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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Assembly of three coordination polymers based on a sulfonic-carboxylic ligand showing high proton conductivity.
Dalton Trans
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Three new coordination polymers (CPs)/metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with different structures have been synthesized using 4,8-disulfonyl-2,6-naphthalenedicarboxylic acid (H4L) and metal ions, Cu(2+), Ca(2+) and Cd(2+). The Cu compound features a one-dimensional chain structure, further extending into a 2D layer network through H-bond interactions. Both the Ca and Cd compounds show 3D frameworks with (4,4)-connected PtS-type topology and (3,6)-connected bct-type topology, respectively. These CPs/MOFs all exhibit proton conduction behavior, especially for the Cu compound with a proton conductivity of 3.46 × 10(-3) S cm(-1) at 368 K and 95% relative humidity (RH). Additionally, the activation energy (Ea) has also been investigated to deeply understand the proton-conduction mechanism.
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Insulin-Like Growth Factor-1 Modulates Polycomb Cbx8 Expression and Inhibits Colon Cancer Cell Apoptosis.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2014
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Colon cancer is one of the leading causes of death in human beings. The pathogenesis of colon cancer is unclear. Recent reports indicate that Chromobox protein homolog 8 (Cbx8) and insulin-like growth factor-1 (IGF1) are associated with the pathogenesis of cancer. This study aims to investigate the role of Cbx8 and IGF1 in facilitating colon cancer cell proliferation. In this study, human colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cells, was cultured using an in vitro study model. The expression of Cbx8 and IGF1R (IGF1 receptor) in HCT116 cells was observed with approaches of real-time RT-PCR, Western blotting, gene silencing, and gene overexpression. The results showed that HCT116 cells express both Cbx8 and IGF1R. Exposure of HCT116 cells to IGF1 increased the expression of Cbx8. Knockdown of Cbx8 induced HCT116 cell apoptosis. Overexpression of Cbx8 induced HCT116 cell proliferation. We conclude that IGF1 can promote the colon cancer cell line, HCT116 cell, proliferation via promoting Cbx8 expression.
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Withholding Response to Self-Face Is Faster Than to Other-Face.
J Mot Behav
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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ABSTRACT. Self-face advantage refers to adults' response to self-face is faster than that to other-face. A stop-signal task was used to explore how self-face advantage interacted with response inhibition. The results showed that reaction times of self-face were faster than that of other-face not in the go task but in the stop response trials. The novelty of the finding was that self-face has shorter stop-signal reaction time compared to other-face in the successful inhibition trials. These results indicated the processing mechanism of self-face may be characterized by a strong response tendency and a corresponding strong inhibition control.
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Reduction-resistant and reduction-catalytic double-crown nickel nanoclusters.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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In this work, an attempt to synthesize zero-valent Ni nanoclusters using the Brust method resulted in an unexpected material, Ni6(SCH2CH2Ph)12, which is a nanoscale Ni(ii)-phenylethanethiolate complex and a hexameric, double-crown-like structure, as determined by a series of characterizations, including mass spectrometry (MS), thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA), single-crystal X-ray diffraction (XRD), and X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS). An interesting finding is that this complex is resistant to aqueous BH4(-). Investigations into other metal-phenylethanethiolate and Ni-thiolate complexes reveal that this property is not universal and appears only in complexes with a double-crown-like structure, indicating the correlation between this interesting property and the complexes' special structure. Another interesting finding is that the reduction-resistant Ni6(SCH2CH2Ph)12 exhibits remarkably higher catalytic activity than a well-known catalyst, Au25(SCH2CH2Ph)18, toward the reduction of 4-nitrophenol at low temperature (e.g., 0 °C). This work will help stimulate more research on the properties and applications of less noble metal nanoclusters.
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Distinct roles for histone chaperones in the deposition of Htz1 in chromatin.
Biosci. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 10-24-2014
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Histone variant Htz1 substitution for H2A plays important roles in diverse DNA transactions. Histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) are important for the deposition Htz1 into nucleosomes. In literatures, it was suggested that Chz1 is a Htz1-H2B-specific chaperone, and it is relatively unstructured in solution but it becomes structured in complex with the Htz1-H2B histone dimer. Nap1 (nucleosome assembly protein 1) can bind (H3-H4)2 tetramers, H2A-H2B dimers and Htz1-H2B dimers. Nap1 can bind H2A-H2B dimer in the cytoplasm and shuttles the dimer into the nucleus. Moreover, Nap1 functions in nucleosome assembly by competitively interacting with non-nucleosomal histone-DNA. However, the exact roles of these chaperones in assembling Htz1-containing nucleosome remain largely unknown. In this paper, we revealed that Chz1 does not show a physical interaction with chromatin. In contrast, Nap1 binds exactly at the genomic DNA that contains Htz1. Nap1 and Htz1 show a preferential interaction with AG-rich DNA sequences. Deletion of chz1 results in a significantly decreased binding of Htz1 in chromatin, whereas deletion of nap1 dramatically increases the association of Htz1 with chromatin. Furthermore, genome-wide nucleosome-mapping analysis revealed that nucleosome occupancy for Htz1p-bound genes decreases upon deleting htz1 or chz1, suggesting that Htz1 is required for nucleosome structure at the specific genome loci. All together, these results define the distinct roles for histone chaperones Chz1 and Nap1 to regulate Htz1 incorporation into chromatin.
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HERC2/USP20 coordinates CHK1 activation by modulating CLASPIN stability.
Nucleic Acids Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2014
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CLASPIN is an essential mediator in the DNA replication checkpoint, responsible for ATR (ataxia telangiectasia and Rad3-related protein)-dependent activation of CHK1 (checkpoint kinase 1). Here we found a dynamic signaling pathway that regulates CLASPIN turn over. Under unperturbed conditions, the E3 ubiquitin ligase HERC2 regulates the stability of the deubiquitinating enzyme USP20 by promoting ubiquitination-mediated proteasomal degradation. Under replication stress, ATR-mediated phosphorylation of USP20 results in the disassociation of HERC2 from USP20. USP20 in turn deubiquitinates K48-linked-polyubiquitinated CLASPIN, stabilizing CLASPIN and ultimately promoting CHK1 phosphorylation and CHK1-directed checkpoint activation. Inhibition of USP20 expression promotes chromosome instability and xenograft tumor growth. Taken together, our findings demonstrated a novel function of HERC2/USP20 in coordinating CHK1 activation by modulating CLASPIN stability, which ultimately promotes genome stability and suppresses tumor growth.
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Er:YAG laser versus scaling and root planing as alternative or adjuvant for chronic periodontitis treatment: a systematic review.
J. Clin. Periodontol.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2014
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To perform a systematic review to evaluate the erbium-doped: yttrium, aluminium and garnet (Er:YAG) laser versus scaling and root planing (SRP) as alternative or adjuvant for chronic periodontitis treatment.
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[Epidemiological analysis on malaria prevalence in Shanghai from 2003 to 2012].
Zhonghua Liu Xing Bing Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
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To understand the epidemiological characteristics of malaria in Shanghai.
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The Relationship Between Disability-Adjusted Life Years of Cataracts and Ambient Erythemal Ultraviolet Radiation in China.
J Epidemiol
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2014
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Background: Cataracts are one of the major public health problems worldwide. Ultraviolet radiation (UVR) is one of the risk factors for cataract development. We analyzed the relationship between disability-adjusted life year (DALY) rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in China.Methods: DALY rates of cataracts and UVR exposure in 31 regions of China were calculated based on data from the Second China National Sample Survey on Disability and the United States' National Aeronautics and Space Administration database. The relationship between the DALY rates of cataracts and UVR was estimated by Spearman rank correlation analysis and linear regression analysis.Results: The elderly (?65 years) had higher DALY rates of cataracts than the whole population. The DALY rate of cataracts in the agricultural population was higher than that observed in the non-agricultural population. The DALY rates of cataracts were positively associated with UVR The DALY rates of cataracts in regions with higher UVR were higher than those in regions with lower UVR. An increase in the daily ambient erythemal UVR of 1000 J/m(2) was associated with an increase in the DALY rates of cataracts by 92 DALYs/100 000 (R(2) = 0.676) among the whole population, 34 DALYs/100 000 among the population <65 years old (R(2) = 0.423), 607 DALYs/100 000 among the population aged 65-74 years (R(2) = 0.617), and by 1342 DALYs/100 000 among the population ?75 years old (R(2) = 0.758).Conclusions: DALY rates of cataracts increased with increases in UVR exposure in 31 regions of China. Greater exposure to UVR increases the disease burden of cataracts in the whole population, especially in the elderly and among the agricultural population.
