JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Relationship Between the DPD and TS mRNA Expression and the Response to S-1-Based Chemotherapy and Prognosis in Patients with Advanced Gastric Cancer.
Cell Biochem. Biophys.
PUBLISHED: 11-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The aim was to determine changes in dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase (DPD) and thymidylate synthase (TS) mRNAs in the blood of advanced gastric cancer (AGC) patients to see whether these enzymes affected the patients' response to S-1-based chemotherapy and prognosis. For this purpose, pretreatment DPD/TS mRNA expressions were determined in 40 AGC patients using RT-PCR. The patients were then administered with S-1-based regimen (S-1 + cisplatin) and toxicities were recorded. The relationship between the DPD/TS mRNA expressions and the chemotherapy response, drug resistance, and prognosis was analyzed. The data show that DPD mRNA expression correlated significantly with Lauren type while TS mRNA expression correlated with distant metastasis. Patients with higher DPD and/or TS mRNA expression(s) showed poor response, while those with low DPD mRNA expression showed better response to the chemotherapy. Pooled analysis showed that the patients with low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had better therapeutic response. The incidence of bone marrow suppression, diarrhea, and oral mucositis was high in patients with low DPD mRNA expression. Median overall survival (OS) in 40 patients was 13.5 months. It was 17 months for low and 10 months for high DPD (P = 0.044) and TS mRNA expression (P = 0.047). Pooled analysis showed that the patients with both low DPD/TS mRNA expressions had longer OS (P = 0.001). In conclusion, the detection of DPD and/or TS mRNA expression can be used to predict the response to S-1-based chemotherapy, drug resistance, and prognosis in AGC patients as well as to help guide the individualized treatment of gastric cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Diffuse large B-cell lymphoma: The sites of extranodal involvement are the stronger predictor than the number of extranodal sites in the Rituximab era.
Leuk. Lymphoma
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Abstract National Comprehensive Cancer Network (NCCN)-International Prognostic Index (IPI) is an enhanced prognostic tool and it identified some specific extranodal sites as a poor prognostic factor. We were interested in this issue and retrospectively analyzed 148 Taiwanese patients with newly diagnosed diffuse large B-cell lymphoma under rituximab (R)-CHOP-like regimens from January 2001 to December 2010 at the Tri-Service General Hospital. In the univarate analysis, ? 2 extranodal involved sites had no significant prognostic relevance (p=0.108) and extranodal involvement of lung/pleura, liver, lower urinary tract or bone marrow was a statistically significant poor prognostic factor (p<0.001). In the multivariate analysis, some specific extranodal sites had stronger predictive value for poor prognosis [relative risk 3.654, 95% confidence interval 1.514-8.815, p=0.004] than that of numbers of extranodal involvement. This finding suggested that the specific extranodal involved sites have a great prognostic value in the R era.
Related JoVE Video
Mutant SNAP25B causes myasthenia, cortical hyperexcitability, ataxia, and intellectual disability.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 11-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify and characterize the molecular basis of a syndrome associated with myasthenia, cortical hyperexcitability, cerebellar ataxia, and intellectual disability.
Related JoVE Video
Comparison of multifocal visual evoked potential, static automated perimetry, and optical coherence tomography findings for assessing visual pathways in patients with pituitary adenomas.
Pituitary
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
There have been no studies investigating the correlation between structural [thickness of the retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) as determined by optical coherence tomography (OCT)] and functional [Humphrey visual field (HVF) or visual evoked potential (VEP) amplitude] measures of optic nerve integrity in patients with pituitary adenomas (PA).
Related JoVE Video
Mapping Cardiac Fiber Orientations from High-Resolution DTI to High-Frequency 3D Ultrasound.
