known to undergo ubiquitination. However, the roles of ubiquitination in regulating Tat stability and activities are unclear. In addition, although the 72- and 86-residue forms are commonly used for in vitro studies, the 101-residue form is predominant in the clinical isolates of HIV-1. The influence of the carboxyl-terminal region of Tat on its functions remains unclear.
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Isolation, identification and characteristics of an endophytic quinclorac degrading bacterium Bacillus megaterium Q3.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we isolated an endophytic quinclorac-degrading bacterium strain Q3 from the root of tobacco grown in quinclorac contaminated soil. Based on morphological characteristics, Biolog identification, and 16S rDNA sequence analysis, we identified strain Q3 as Bacillus megaterium. We investigated the effects of temperature, pH, inoculation size, and initial quinclorac concentration on growth and degrading efficiency of Q3. Under the optimal degrading condition, Q3 could degrade 93% of quinclorac from the initial concentration of 20 mg/L in seven days. We analyzed the degradation products of quinclorac using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). The major degradation products by Q3 were different from those of previously identified quinclorac degrading strains, which suggests that Q3 may employ new pathways for quinclorac degradation. Our indoor pot experiments demonstrated that Q3 can effectively alleviate the quinclorac phytotoxicity in tobacco. As the first endophytic microbial that is capable of degrading quinclorac, Q3 can be a good bioremediation bacterium for quinclorac phytotoxicity.
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Urinary sodium excretion and dietary sources of sodium intake in chinese postmenopausal women with prehypertension.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Reducing salt intake in communities is one of the most effective and affordable public health strategies to prevent hypertension, stroke and renal disease. The present study aimed to determine the sodium intake in Hong Kong Chinese postmenopausal women and identify the major food sources contributing to sodium intake and urine excretion.
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Cardiovascular risks in relation to daidzein metabolizing phenotypes among Chinese postmenopausal women.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Studies suggested that the inter-individual differences in metabolizing isoflavone daidzein to equol or O-desmethylangolensin (ODMA) might explain the inconsistency of the soy/isoflavones efficacy on cardiovascular health.
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Argonaute 2 is up-regulated in tissues of urothelial carcinoma of bladder.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Argonaute 2 proteins (Ago2) have been demonstrated to be widely expressed and involved in post-transcriptional gene silencing and play key roles in carcinogenesis. However, its expression profile and prognostic value in urothelial carcinoma of the bladder (UCB) have not been investigated.
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Foxl1 inhibits tumor invasion and predicts outcome in human renal cancer.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The Forkhead Box L1 (Foxl1) transcription factor regulates epithelial proliferation and development of gastrointestinal tract, and has been implicated in gastrointestinal and pancreatic tumorigenesis. However, the role of Foxl1 in renal cancer development and progression remains to be elucidated. The study was conducted to investigate the expression of Foxl1 and its prognostic significance in clear cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC). Meanwhile, the function of Foxl1 in human ccRCC was further investigated in cell culture models.
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[Analysis of influential factors for job burnout among managers in a Sino-Japanese joint venture in Guangzhou, China].
Zhonghua Lao Dong Wei Sheng Zhi Ye Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-28-2013
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To investigate the influential factors for job burnout among the managerial staff in a Sino-Japanese joint venture automobile manufacturer in Guangzhou, China.
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Tubulin inhibitors: a patent review.
Expert Opin Ther Pat
PUBLISHED: 12-09-2013
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Introduction: Microtubules play an important role in several cellular processes, particularly in the formation of the mitotic spindle during the process of mitosis. These highly dynamic mitotic-spindle microtubules have become a successful target of cancer therapy. Microtubule-targeting agents, such as vinca alkaloids and taxanes, were used in clinic over 50 years. In past decades, development of new antimicrotubule agents that possess different structure and binding sites of tubulin has shown potent activity against the proliferation of various cancer cells, as well as in multidrug-resistant cancers. Interestingly, many of these agents represent an attractive ability that targeting the tumor blood vessels results in tumor vascular disruption. Therefore, exploring new agents and strategies may provide more effective therapeutic options in the related treatment of cancer. Areas covered: In past few years, there are many chemical compounds that successfully interferes the microtubules and display antitumor effect. In these, published compounds supply the fresh minds in modification of present drugs and new insights into the development of tubulin inhibitors. Expert opinion: This article arranges the microtubule-targeting agents that have published in patent in recent years. It may help in the investigation of new tubulin binding site and development of novel drug candidate in the future.