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[Relationship between IL-18 gene polymorphism and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2014
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To investigate the association between IL-18 polymorphisms and the risk of unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA).
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Tumor suppressor role of protein 4.1B/DAL-1.
Cell. Mol. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is a membrane skeletal protein that belongs to the protein 4.1 family. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is localized to sites of cell-cell contact and functions as an adapter protein, linking the plasma membrane to the cytoskeleton or associated cytoplasmic signaling effectors and facilitating their activities in various pathways. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in various cytoskeleton-associated processes, such as cell motility and adhesion. Moreover, protein 4.1B/DAL-1 also plays a regulatory role in cell growth, differentiation, and the establishment of epithelial-like cell structures. Protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is normally expressed in multiple human tissues, but loss of its expression or prominent down-regulation of its expression is frequently observed in corresponding tumor tissues and tumor cell lines, suggesting that protein 4.1B/DAL-1 is involved in the molecular pathogenesis of these tumors and acts as a potential tumor suppressor. This review will focus on the structure of protein 4.1B/DAL-1, 4.1B/DAL-1-interacting molecules, 4.1B/DAL-1 inactivation and tumor progression, and anti-tumor activity of the 4.1B/DAL-1.
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[Association of MMP-14 gene polymorphism with cerebral infarction - a case-control study].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
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To investigate the association between cerebral infarction (CI) and single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) in the exon of membrane-type 1 matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-14) gene in Chinese Han population.
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[Determination of four kinds of purines in deer fetus soft capsule by HPLC].
Zhong Yao Cai
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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To establish an HPLC method for simultaneous determination of four kinds of purines in deer fetus soft capsule.
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Deficiency of Trim27 protects dopaminergic neurons from apoptosis in the neurotoxin model of Parkinson?s disease.
Brain Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Parkinson?s disease (PD) is an age-related neurodegenerative movement disorder, characterized by loss of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra pars compacta (SNpc). The MPTP/MPP+ model is often used to investigate the signaling mechanisms of dopamine (DA) degeneration, both in vivo and in vitro. The identification of specific genetic and environmental factors responsible for PD has bolstered evidence for a shared pathway of neuronal death -apoptosis. Trim27 is reported to promote apoptosis. However, little evidence exists to indicate a linkage between Trim27 and PD. In this study, we found that compared to healthy individuals, Trim27 was significantly upregulated in patients with PD. We further showed that Trim27 expression was dramatically induced in PC12 cells and in the SNpc of the PD mouse model. RNAi-mediated knockdown of Trim27 in PC12 cells showed obvious suppression of apoptosis. There are reduced dopaminergic neuron loss and lower apoptotic protein expression levels in MPTP-treated Trim27-/- mice, compared with MPTP-treated WT mice. These data demonstrated that Trim27 deficiency decreases apoptosis and protects dopaminergic neurons in the neurotoxin model of PD, suggesting that Trim27 may be an effective potential target during the treatment of PD.
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Differential roles of microglia and monocytes in the inflamed central nervous system.
J. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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In the human disorder multiple sclerosis (MS) and in the model experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE), macrophages predominate in demyelinated areas and their numbers correlate to tissue damage. Macrophages may be derived from infiltrating monocytes or resident microglia, yet are indistinguishable by light microscopy and surface phenotype. It is axiomatic that T cell-mediated macrophage activation is critical for inflammatory demyelination in EAE, yet the precise details by which tissue injury takes place remain poorly understood. In the present study, we addressed the cellular basis of autoimmune demyelination by discriminating microglial versus monocyte origins of effector macrophages. Using serial block-face scanning electron microscopy (SBF-SEM), we show that monocyte-derived macrophages associate with nodes of Ranvier and initiate demyelination, whereas microglia appear to clear debris. Gene expression profiles confirm that monocyte-derived macrophages are highly phagocytic and inflammatory, whereas those arising from microglia demonstrate an unexpected signature of globally suppressed cellular metabolism at disease onset. Distinguishing tissue-resident macrophages from infiltrating monocytes will point toward new strategies to treat disease and promote repair in diverse inflammatory pathologies in varied organs.
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Nicotinamide N-methyltransferase is overexpressed in prostate cancer and correlates with prolonged progression-free and overall survival times.
Oncol Lett
PUBLISHED: 06-26-2014
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Nicotinamide N -methyltransferase (NNMT) has been identified to be associated with tumorigenesis and the malignant transformation of numerous types of cancer. The aim of the present study was to explore the expression and prognostic significance of NNMT in prostate cancer (PCa). Immunohistochemical NNMT expression was examined in 26 cases of benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH), 18 cases of high-grade prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (HGPIN) and 120 cases of PCa. While rarely expressed in BPH (8/26 cases; 30.8%), NNMT was found to be significantly upregulated in HGPIN (15/18 cases; 83.3%) and PCa (77/120 cases; 64.2%). Clinicopathological analysis revealed that NNMT expression was negatively correlated with Gleason score (P<0.001). Furthermore, Kaplan-Meier survival curves revealed that high NNMT expression was associated with prolonged progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS) times in patients with advanced PCa. Multivariate analysis showed that NNMT was an independent prognostic marker of PFS and OS in patients with advanced PCa. The results of the present study suggested that NNMT may contribute to the development of PCa and may potentially be a favorable prognostic marker for the survival of patients with advanced PCa.
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Rilotumumab in combination with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine as first-line treatment for gastric or oesophagogastric junction adenocarcinoma: an open-label, dose de-escalation phase 1b study and a double-blind, randomised phase 2 study.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2014
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Dysregulation of the hepatocyte growth factor (HGF)/MET pathway promotes tumour growth and metastasis. Rilotumumab is a fully human, monoclonal antibody that neutralises HGF. We aimed to assess the safety, efficacy, biomarkers, and pharmacokinetics of rilotumumab combined with epirubicin, cisplatin, and capecitabine (ECX) in patients with advanced gastric or oesophagogastric junction cancer.
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[Expression of HIF-1? in the genioglossus associated with induced bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction in young rats].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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To investigate the expression of HIF-1? in the genioglossus associated with induced bilateral intermittent nasal obstruction in young rats.
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Changes in regulatory B cells and their relationship with rheumatoid arthritis disease activity.
Clin. Exp. Med.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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Regulatory subsets of B cells (Bregs) modulate immune responses in autoimmunity, cancer, and other inflammation diseases. In the present study, we investigated the numbers of circulating Breg cells in patients with rheumatoid arthritis (RA). We evaluated 59 RA patients and 25 healthy controls. CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells and granzyme B-secreting B cells (CD19(+)CD5(+)GzmB(+)) were analyzed by flow cytometry in peripheral blood mononuclear cells. We detected serum interleukin 10 (IL-10), interleukin 21 (IL-21), granzyme B (GzmB) using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Compared to control subjects, we found a decreased proportion of CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells in RA patients. The number of CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells negatively correlated with DAS28 (P < 0.05). Moreover, serum IL-10 and IL-21 concentrations were significantly lower in RA patients compared to healthy controls (P < 0.05). Conversely, the number of CD19(+)CD5(+)GzmB(+) B cells was significantly higher in RA patients (P < 0.05), and the number of CD19(+)CD5(+)GzmB(+) B cells did not correlate with DAS28, IL-21, or GzmB (P > 0.05, all). Interestingly, IL-21 and GzmB levels positively correlated in RA patients (P < 0.05). Our data indicate that CD19(+)CD5(+)CD1d(hi) B cells influence RA disease activity. CD19(+)CD5(+)GzmB(+) B cells may be involved in RA development and progression. Our data strongly suggest a role for Bregs in RA, and Bregs may be a viable therapeutic strategy for RA disease.