Proc SPIE
PUBLISHED: 10-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The orientation of cardiac fibers affects the anatomical, mechanical, and electrophysiological properties of the heart. Although echocardiography is the most common imaging modality in clinical cardiac examination, it can only provide the cardiac geometry or motion information without cardiac fiber orientations. If the patient's cardiac fiber orientations can be mapped to his/her echocardiography images in clinical examinations, it may provide quantitative measures for diagnosis, personalized modeling, and image-guided cardiac therapies. Therefore, this project addresses the feasibility of mapping personalized cardiac fiber orientations to three-dimensional (3D) ultrasound image volumes. First, the geometry of the heart extracted from the MRI is translated to 3D ultrasound by rigid and deformable registration. Deformation fields between both geometries from MRI and ultrasound are obtained after registration. Three different deformable registration methods were utilized for the MRI-ultrasound registration. Finally, the cardiac fiber orientations imaged by DTI are mapped to ultrasound volumes based on the extracted deformation fields. Moreover, this study also demonstrated the ability to simulate electricity activations during the cardiac resynchronization therapy (CRT) process. The proposed method has been validated in two rat hearts and three canine hearts. After MRI/ultrasound image registration, the Dice similarity scores were more than 90% and the corresponding target errors were less than 0.25 mm. This proposed approach can provide cardiac fiber orientations to ultrasound images and can have a variety of potential applications in cardiac imaging.
Related JoVE Video
Artesunate induces cell death in human cancer cells via enhancing lysosomal function and lysosomal degradation of ferritin.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Artesunate (ART) is an anti-malaria drug that has been shown to exhibit anti-tumor activity and functional lysosomes are reported to be required for ART-induced cancer cell death while the underlying molecular mechanisms remain largely elusive. In this study, we aimed to elucidate the molecular mechanisms underlying ART-induced cell death. We first confirmed that ART induces apoptotic cell death in cancer cells. Interestingly, we found that ART preferably accumulates in the lysosomes and is able to activate lysosomal function via promotion of lysosomal V-ATPase assembly. Furthermore, we found that lysosomes function as the upstream of mitochondria in reactive oxygen species (ROS) production. Importantly, we provided evidence showing that lysosomal iron is required for the lysosomal activation and mitochondrial ROS production induced by ART. Finally, we showed that ART-induced cell death is mediated by the release of iron in the lysosomes, which is resulted from the lysosomal degradation of ferritin, an iron storage protein. Meanwhile, over-expression of ferritin heavy chain (FTH) significantly protected cells from ART-induced cell death. In addition, knockdown of nuclear receptor coactivator 4 (NCOA4), the adaptor protein for ferritin degradation was able to block ART-mediated ferritin degradation and rescue the ART-induced cell death. In summary, our study demonstrate that ART treatment activates lysosomal function and then promotes ferritin degradation, subsequently leading to the increase in the lysosomal iron which is utilized by ART for its cytotoxic effect on cancer cells. Thus, our data reveal a new mechanistic action underlying ART-induced cell death in cancer cells.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery of a Potent and Selective DGAT1 Inhibitor with a Piperidinyl-oxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic Acid Moiety.
ACS Med Chem Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We report the discovery of a novel series of DGAT1 inhibitors in the benzimidazole class with a piperdinyl-oxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid moiety. This novel series possesses significantly improved selectivity against the A2A receptor, no ACAT1 off-target activity at 10 ?M, and higher aqueous solubility and free fraction in plasma as compared to the previously reported pyridyl-oxy-cyclohexanecarboxylic acid series. In particular, 5B was shown to possess an excellent selectivity profile by screening it against a panel of more than 100 biological targets. Compound 5B significantly reduces lipid excursion in LTT in mouse and rat, demonstrates DGAT1 mediated reduction of food intake and body weight in mice, is negative in a 3-strain Ames test, and appears to distribute preferentially in the liver and the intestine in mice. We believe this lead series possesses significant potential to identify optimized compounds for clinical development.
Related JoVE Video
Somatic growth of lean children: the potential role of sleep.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 08-15-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Despite the current obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition remains an urgent, public health concern. Similar to the obesity pandemic, childhood malnutrition is influenced by genetic and a number of social, environmental and biological factors. In this study, we investigated the association between sleep duration and somatic growth in lean children.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a 10-year-old full body geometric dataset for computational modeling.