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Pseudorabies virus variant in Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs, China, 2012.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-06-2013
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The widely used pseudorabies virus (PRV) Bartha-K61 vaccine has played a key role in the eradication of PRV. Since late 2011, however, a disease characterized by neurologic symptoms and a high number of deaths among newborn piglets has occurred among Bartha-K61-vaccinated pigs on many farms in China. Clinical samples from pigs on 15 farms in 6 provinces were examined. The PRV gE gene was detectable by PCR in all samples, and sequence analysis of the gE gene showed that all isolates belonged to a relatively independent cluster and contained 2 amino acid insertions. A PRV (named HeN1) was isolated and caused transitional fever in pigs. In protection assays, Bartha-K61 vaccine provided 100% protection against lethal challenge with SC (a classical PRV) but only 50% protection against 4 challenges with strain HeN1. The findings suggest that Bartha-K61 vaccine does not provide effective protection against PRV HeN1 infection.
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Furanylazaindoles: potent anticancer agents in vitro and in vivo.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Preliminary biological data on 7-anilino-6-azaindoles (8-11) suggested that hydrophobic substituents at C7 contribute to enhancement of antiproliferative activity. A novel series of 7-aryl-6-azaindole-1-benzenesulfonamides (12-22) were developed and showed improved cytotoxicity compared to ABT751 (5). The conversion of C7 phenyl rings into C7 heterocycles led to a remarkable improvement of antiproliferative activity. Among all the synthetic products, 7-(2-furanyl)-1-(4-methoxybenzenesulfonyl)-6-azaindole (21) exhibited the most potent anticancer activity against KB, HT29, MKN45, and H460 cancer cell lines with IC50 values of 21.1, 32.0, 27.5, and 40.0 nM, respectively. Bioassays indicated that 21 not only inhibits tubulin polymerization by binding to tubulin at the colchicine binding site but also arrests the cell cycle at the G2/M phase with slight arrest at the sub-G1 phase. Compound 21 also functions as a vascular disrupting agent and dose-dependently inhibits tumor growth without significant change of body weight in an HT29 xenograft mouse model. Taken together, compound 21 has potential for further development as a novel class of anticancer agents.
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[Effect of RAAS antagonist on the expression of gap junction cx43 in myocardium of spontaneously hypertensive rat].
Sichuan Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-25-2013
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OBJECTIVE To investigate the expression of gap junction protein Cx43 in the cardiac muscle of spontaneous hypertensive rat and the effects of various antagonists against renin angiotensin aldosterone system (RAAS) on Cx43 expression. METHODS 70 spontaneous hypertensive rats of 8-week age, 200-gram weight were separated into 7 groups, as hypertension, ramipril, telmisartan, eplerenone, ramipril + telmisartan, telmisartan + eplerenone, and ramipril+eplerenone treatment group. Another 10 healthy Wistar rats of the same age and weight were used as control group. All the rats were given intragastric administration at 8 a. m. every morning, and measured arteria caudilis pressure at 0, 4 and 8 week, respectively. 8 weeks later, all the rats were sacrificed, and the hearts were taken to measure the weight of left ventricle and the ratio of left ventricle to body weight. Myocardial fibrosis was observed by H&E staining of paraffin embedded sections, and Cx43 expression was examined by RT-PCR and western blot.
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[Change and significance of Th22 cells in patients with aplastic anemia].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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To explore the proportion of Th22 cells in peripheral blood of patients with aplastic anemia (AA) and evaluate its significance.
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Effects of blood triglycerides on cardiovascular and all-cause mortality: a systematic review and meta-analysis of 61 prospective studies.