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Mechanisms of behavior modification in clinical behavioral medicine in China.
Int J Behav Med
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Behavior modification, as the core of clinical behavioral medicine, is often used in clinical settings.
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Clinical features and outcomes of 210 patients with idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2014
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Idiopathic pulmonary fibrosis (IPF) is a lethal chronic interstitial lung disease (ILD) of unknown cause and having a variable and unpredictable course. This study aimed to summarize the clinical features and follow-up outcomes and to identify potential factors useful for the assessment of prognosis in IPF.
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Simultaneous determination of bioactive components of Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple in rat plasma and tissues by UPLC-MS/MS and its application to pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution.
J. Chromatogr. B Analyt. Technol. Biomed. Life Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2014
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A highly sensitive and rapid ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) has been developed and validated for simultaneous quantification of seven components in rat plasma and five components in rat tissues after oral administration of the extracts of different combination Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple and has been applied to compare the different pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of these bioactive components. The extracts of Radix Angelicae Sinensis (RAS), Radix Paeoniae Alba (RPA) and Radix Angelicae Sinensis-Radix Paeoniae Alba herb couple (RRHC) were orally administrated to rats, respectively. The concentrations of ferulic acid, caffeic acid, vanillic acid, ligustilide, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in rat plasma and the concentrations of ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin in tissues were determined by UPLC-MS/MS. The plasma samples were pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol and the tissue samples were homogenated with water and pretreated by protein precipitation with methanol. Chromatographic separation was performed on a C18 column using 0.1% formic acid-acetonitrile as mobile phase for gradient elution. A triple quadrupole (TQ) tandem mass spectrometry equipped with an electrospray ionization source was used as detector operating both in positive and negative ionization mode and operated by multiple-reaction monitoring (MRM) scanning. Noncompartmental pharmacokinetic parameters were calculated by DAS 2.0 program. The differences between each group were compared by SPSS 16.0 with Independent-Samples T-test. The pharmacokinetic parameters (such as Cmax, Tmax, T1/2, AUC0-T, MRT0-T, Vz/F or CLz/F) of all the detected components between the single herb (RAS or RPA) and herb pair (RRHP) showed significant differences (P<0.05). It indicated that the compatibility of RAS and RPA could alter the pharmacokinetics features of each component. Tissue distribution results showed that ferulic acid, vanillic acid, paeoniflorin, albiflorin and oxypaeoniflorin mostly distributed in liver and kidney both in herb couple and single herb distributed most in liver and kidney. Compared with single herb, RRHC could increase or decrease the concentrations of five components at different time points compared with the sing herb. The results indicated the method was successfully applied to the comparative study on pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of different combination of RRHC in rats. The compatibility of two Chinese herbs could alter the pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution properties of major bio-active components in the single herb. The results might be helpful for further investigation of compatibility mechanism of RRHC.
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A Case of Cutaneous Protothecosis Mimics Eczema.
Mycopathologia
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2014
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We report a case of cutaneous protothecosis due to Prototheca wickerhamii in an immunocompetent man presented with a specific eczema-like lesions. Dermatological examination revealed erythematous plaques, dark red papules with some coalescence, and a few superficial ulcerations, covered with less scales on his right side chest and neck. Fungal culture, histopathological examination and molecular identification confirmed the organism. Antifungal susceptibility testing revealed strain sensitive to amphotericin B, Fluconazole, itraconazole and voriconazole. The patient was cured by oral itraconazole capsules and topical cream ketoconazole 2 %.
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A stable, pillar-layer metal-organic framework containing uncoordinated carboxyl groups for separation of transition metal ions.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A 3D pillar-layer framework (1) with uncoordinated carboxyl groups exhibits exceptional stability. It can effectively and selectively adsorb Cu(2+) ions and has been applied as a chromatographic column for separating Cu(2+)/Co(2+) ions.
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Analysis of Mtwo rotary instrument separation during endodontic therapy: a retrospective clinical study.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 05-09-2014
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To analyze the incidence of instrument separation (IS) and the factors influencing it, when associated with Mtwo rotary system (VDW, Munich, Germany) during endodontic therapy. A retrospective study involving a total of 24,108 root canals (11,036 endodontic treated teeth) was conducted at Nanjing Stomatology Hospital between January 2011 and March 2013. The information included were tooth type, root canal curvature, number of fractured instruments, length of the separated fragments, and the distance from broken tip to apex. The incidence of IS was observed to be 2.2 % according to the number of teeth and 1.0 % according to the number of root canals. Many of the separated fragments were 2-4 mm in length and the mean length was 3.07 ± 1.46 mm, and 78.4 % of fractures occurred in the apex. The mean length of separated fragments in severely curved canals was maximum, while ultra-severe curved canals was observed to be minimum. Mtwo instruments demonstrated an extremely low fracture rate during endodontic therapy. Molar teeth (especially lower molars) and the degree of canal curvature had a significant effect on the incidence of IS.
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[Malaria surveillance in Shanghai from 2005 to 2012].
Zhongguo Xue Xi Chong Bing Fang Zhi Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
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To understand the status of malaria prevalence in Shanghai, so as to provide the evidence for evaluating and promoting malaria elimination.
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B cells promote obesity-associated periodontitis and oral pathogen-associated inflammation.
J. Leukoc. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2014
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Individuals with T2D and PD suffer significantly from the ability of one disease to intensify the other. Disease-associated inflammation is one mechanism thought to fuel this pathogenic feed-forward loop. Several lines of evidence indicate that proinflammatory B cells promote T2D and PD; thus, B cells are top candidates for a cell type that predisposes PD in T2D. To test directly the role of B cells in T2D-associated PD, we compared outcomes from oral Porphyromonas gingivalis challenge of lean WT or B cell-null mice with outcomes from mice that were obese and insulin-resistant before challenge. Obese WT mice responded to oral P. gingivalis challenge with significant periodontal bone loss, whereas obese B cell-null mice were protected completely from PD. By contrast, lean WT and B cell-null mice suffer similar periodontal bone loss in response to oral pathogen. B cells from obese/insulin-resistant hosts also support oral osteoclastogenesis and both oral and systemic production of inflammatory cytokines, including pro-osteoclastogenic TNF-? and MIP-2, an ortholog of human IL-8. B cells furthermore impact AT inflammation in obese, P. gingivalis-infected hosts. Taken together, these data show that fundamentally different mechanisms regulate PD in lean and obese hosts, with B cells able to promote PD only if the hosts are "primed" by obesity. These results justify more intense analysis of obesity-associated changes in B cells that predispose PD in human T2D.
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The influence of annealing temperature on the interface and photovoltaic properties of CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized ZnO nanorods solar cells.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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Arrays of ZnO/CdS/CdSe core/shell nanocables with different annealing temperatures have been investigated for CdS/CdSe quantum dots sensitized solar cells (QDSSCs). CdS/CdSe quantum dots were synthesized on the surface of ZnO nanorods that serve as the scaffold via a simple ion-exchange approach. The uniform microstructure was verified by scanning electron microscope and transmission electron microscope. UV-Visible absorption spectrum and Raman spectroscopy analysis indicated noticeable influence of annealing temperature on the interface structural and optical properties of the CdS/CdSe layers. Particularly, the relationship between annealing temperatures and photovoltaic performance of the corresponding QDSSCs was investigated employing photovoltaic conversion, quantum efficiency and electrochemical impedance spectra. It is demonstrated that higher cell efficiency can be obtained by optimizing the annealing temperature through extending the photoresponse range and improving QD layer crystal quality.
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Hyperbaric Oxygen Suppresses Hypoxic-Ischemic Brain Damage in Newborn Rats.