Ann Biomed Eng
PUBLISHED: 08-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The objective of this study was to create a computer-aided design (CAD) geometric dataset of a 10-year-old (10 YO) child. The study includes two phases of efforts. At Phase One, the 10 YO whole body CAD was developed from component computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging scans of 12 pediatric subjects. Geometrical scaling methods were used to convert all component parts to the average size for a 10 YO child, based on available anthropometric data. Then the component surfaces were compiled and integrated into a complete body. The bony structures and flesh were adjusted as symmetrical to minimize the bias from a single subject while maintaining anthropometrical measurements. Internal organs including the liver, spleen, and kidney were further verified by literature data. At Phase Two, internal characteristics for the cervical spine disc, wrist, hand, pelvis, femur, and tibia were verified with data measured from additional 94 10 YO children. The CAD dataset developed through these processes was mostly within the corridor of one standard deviation (SD) of the mean. In conclusion, a geometric dataset for an average size 10 YO child was created. The dataset serves as a foundation to develop computational 10 YO whole body models for enhanced pediatric injury prevention.
Related JoVE Video
The prognostic value of lymph node status among breast cancer subtypes.
Am. J. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Breast cancer subtypes (BCSs) are predictive of responses to specific therapies and of prognostic value for clinical outcomes. This study aimed to evaluate the relative 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival rates (RFS) based on lymph node (LN) status among BCSs.
Related JoVE Video
A role of autophagy in PTP4A3-driven cancer progression.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy, a "self-eating" cellular process, has dual roles in promoting and suppressing tumor growth, depending on cellular context. PTP4A3/PRL-3, a plasma membrane and endosomal phosphatase, promotes multiple oncogenic processes including cell proliferation, invasion, and cancer metastasis. In this study, we demonstrate that PTP4A3 accumulates in autophagosomes upon inhibition of autophagic degradation. Expression of PTP4A3 enhances PIK3C3-BECN1-dependent autophagosome formation and accelerates LC3-I to LC3-II conversion in an ATG5-dependent manner. PTP4A3 overexpression also enhances the degradation of SQSTM1, a key autophagy substrate. These functions of PTP4A3 are dependent on its catalytic activity and prenylation-dependent membrane association. These results suggest that PTP4A3 functions to promote canonical autophagy flux. Unexpectedly, following autophagy activation, PTP4A3 serves as a novel autophagic substrate, thereby establishing a negative feedback-loop that may be required to fine-tune autophagy activity. Functionally, PTP4A3 utilizes the autophagy pathway to promote cell growth, concomitant with the activation of AKT. Clinically, from the largest ovarian cancer data set (GSE 9899, n = 285) available in GEO, high levels of expression of both PTP4A3 and autophagy genes significantly predict poor prognosis of ovarian cancer patients. These studies reveal a critical role of autophagy in PTP4A3-driven cancer progression, suggesting that autophagy could be a potential Achilles heel to block PTP4A3-mediated tumor progression in stratified patients with high expression of both PTP4A3 and autophagy genes.
Related JoVE Video
Lapatinib and platinum-based chemotherapy ameliorate breast cancer with choroidal metastasis and restore visual acuity.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Involvement of the central nervous system in metastatic breast cancer is a particularly dismal occurrence because of its effects on mortality and quality of life. Development of choroidal metastasis in a breast cancer patient indicates poor prognosis and has become the major life-limiting problem. Various treatment modalities for choroidal metastasis have been applied with different efficacy. Here we describe a patient with HER2-overexpressing breast cancer and limited choroidal metastasis who responded to an HER2 tyrosine kinase inhibitor after failure of radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Her visual acuity was completely and durably restored after the targeted therapy. This case provides a unique treatment experience of breast cancer with choroidal metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Metformin promotes irisin release from murine skeletal muscle independently of AMPK activation.
Acta Physiol (Oxf)
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Irisin, a novel myocyte-secreted hormone mediating beneficial effects of exercise on metabolism, is supposed to be an ideal therapeutic target for metabolic disorders such as obesity and diabetes. Here, we investigated the potential effects of metformin and glibenclamide, two anti-diabetic medicines, on irisin release in mouse.