Lipids Health Dis
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2013
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The relationship of triglycerides (TG) to the risk of death remains uncertain. The aim of this study was to determine the associations between blood triglyceride levels and cardiovascular diseases (CVDs) mortality and all-cause mortality. Four databases were searched without language restriction for relevant studies: PubMed, ScienceDirect, EMBASE, and Google Scholar. All prospective cohort studies reporting an association between TG and CVDs or all-cause mortality published before July 2013 were included. Risk ratios (RRs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were extracted and pooled according to TG categories, unit TG, and logarithm of TG using a random-effects model with inverse-variance weighting. We identified 61 eligible studies, containing 17,018 CVDs deaths in 726,030 participants and 58,419 all-cause deaths in 330,566 participants. Twelve and fourteen studies, respectively, reported the effects estimates of CVDs and total mortality by TG categories. Compared to the referent (90--149 mg/dL), the pooled RRs (95% CI) of CVDs mortality for the lowest (< 90 mg/dL), borderline-high (150--199 mg/dL), and high TG (>= 200 mg/dL) groups were 0.83 (0.75 to 0.93), 1.15 (1.03 to 1.29), and 1.25 (1.05 to 1.50); for total mortality they were 0.94 (0.85 to 1.03), 1.09 (1.02 to 1.17), and 1.20 (1.04 to 1.38), respectively. The risks of CVDs and all-cause deaths were increased by 13% and 12% (p < 0.001) per 1-mmol/L TG increment in twenty-two and twenty-two studies reported RRs per unit TG, respectively. In conclusion, elevated blood TG levels were dose-dependently associated with higher risks of CVDs and all-cause mortality.
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A mediator-free glucose biosensor based on glucose oxidase/chitosan/?-zirconium phosphate ternary biocomposite.
Anal. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 07-12-2013
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A novel glucose oxidase/chitosan/?-zirconium phosphate (GOD/chitosan/?-ZrP) ternary biocomposite was prepared by co-intercalating glucose oxidase (GOD) and chitosan into the interlayers of ?-zirconium phosphate (?-ZrP) via a delamination-reassembly procedure. The results of X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, circular dichroism, and ultraviolet spectrum characterizations indicated not only the layered and hybrid structure of the GOD/chitosan/?-ZrP ternary biocomposite but also the recovered activity of the intercalated GOD improved by the co-intercalated chitosan. By depositing the GOD/chitosan/?-ZrP biocomposite film onto a glassy carbon electrode, the direct electrochemistry of the intercalated GOD was achieved with a fast electron transfer rate constant, ks, of 7.48±3.52s(-1). Moreover, this GOD/chitosan/?-ZrP biocomposite modified electrode exhibited a sensitive response to glucose in the linear range of 0.25-8.0mM (R=0.9994, n=14), with a determination limit of 0.076mM.
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Whole soy, but not purified daidzein, had a favorable effect on improvement of cardiovascular risks: A 6-month randomized, double-blind, and placebo-controlled trial in equol-producing postmenopausal women.
Mol Nutr Food Res
PUBLISHED: 07-10-2013
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Equol is produced by the intestinal bacteria from isoflavone daidzein. Studies have reported the health benefits of soy can only present or more pronounced in equol producers. This 6-month randomized controlled trial examined the effect of whole soy (soy flour) and purified daidzein on cardiovascular biomarkers and carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT) in prehypertensive postmenopausal women who were equol producers.
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Effect of soy protein and isoflavones on blood pressure and endothelial cytokines: a 6-month randomized controlled trial among postmenopausal women.
J. Hypertens.
PUBLISHED: 07-03-2013
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Despite data from animal models and observational studies that are generally supportive for the soy/isoflavones lowering blood pressure (BP) and improving vascular function, the current findings from clinical trials are still inconclusive.
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The role of vitamin D in blood pressure, endothelial and renal function in postmenopausal women.
Nutrients
PUBLISHED: 06-09-2013
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Vitamin D is a pro-hormone that plays an essential role in the vasculature and in kidney function.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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