J. Child Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 04-26-2014
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The optimal therapeutic time-window and protective mechanism of hyperbaric oxygen in hypoxic-ischemic brain damage remain unclear. This study aimed to determine the neuroprotective effects of hyperbaric oxygen. Following hypoxic-ischemic brain damage modeling in neonatal rats, hyperbaric oxygen was administered at 6, 24, 48, and 72 hours and 1 week after hypoxia, respectively, once daily for 1 week. Fourteen days after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage, cell density and apoptosis rate, number of Fas-L+, caspase-8+, and caspase-3+ neuronal cells, levels of nitric oxide, malondialdehyde, and superoxide dismutase in hippocampus were examined. Morris water maze test was conducted 28 days after insult. Significant improvements were found in cell density, rate of apoptosis, oxidative stress markers, FasL, and caspases in rats treated with hyperbaric oxygen within 72 hours compared to hypoxic-ischemic injury. Similarly, time-dependent behavioral amelioration was observed in pups treated with hyperbaric oxygen. Our findings suggest that hyperbaric oxygen protects against hypoxic-ischemic brain damage by inhibiting oxidative stress and FasL-induced apoptosis, and optimal therapeutic time window is within 72 hours after hypoxic-ischemic brain damage.
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Oral appliance effectively reverses Muller's maneuver-induced upper airway collapsibility in obstructive sleep apnea and hypopnea syndrome.
Sleep Breath
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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To verify the effects of oral appliance (OA) on upper airway morphology under intraluminal pressure, identify specific sites of upper airway collapsibility that can be reversed by OAs, and determine the relationship between OA efficacy and dynamic upper airway changes using computed tomography (CT) with Muller's maneuver.
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The Celution(®) System: Automated Processing of Adipose-Derived Regenerative Cells in a Functionally Closed System.
Adv Wound Care (New Rochelle)
PUBLISHED: 04-25-2014
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Objective: To develop a closed, automated system that standardizes the processing of human adipose tissue to obtain and concentrate regenerative cells suitable for clinical treatment of thermal and radioactive burn wounds. Approach: A medical device was designed to automate processing of adipose tissue to obtain a clinical-grade cell output of stromal vascular cells that may be used immediately as a therapy for a number of conditions, including nonhealing wounds resulting from radiation damage. Results: The Celution(®) System reliably and reproducibly generated adipose-derived regenerative cells (ADRCs) from tissue collected manually and from three commercial power-assisted liposuction devices. The entire process of introducing tissue into the system, tissue washing and proteolytic digestion, isolation and concentration of the nonadipocyte nucleated cell fraction, and return to the patient as a wound therapeutic, can be achieved in approximately 1.5?h. An alternative approach that applies ultrasound energy in place of enzymatic digestion demonstrates extremely poor efficiency cell extraction. Innovation: The Celution System is the first medical device validated and approved by multiple international regulatory authorities to generate autologous stromal vascular cells from adipose tissue that can be used in a real-time bedside manner. Conclusion: Initial preclinical and clinical studies using ADRCs obtained using the automated tissue processing Celution device described herein validate a safe and effective manner to obtain a promising novel cell-based treatment for wound healing.
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BCL10 regulates RNF8/RNF168-mediated ubiquitination in the DNA damage response.
Cell Cycle
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Timely and proper cellular response to DNA damage is essential for maintenance of genome stability and integrity. B-cell lymphoma/leukemia 10 (BCL10) facilitates ubiquitination of NEMO in the cytosol, activating NF?B signaling. Translocation and/or point mutations of BCL10 associate with mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue lymphomas and other malignancies. However, the mechanisms by which the resulting aberrant expression of BCL10 leads to cellular oncogenesis are poorly understood. In this report, we found that BCL10 in the nucleus is enriched at the DNA damage sites in an ATM- and RNF8-dependent manner. ATM-dependent phosphorylation of BCL10 promotes its interaction with and presentation of UBC13 to RNF8, and RNF8-mediated ubiquitination of BCL10 enhances binding of BCL10 and UBC13 to RNF168. This allows mono-ubiquitination on H2AX by RNF168 and further poly-ubiquitination by the RNF8/RNF168-containing complex. Depletion of BCL10 compromised homology recombination-mediated DNA double-strand break (DSB) repair because of insufficient recruitment of BRCA1, RAD51, and the ubiquitinated DNA damage response factors. Taken together, our results demonstrate a novel function of BCL10 in delivering UBC13 to RNF8/RNF168 to regulate ubiquitination-mediated DSB signaling and repair.
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K(+) retention in leaf mesophyll, an overlooked component of salinity tolerance mechanism: A case study for barley.
J Integr Plant Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-12-2014
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Plant salinity tolerance is a physiologically complex trait, with numerous mechanisms contributing to it. In this work, we show that the ability of leaf mesophyll to retain K(+) represents an important and essentially overlooked component of a salinity tolerance mechanism. The strong positive correlation between mesophyll K(+) retention ability under saline conditions (quantified by the magnitude of NaCl-induced K(+) efflux from mesophyll) and the overall salinity tolerance (relative fresh weight and/or survival or damage under salinity stress) was found while screening 46 barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) genotypes contrasting in their salinity tolerance. Genotypes with intrinsically higher leaf K(+) content under control conditions were found to possess better K(+) retention ability under salinity and, hence, overall higher tolerance. Contrary to previous reports for barley roots, K(+) retention in mesophyll was not associated with an increased H(+) -pumping in tolerant varieties but instead correlated negatively with this trait. These findings are explained by the fact that increased H(+) extrusion may be needed to charge balance the activity and provide the driving force for the high affinity HAK/KUP K(+) transporters required to restore cytosolic K(+) homeostasis in salt-sensitive genotypes.
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Mesoporous silica nanoparticles/hydroxyapatite composite coated implants to locally inhibit osteoclastic activity.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 04-07-2014
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In an attempt to improve implant-bone integration and accelerate bone fracture healing from resisting osteoclastic resorption point of view, we have employed a novel procedure to develop a mesoporous silica nanoparticles/hydroxyapatite (MSNs/HA) composite coating onto stainless Kirschner wire substrate. Characterizations of the surface microstructures indicated enlarged specific surface area compared to HA-coated wires as control, thus the MSNs/HA composite coated implants are endowed with abilities to locally deliver biomedical substances and enhance fracture healing. Herein, zoledronic acid (ZOL) as a model drug, different doses of which were immobilized in the mesoporous coating toward decreasing osteoclastic resorption activity. The loading capacities of ZOL increased almost eight-folds to that of pure HA coating, and the introduction of MSNs obviously retarded ZOL release to achieve a more sustained release profile. After certain periods of osteoclast like cells co-culturing with ZOL contained wires, tartrat-resistant acid phosphatases (TRAP) staining of polynucleated cells and a pit formation assay were performed to investigate the ZOL dose-dependent anti-resorption activity. The promoted local effect on osteoclasts will be of clinical benefit to support implant integration and bone repair.
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Downregulation of 425G>A variant of calcium-binding protein S100A14 associated with poor differentiation and prognosis in gastric cancer.
J. Cancer Res. Clin. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2014
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Altered level of S100 calcium-binding proteins is involved in tumor development and progression. However, their role in gastric cancer (GC) is not well documented. We investigated the expression pattern of S100 proteins and differentiation or prognosis as well as possible mechanisms in GC.
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Maize Elongin C interacts with the viral genome-linked protein, VPg, of Sugarcane mosaic virus and facilitates virus infection.
New Phytol.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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The viral genome-linked protein, VPg, of potyviruses is involved in viral genome replication and translation. To determine host proteins that interact with Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) VPg, a yeast two-hybrid screen was used and a maize (Zea mays) Elongin C (ZmElc) protein was identified. ZmELC transcript was observed in all maize organs, but most highly in leaves and pistil extracts, and ZmElc was present in the cytoplasm and nucleus of maize cells in the presence or absence of SCMV. ZmELC expression was increased in maize tissue at 4 and 6 d post SCMV inoculation. When ZmELC was transiently overexpressed in maize protoplasts the accumulation of SCMV RNA was approximately doubled compared with the amount of virus in control protoplasts. Silencing ZmELC expression using a Brome mosaic virus-based gene silencing vector (virus-induced gene silencing) did not influence maize plant growth and development, but did decrease RNA accumulation of two isolates of SCMV and host transcript encoding ZmeIF4E during SCMV infection. Interestingly, Maize chlorotic mottle virus, from outside the Potyviridae, was increased in accumulation after silencing ZmELC expression. Our results describe both the location of ZmElc expression in maize and a new activity associated with an Elc: support of potyvirus accumulation.
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A novel approach to monitor clearance of host cell proteins associated with monoclonal antibodies.
Biotechnol. Prog.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2014
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Co-purification of a subset of host cell proteins (HCPs) with monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) during the capture of mAbs on Protein A affinity chromatography is primarily caused by interactions of HCPs with the mAbs. To date, there is limited information about the identity of those HCPs due to the difficulty in detecting low abundance HCPs in the presence of a large amount of the mAb. Here, an approach is presented that allows identification of HCPs that specifically associate with the mAb, while avoiding interference from the mAb itself. This approach involves immobilization of purified mAb onto chromatography resin via cross-linking, followed by incubation with HCPs obtained from supernatant of non-mAb producer cells that are representative of the expression systems used in mAb manufacturing. The HCPs that bind to the mAb are recovered and identified using mass spectrometry. This approach has not only allowed a comprehensive comparison of HCP subpopulations that associate with different mAbs, but also enabled monitoring of the effects of a variety of wash modifiers on the dissociation of individual HCP-mAb interactions. The dissociation of HCPs that associated with the mAb was monitored by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and mass spectrometry. This approach can be utilized as a screening tool to assist the development of effective and targeted wash steps in Protein A chromatography that ensures not only reduction of HCP levels copurified with the mAb but also removal of specific HCPs that may have a potential impact on mAb structural stability and patient safety. © 2014 American Institute of Chemical Engineers Biotechnol. Prog., 30:1114-1124, 2014.
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Liraglutide reduces lipid accumulation in steatotic L?02 cells by enhancing autophagy.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-16-2014
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Simple hepatic steatosis is the early stage of non?alcoholic fatty liver disease and is recognized as a benign process. Previous studies show that glucagon?like peptide?1 has great potential in improving hepatic steatosis. Recent data have revealed that inhibiting autophagy exacerbates lipid accumulation in hepatocytes. Therefore, the present study aimed to determine the effects of liraglutide (LG) on simple hepatic steatosis and the possible role of autophagy. Firstly, steatotic L?02 cells were induced by incubating L?02 cells with 1 mmol/l free fatty acid (FFA) mixture (oleic acid and palmitic acid at a molar ratio of 2:1) for 24 h. Intracellular lipid accumulation, cell viability, oxidative stress and apoptosis were evaluated. Secondly, steatotic L?02 cells were treated with 10 or 100 nmol/l LG, 100 nmol/l LG plus 3?methyladenine (3?MA), or rapamycin for 24 h, and then lipid accumulation was measured. Next, the degree of lipid accumulation and the intensity of autophagy were assessed. Oil red O staining and triglyceride quantification demonstrated notable steatosis in L?02 cells following exposure to 1 mmol/l FFA mixture for 24 h. There was no significant cytotoxicity, oxidative stress or apoptosis in steatotic L?02 cells. Treatment with 100 nmol/l LG reduced lipid accumulation in steatotic L?02 cells and increased the mRNA levels of microtubule?associated protein 1 light chain 3B. Additionally, it enhanced the autophagic flux in steatotic L?02 cells, as measured by western blot analysis and shown by electron microscopy. Additionally, 3?MA weakened the ability of LG to improve hepatic steatosis and enhance autophagy. Our data indicate that LG reduces the lipid accumulation in steatotic L?02 cells, and the activation of autophagy plays a significant role in this process.
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Age-related brain expression and regulation of the chemokine CCL4/MIP-1? in APP/PS1 double-transgenic mice.
J. Neuropathol. Exp. Neurol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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The detrimental effect of activation of the chemokine CCL4/MIP-1? on neuronal integrity in patients with HIV-associated dementia has directed attention to the potential role of CCL4 expression and regulation in Alzheimer disease. Here, we show that CCL4 mRNA and protein are overexpressed in the brains of APPswe/PS1?E9 (APP/PS1) double-transgenic mice, a model of cerebral amyloid deposition; expression was minimal in brains from nontransgenic littermates or single-mutant controls. Increased levels of CCL4 mRNA and protein directly correlated with the age-related progression of cerebral amyloid-? (A?) levels in APP/PS1 mice. We also found significantly increased expression of activating transcription factor 3 (ATF3), which was positively correlated with age-related A? deposition and CCL4 in the brains of APP/PS1 mice. Results from chromatin immunoprecipitation-quantitative polymerase chain reaction confirmed that ATF3 binds to the promoter region of the CCL4 gene, consistent with a potential role in regulating CCL4 transcription. Finally, elevated ATF3 mRNA expression in APP/PS1 brains was associated with hypomethylation of the ATF3 gene promoter region. These observations prompt the testable hypothesis for future study that CCL4 overexpression, regulated in part by hypomethylation of the ATF3 gene, may contribute to neuropathologic progression associated with amyloid deposition in Alzheimer disease.
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A mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition approach to fabricating complex hydride nanostructures.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 02-26-2014
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Nanoscale hydrides desorb and absorb hydrogen at faster rates and lower temperatures than bulk hydrides because of their high surface areas, abundant grain boundaries and short diffusion distances. No current methods exist for the direct fabrication of nanoscale complex hydrides (for example, alanates, borohydrides) with unique morphologies because of their extremely high reducibility, relatively low thermodynamic stability and complicated elemental composition. Here, we demonstrate a mechanical-force-driven physical vapour deposition procedure for preparing nanoscale complex hydrides without scaffolds or supports. Magnesium alanate nanorods measuring 20-40?nm in diameter and lithium borohydride nanobelts measuring 10-40?nm in width are successfully synthesised on the basis of the one-dimensional structure of the corresponding organic coordination polymers. The dehydrogenation kinetics of the magnesium alanate nanorods are improved, and the nanorod morphology persists through the dehydrogenation-hydrogenation process. Our findings may facilitate the fabrication of such hydrides with improved hydrogen storage properties for practical applications.
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Relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia in pregnant Chinese women.
Diabetes Metab. Res. Rev.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2014
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Little is known about the optimal cut-off point of fasting plasma glucose for the diagnosis of gestational diabetes mellitus for pregnant Chinese women. This study investigates the relationship between gestational fasting plasma glucose and several variables: neonatal birth weight, prenatal blood pressure and dystocia rate of pregnant women. In this study, we hoped to provide a useful tool to screen gestational diabetes mellitus in pregnant Chinese women.
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Immunophenotype and gene expression profile of mesenchymal stem cells derived from canine adipose tissue and bone marrow.
Vet. Immunol. Immunopathol.
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2014
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Veterinary adult stem cell therapy is an emerging area of basic and clinical research. Like their human counterparts, veterinary mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) offer many potential therapeutic benefits. The characterization of canine-derived MSCs, however, is poorly defined compared to human MSCs. Furthermore, little consensus exists regarding the expression of canine MSC cell surface markers. To address this issue, this study investigated characteristics of cultured canine MSCs derived from both adipose tissue and bone marrow. The canine MSCs were obtained from donors of various breeds and ages. A panel of cell surface markers for canine MSCs was selected based on current human and canine literature and the availability of canine-reactive antibodies. Using flow cytometry, canine MSCs were defined to be CD90(+)CD44(+)MHC I(+)CD14(-)CD29(-)CD34(-)MHC II(-). Canine MSCs were further characterized using real-time RT-PCR as CD105(+)CD73(+)CD14(+)CD29(+)MHC II(+)CD45(-) at the mRNA level. Among these markers, canine MSCs differed from canine peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) by the absence of CD45 expression at the mRNA level. A novel high-throughput canine-specific PCR array was developed and used to identify changes in the gene expression profiles of canine MSCs. Genes including PTPRC, TNF, ?2M, TGF?1, and PDGFR?, were identified as unique to canine MSCs as compared to canine PBMCs. Our findings will facilitate characterization of canine MSCs for use in research and clinical trials. Moreover, the high-throughput PCR array is a novel tool for characterizing canine MSCs isolated from different tissues and potentially from different laboratories.
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Improved detection of host cell proteins (HCPs) in a mammalian cell-derived antibody drug using liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry in conjunction with an HCP-enrichment strategy.
Rapid Commun. Mass Spectrom.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2014
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Host cell proteins (HCPs), which are process-related impurities typically present at low levels in recombinant biopharmaceutical products, are often measured using an immunological technique, such as an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). In contrast to ELISA which only provides the total amount of HCP, liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry (LC/MS) can provide both qualitative and quantitative information about the major HCP species. In this study, an HCP-enrichment step was optimized and combined with LC/MS to identify and determine the relative abundance of HCPs present in a monoclonal antibody (mAb) drug product.
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One order of magnitude faster phase change at reduced power in Ti-Sb-Te.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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To date, slow Set operation speed and high Reset operation power remain to be important limitations for substituting dynamic random access memory by phase change memory. Here, we demonstrate phase change memory cell based on Ti0.4Sb2Te3 alloy, showing one order of magnitude faster Set operation speed and as low as one-fifth Reset operation power, compared with Ge2Sb2Te5-based phase change memory cell at the same size. The enhancements may be rooted in the common presence of titanium-centred octahedral motifs in both amorphous and crystalline Ti0.4Sb2Te3 phases. The essentially unchanged local structures around the titanium atoms may be responsible for the significantly improved performance, as these structures could act as nucleation centres to facilitate a swift, low-energy order-disorder transition for the rest of the Sb-centred octahedrons. Our study may provide an alternative to the development of high-speed, low-power dynamic random access memory-like phase change memory technology.
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The largest Silurian vertebrate and its palaeoecological implications.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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An apparent absence of Silurian fishes more than half-a-metre in length has been viewed as evidence that gnathostomes were restricted in size and diversity prior to the Devonian. Here we describe the largest pre-Devonian vertebrate (Megamastax amblyodus gen. et sp. nov.), a predatory marine osteichthyan from the Silurian Kuanti Formation (late Ludlow, ~423 million years ago) of Yunnan, China, with an estimated length of about 1 meter. The unusual dentition of the new form suggests a durophagous diet which, combined with its large size, indicates a considerable degree of trophic specialisation among early osteichthyans. The lack of large Silurian vertebrates has recently been used as constraint in palaeoatmospheric modelling, with purported lower oxygen levels imposing a physiological size limit. Regardless of the exact causal relationship between oxygen availability and evolutionary success, this finding refutes the assumption that pre-Emsian vertebrates were restricted to small body sizes.
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A common GSAP promoter variant contributes to Alzheimer's disease liability.
Neurobiol. Aging
PUBLISHED: 01-02-2014
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Toxic amyloid-?40-42 (A?40-42) peptide cleaved from A? protein precursor by ?- and ? secretases plays a crucial role in the etiology of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Recently, Paul Greengard laboratory described a novel ?-secretase activating protein (gSAP) that specifically increases A?40-42 production without affecting the cleavage of another ?-secretase substrate, Notch. In this study, we show that expression of messenger RNA for GSAP, the gene that encodes the gSAP precursor protein, in human temporal cortex correlates with genotypes of 6 linked single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located within the 5' region of GSAP in both Han Chinese and Caucasian populations. One of these SNPs, rs4727380, associates with AD diagnosis in a Han Chinese-based case-control study comprising 397 AD cases and 474 controls and in a Caucasian-based sample comprising 1906 cases and 1475 controls. As predicted, the high-expression allele of rs4727380 was identified as the AD risk allele in both samples. We also determined that rs4727380 correlates with AD diagnosis primarily among APOE4 noncarriers. To our knowledge, this is the first report providing genetic evidence linking GSAP to AD liability.
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Identification, expression and phylogenetic analysis of EgG1Y162 from Echinococcus granulosus.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study was to clone, identify and analyze the characteristics of egG1Y162 gene from Echinococcus granulosus.
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Combining magnetic nanoparticle with biotinylated nanobodies for rapid and sensitive detection of influenza H3N2.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Our objective is to develop a rapid and sensitive assay based on magnetic beads to detect the concentration of influenza H3N2. The possibility of using variable domain heavy-chain antibodies (nanobody) as diagnostic tools for influenza H3N2 was investigated. A healthy camel was immunized with inactivated influenza H3N2. A nanobody library of 8?×?10(8) clones was constructed and phage displayed. After three successive biopanning steps, H3N2-specific nanobodies were successfully isolated, expressed in Escherichia coli, and purified. Sequence analysis of the nanobodies revealed that we possessed four classes of nanobodies against H3N2. Two nanobodies were further used to prepare our rapid diagnostic kit. Biotinylated nanobody was effectively immobilized onto the surface of streptavidin magnetic beads. The modified magnetic beads with nanobody capture specifically influenza H3N2 and can still be recognized by nanobodies conjugated to horseradish peroxidase (HRP) conjugates. Under optimized conditions, the present immunoassay exhibited a relatively high sensitive detection with a limit of 50 ng/mL. In conclusion, by combining magnetic beads with specific nanobodies, this assay provides a promising influenza detection assay to develop a potential rapid, sensitive, and low-cost diagnostic tool to screen for influenza infections.
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Peripheral blood mitochondrial DNA copy number is associated with prostate cancer risk and tumor burden.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Alterations of mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) have been associated with the risk of a number of human cancers; however, the relationship between mtDNA copy number in peripheral blood leukocytes (PBLs) and the risk of prostate cancer (PCa) has not been investigated. In a case-control study of 196 PCa patients and 196 age-paired healthy controls in a Chinese Han population, the association between mtDNA copy number in PBLs and PCa risk was evaluated. The relative mtDNA copy number was measured using quantitative real-time PCR; samples from three cases and two controls could not be assayed, leaving 193 cases and 194 controls for analysis. PCa patients had significantly higher mtDNA copy numbers than controls (medians 0.91 and 0.82, respectively; P<0.001). Dichotomized at the median value of mtDNA copy number in the controls, high mtDNA copy number was significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa (adjusted odds ratio=?1.85, 95% confidence interval: 1.21-2.83). A significant dose-response relationship was observed between mtDNA copy number and risk of PCa in quartile analysis (Ptrend?=?0.011). Clinicopathological analysis showed that high mtDNA copy numbers in PCa patients were significantly associated with high Gleason score and advanced tumor stage, but not serum prostate-specific antigen level (P?=?0.002, 0.012 and 0.544, respectively). These findings of the present study indicate that increased mtDNA copy number in PBLs is significantly associated with an increased risk of PCa and may be a reflection of tumor burden.
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Prokaryotic expression and identification of B- and T-cell combined epitopes of Em95 antigen of Echinococcus multilocularis.
Int J Clin Exp Pathol
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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This study is to clone and identify B- and T-cell combined epitopes from Em95 antigen.
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FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 signaling activity and promotes proliferation of human colorectal carcinoma cells.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this study, we investigated a potential regulatory role of FBI-1 in transcription factor activity of ETS-1. The protein interaction was identified between ETS-1 and FBI-1 in lovo cells. The accumulating data showed that FBI-1 promoted the recruitment of ETS-1 to endogenous promoter of its target genes and increase ETS-1 accumulation in the nuclear. Our work also indicated that the FBI-1 enhances ETS-1 transcription factor activity via down-regulating p53-mediated inhibition on ETS-1. Further, FBI-1 plays a role in regulation of colorectal carcinoma cells proliferation. These findings supported that FBI-1 might be a potential molecule target for treating colorectal carcinoma.
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Cyclin D1 overexpression is associated with poor clinicopathological outcome and survival in oral squamous cell carcinoma in Asian populations: insights from a meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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The clinicopathological significance of cyclin D1 overexpression and prognosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma has not been fully quantified. We performed a comprehensive meta-analysis for evaluation of cyclin D1 overexpression in oral squamous cell carcinoma to determine the strength of this association.
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Interleukin-16 Gene Polymorphisms rs4778889, rs4072111, rs11556218, and Cancer Risk in Asian Populations: A Meta-Analysis.
Genet Test Mol Biomarkers
PUBLISHED: 12-13-2013
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Objectives: Some polymorphisms of the interleukin-16 (IL-16) gene are associated with various cancers. To resolve inconsistencies in published data, we performed a meta-analysis of studies of IL-16 polymorphisms and cancer risk. Materials and Methods: Seven eligible studies pooling 1678 cases and 1937 controls were quantitatively analyzed to evaluate three IL-16 polymorphisms (rs4778889, rs4072111, rs11556218) and cancer risk. Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) for controls was evaluated by goodness-of-fit chi-squared tests. Odds ratios (ORs) and their 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were calculated for each genetic model and allelic comparison. Data were pooled using fixed- or random-effects models depending on heterogeneity across studies. Results: Our meta-analysis demonstrated that the IL-16 polymorphism rs11556218 was significantly associated with increased susceptibility to cancer in several models, including allelic contrast (OR=1.307; 95% CI, 1.108-1.541), heterozygote contrast (OR=1.650; 95% CI, 1.424-1.911), and dominant model (OR=1.605; 95% CI, 1.391-1.845). The result remained consistent after adjustment for age and gender. No significant association was found between IL-16 polymorphisms rs4778889 rs4072111 and cancer risk. Conclusions: The rs11556218 T/G polymorphism of the IL-16 gene was significantly associated with elevated cancer risk in Asian populations. Our results warrant larger, better-designed studies, including a greater ethnic variety.
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[Association between matrix metalloproteinase-10 gene polymorphisms and instability of carotid plaque].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Yi Chuan Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 12-12-2013
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To assess the association between 2 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) located in exonic regions of matrix metalloproteinase-10 (MMP-10) gene and instability of carotid plaques in a Han Chinese population.
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Clinical significance of leukotriene b4 and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer in acute coronary syndrome.
Clin Invest Med
PUBLISHED: 12-06-2013
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Purpose: Leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and extracellular matrix metalloproteinase (EMMPRIN) have been suggested as modulators of atherosclerotic plaque instability. This study sought to evaluate the potential diagnostic implication of LTB4 and EMMPRIN in patients with acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Methods: Patients (n=153) who underwent coronary angiography, including 105 patients diagnosed with ACS, were divided into four groups: stable angina pectoris (SAP, n=19), unstable angina pectoris (UAP, n=39), acute myocardial infarction (AMI, n=66) and control (with normal coronary angiography, n=29). EMMPRIN expression in peripheral blood mononuclear cells was determined by flow cytometry and serum LTB4 levels were measured by ELISA. To examine whether LTB4 can regulate the expression of EMMPRIN and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) in macrophages, differentiated THP-1 macrophages were stimulated with different concentrations of LTB4 (10-10-10-7mmol/L). Expression of EMMPRIN was evaluated by Western blotting. MMP-9 mRNA expression and enzymatic activity were determined by RT-PCR and SDS-PAGE gelatin zymography. Result: Serum LTB4 concentration was significantly higher in AMI and UAP groups, compared with control and SAP groups (p < 0.01). Subgroups analysis showed that LTB4 was significantly higher in the AMI < 24h group, compared with the AMI > 24h group. Expression of EMMPRIN on circulating monocytes was significantly higher in patients with UAP and AMI ( > 24h), compared with control, SAP and AMI ( < 24h) groups (p < 0.05). In vitro study showed LTB4 up-regulated the expression of EMMPRIN, as well as the expression and activity of MMP-9, in cultured THP-1-derived macrophages (p < 0.05). Conclusion: LTB4 and EMMPRIN are associated with the pathogenesis of ACS and may be potential biomarkers for patients with ACS.
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The fast filling of nano-SnO2 in CNTs by vacuum absorption: a new approach to realize cyclic durable anodes for lithium ion batteries.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 10-19-2013
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CNTs filled with amorphous-nanocrystalline SnO2, as a unique SnO2-based nanocomposite structure, were synthesized by a rapid vacuum absorption followed by calcination. The SnO2/CNT nanocomposite anodes had a much higher Li storage capacity than the pristine CNTs, as well as a markedly improved cyclic performance (430 mA h g(-1) after 300 cycles at 0.1 A g(-1)). These superior electrode properties resulted from the unique feature of the amorphous-nanocrystalline mixture of tin oxides stored in the CNT tubes of this nanocomposite, because this structure accommodated the stress and confined the volume change of Li(+) insertion/desertion in Sn. Although the nanocomposites had a large initial irreversible capacity loss due to SEI formation, it could be dramatically reduced by prelithiation treatment of the nanocomposite electrode.
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Manual isolation of adipose-derived stem cells from human lipoaspirates.
J Vis Exp
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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In 2001, researchers at the University of California, Los Angeles, described the isolation of a new population of adult stem cells from liposuctioned adipose tissue that they initially termed Processed Lipoaspirate Cells or PLA cells. Since then, these stem cells have been renamed as Adipose-derived Stem Cells or ASCs and have gone on to become one of the most popular adult stem cells populations in the fields of stem cell research and regenerative medicine. Thousands of articles now describe the use of ASCs in a variety of regenerative animal models, including bone regeneration, peripheral nerve repair and cardiovascular engineering. Recent articles have begun to describe the myriad of uses for ASCs in the clinic. The protocol shown in this article outlines the basic procedure for manually and enzymatically isolating ASCs from large amounts of lipoaspirates obtained from cosmetic procedures. This protocol can easily be scaled up or down to accommodate the volume of lipoaspirate and can be adapted to isolate ASCs from fat tissue obtained through abdominoplasties and other similar procedures.
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[Hepatitis B e antigen perturbs the LPS-stimulated production of inflammatory cytokines by mononuclear-derived dendritic cells].
Zhonghua Gan Zang Bing Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2013
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To investigate whether hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) can modulate the ability of dendritic cells (DCs) to produce inflammatory cytokines (IL-12/IL-6) upon stimulation in vitro.
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Wavelet based sparse source imaging technique.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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The present study proposed a novel multi-resolution wavelet to efficiently compress cortical current densities on the highly convoluted cortical surface. The basis function of the proposed wavelet is supported on triangular faces of the cortical mesh and it is thus named as the face-based wavelet to be distinguished from other vertex-based wavelets. The proposed face-based wavelet was used as a transform to gain the sparse representation of cortical sources and then was integrated into the framework of L1-norm regularizations with the purpose to improve the performance of sparse source imaging (SSI) in solving EEG/MEG inverse problems. Monte Carlo simulations were conducted with multiple extended sources (up to ten) at random locations. Experimental MEG data from an auditory induced language task was further adopted to evaluate the performance of the proposed wavelet based SSI technique. The present results indicated that the face-based wavelet can efficiently compress cortical current densities and has better performance than the vertex-based wavelet in helping inverse source reconstructions in terms of estimation accuracies in source localization and source extent. Experimental results further indicated improved detection performance of the face-based wavelet as compared with the vertex-based wavelet in the framework of SSI. It thus suggests the proposed wavelet based SSI can become a promising tool in studying brain functions and networks.
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MicroRNA-155 promotes autophagy to eliminate intracellular mycobacteria by targeting Rheb.
PLoS Pathog.
PUBLISHED: 10-01-2013
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Mycobacterium tuberculosis is a hard-to-eradicate intracellular pathogen that infects one-third of the global population. It can live within macrophages owning to its ability to arrest phagolysosome biogenesis. Autophagy has recently been identified as an effective way to control the intracellular mycobacteria by enhancing phagosome maturation. In the present study, we demonstrate a novel role of miR-155 in regulating the autophagy-mediated anti-mycobacterial response. Both in vivo and in vitro studies showed that miR-155 expression was significantly enhanced after mycobacterial infection. Forced expression of miR-155 accelerated the autophagic response in macrophages, thus promoting the maturation of mycobacterial phagosomes and decreasing the survival rate of intracellular mycobacteria, while transfection with miR-155 inhibitor increased mycobacterial survival. However, macrophage-mediated mycobacterial phagocytosis was not affected after miR-155 overexpression or inhibition. Furthermore, blocking autophagy with specific inhibitor 3-methyladenine or silencing of autophagy related gene 7 (Atg7) reduced the ability of miR-155 to promote autophagy and mycobacterial elimination. More importantly, our study demonstrated that miR-155 bound to the 3-untranslated region of Ras homologue enriched in brain (Rheb), a negative regulator of autophagy, accelerated the process of autophagy and sequential killing of intracellular mycobacteria by suppressing Rheb expression. Our results reveal a novel role of miR-155 in regulating autophagy-mediated mycobacterial elimination by targeting Rheb, and provide potential targets for clinical treatment.
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[Effluent carbon source improvement and sludge reduction by hydrolysis reactor with enhanced sludge utilization].
Huan Jing Ke Xue
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2013
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In order to strengthen the sludge hydrolysis and improve effluent carbon source, the structure of currently existing hydrolysis reactor was reformed. The new process combined separation of suspended solids in influent and hydrolysis of settled sludge. Experimental results show that the removal rate of SS was 81.4%, the average SS/BOD5 ratio of effluent was dropped to 0.4, far less than that of the influent ratios; SCOD/COD and COD(0.45-5)/COD ratio of the effluent increased by 35.4% and 17.7%, but the COD(> 100)/COD ratio reduced by 53.2%; BOD5/TN ratio increased from 3.7 to 4.7 and the BOD5/TP ratio from 23.8 to 36.4. The improvement of effluent carbon source was helpful for nitrogen and phosphorus removal in follow-up process. Meanwhile, the hydrolytic rate of sludge was up to 51.9%, realizing the reduction and resource-regeneration.
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4-Phenylbutyric acid attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress-mediated pancreatic ?-cell apoptosis in rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes.
Endocrine
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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Endoplasmic reticulum stress (ERS) plays an important role in diabetes mellitus (DM), but the association between DM and ERS is unknown. We have previously shown that streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetes in rats is characterized by increased levels of ERS markers. Here, we tested whether the chemical chaperone 4-phenylbutyric acid (4-PBA) ameliorated ERS-associated apoptosis in pancreatic ?-cells in rats with STZ-induced diabetes. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups: control group, DM group, and DM model plus 4-PBA treatment group (4-PBA group). DM model rats were induced by injection of STZ (60 mg/kg) intraperitoneally, and 4-PBA was administered daily by gavage at a dose of 500 mg/kg body weight for 20 days. ?-cell apoptosis was higher in the DM group than in the control group. Moreover, the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and the ERS indicators Bip and CHOP was markedly elevated in the pancreas of rats in the DM group, whereas the expression of Bcl-2 was lower in these rats (P < 0.05). Blood glucose concentration in diabetic rats gradually decreased with 4-PBA treatment but remained higher at the end of the experiment compared to the concentration in control rats. Consistent with this, 4-PBA raised the fasting insulin level in diabetic rats; it also suppressed the expression of caspase-3, Bax, and ERS indicators but enhanced the expression of Bcl-2. In conclusion, 4-PBA protects pancreatic ?-cells from apoptosis in STZ-induced diabetes by attenuating the severity of ERS.
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[Survey on quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes].
Zhejiang Da Xue Xue Bao Yi Xue Ban
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
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To survey the quality of life in children and adolescents with type 1 diabetes.
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Utility of population pharmacokinetic modeling in the assessment of therapeutic protein-drug interactions.
J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 09-05-2013
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Assessment of pharmacokinetic (PK) based drug-drug interactions (DDI) is essential for ensuring patient safety and drug efficacy. With the substantial increase in therapeutic proteins (TP) entering the market and drug development, evaluation of TP-drug interaction (TPDI) has become increasingly important. Unlike for small molecule (e.g., chemical-based) drugs, conducting TPDI studies often presents logistical challenges, while the population PK (PPK) modeling may be a viable approach dealing with the issues. A working group was formed with members from the pharmaceutical industry and the FDA to assess the utility of PPK-based TPDI assessment including study designs, data analysis methods, and implementation strategy. This paper summarizes key issues for consideration as well as a proposed strategy with focuses on (1) PPK approach for exploratory assessment; (2) PPK approach for confirmatory assessment; (3) importance of data quality; (4) implementation strategy; and (5) potential regulatory implications. Advantages and limitations of the approach are also discussed.
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The relationship between polymorphisms in the promoter region of Tim-3 and unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion in Han Chinese women.
Reprod. Biol. Endocrinol.
PUBLISHED: 08-16-2013
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Recurrent spontaneous abortion (RSA) refers to 2 or more consecutive pregnancy losses, and RSA with unknown causes is called unexplained recurrent spontaneous abortion (URSA). Tim-3, a subtype of the T-cell immunoglobulin domain and mucin domain (Tim) protein family, might be an important regulatory molecule that plays a pivotal role in URSA, which might be triggered mostly by Th1/Th2 immune deviation. To understand the etiology and pathogenesis of URSA in Han Chinese women, we investigated the association between polymorphisms of rs10053538 and rs10515746 in the promoter of Tim-3 and the risk of URSA in Han Chinese women.
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A multifunctional proton-conducting and sensing pillar-layer framework based on [24-MC-6] heterometallic crown clusters.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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3D pillar-layer framework with [24-MC-6] heterometallic crown clusters exhibits proton conductivity and selective sensing of acetone as well as Cu(2+) ions.
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Histone Decacetylase Inhibitors Prevent Mitochondrial Fragmentation and Elicit Early Neuroprotection against MPP+
CNS Neurosci Ther
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2013
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Parkinsons disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disease, characterized by progressive loss of dopaminergic (DA) neurons in the substantia nigra. Recent investigations have shown that mitochondrial fragmentation, an early event during apoptosis, is implicated in the degeneration of DA neurons in PD, and more importantly, preventing mitochondrial fragmentation could rescue cell death in several PD models. Therefore, mitochondrial dynamics may be a therapeutic target for early intervention in PD. However, much remains unknown about the mechanism underlying mitochondrial fragmentation in PD.
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Sparse MEG source imaging for reconstructing dynamic sources of interictal spikes in partial epilepsy.
J Clin Neurophysiol
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2013
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The present study aimed to test the feasibility of a novel neuroimaging technique, that is, variation-based sparse cortical current density (VB-SCCD) imaging algorithm, in noninvasively estimating location and extent of epileptic sources from interictal magnetoencephalography (MEG) data.
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Cerebral sparganosis in mainland Chinese patients.
J Clin Neurosci
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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Cerebral sparganosis is a severe parasitic infection caused by the larvae of Spirometra mansoni. We retrospectively reviewed the clinical data of 26 patients with cerebral sparganosis diagnosed in our center and reviewed the literature on cerebral sparganosis in mainland China. Among our 26 patients, 20 suffered from seizures, 11 had limb weakness and 11 experienced headaches. The characteristic MRI features included ring-like enhancement in 24 patients, tunnel lesions in 14 patients and lesion migration in seven patients. Twenty-three patients underwent surgery, with the brain tissues of all patients revealling many inflammatory tunnels. Inside these tunnels, live or degenerate larvae were identified in 20 patients, but only eosinophilic tunnels were identified in the three remaining patients. All patients in this series received praziquantel, with three patients receiving praziquantel alone, with no surgical intervention, and all had a favorable outcome on long term follow-up. At least 82 patients with cerebral sparganosis with histo pathological confirmation have been reported in mainland China. The clinical course, radiological features, and pathological features of mainland Chinese patients were mostly similar to those reported in other regions. There exists an inherent correlation between radiological features and pathological changes, with worm migration causing multiple inflammatory tunnels, especially eosinophilic tunnels, which thus form the basis of tunnel-like or ring-like enhancement on multi-planar MRI, and might be predictors for a poor prognosis. Surgical therapy is optimal in the treatment for cerebral sparganosis, but medication (praziquantel and dexamethasone) has achieved favorable outcomes in some patients.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.