Related JoVE Video
20(S)-Ginsenoside Rg3 is a novel inhibitor of autophagy and sensitizes hepatocellular carcinoma to doxorubicin.
Oncotarget
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related deaths worldwide. High mortality from HCC is mainly due to widespread prevalence and the lack of effective treatment, since systemic chemotherapy is ineffective, while the targeted agent Sorafenib extends median survival only briefly. The steroidal saponin 20(S)-ginsenoside Rg3 from Panax ginseng C.A. Meyer is proposed to chemosensitize to various therapeutic drugs through an unknown mechanism. Since autophagy often serves as cell survival mechanism in cancer cells exposed to chemotherapeutic agents, we examined the ability of Rg3 to inhibit autophagy and chemosensitize HCC cell lines to doxorubicin in vitro. We show that Rg3 inhibits late stage autophagy, possibly through changes in gene expression. Doxorubicin-induced autophagy plays a protective role in HCC cells, and therefore Rg3 treatment synergizes with doxorubicin to kill HCC cell lines, but the combination is relatively nontoxic in normal liver cells. In addition, Rg3 was well-tolerated in mice and synergized with doxorubicin to inhibit tumor growth in HCC xenografts in vivo. Since novel in vivo inhibitors of autophagy are desirable for clinical use, we propose that Rg3 is such a compound, and that combination therapy with classical chemotherapeutic drugs may represent an effective therapeutic strategy for HCC treatment.
Related JoVE Video
[The role of Bmi-1 gene in submandibular gland of mice].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the role of Bmi-1 in the submandibular gland (SMG) of mice.
Related JoVE Video
C/EBPalpha predicts poorer prognosis and prevents energy starvation-induced cell death in hepatocellular carcinoma.
Hepatology
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
C/EBPalpha plays an essential role in cellular differentiation, growth and energy metabolism. Here, we investigate the correlation between C/EBPalpha and hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) patient outcomes, and how C/EBPalpha protects cells against energy starvation. C/EBPalpha protein expression was increased in the majority of HCCs examined (191 pairs) compared with adjacent non-tumor liver tissues in HCC tissue microarrays. Its upregulation was correlated significantly with poorer overall patient survival in both Kaplan-Meier survival (P = 0.017) and multivariate Cox regression analyses (P = 0.028). Stable C/EBPalpha-silenced cells failed to establish xenograft tumors in nude mice due to extensive necrosis, consistent with increased necrosis in human C/EBPalpha-deficient HCC nodules. Expression of C/EBPalpha protected HCC cells in vitro from glucose and glutamine starvation-induced cell death through autophagy-involved lipid catabolism. Firstly, C/EBPalpha promoted lipid catabolism during starvation, while inhibition of fatty acid beta-oxidation significantly sensitized cell death. Secondly, autophagy was activated in the C/EBPalpha-expressing cells, and the inhibition of autophagy by ATG7 knock-down or chloroquine treatment attenuated lipid catabolism and subsequently sensitized cell death. Finally, we identified TMEM166 as a key player in C/EBPalpha-mediated autophagy induction and protection against starvation. Conclusion: C/EBPalpha is an important gene that links HCC carcinogenesis to autophagy-mediated lipid metabolism and resistance to energy starvation. Its expression in HCC predicts poorer patient prognosis. (Hepatology 2014;).
Related JoVE Video
Gefitinib as first-line treatment for patients with epidermal growth factor receptor-mutated advanced lung adenocarcinoma: a single institution experience in Taiwan.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKIs) represent a new treatment option for patients with advanced lung adenocarcinoma. In this article we assessed the treatment response and tried to identify prognostic factors which may provide some information different from previously published reports in groups with better performance status (PS) than our enrolled patients.
Related JoVE Video
Congenital myasthenic syndrome in Japan: Ethnically unique mutations in muscle nicotinic acetylcholine receptor subunits.
Neuromuscul. Disord.
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Congenital myasthenic syndromes (CMS) are caused by mutations in genes expressed at the neuromuscular junction. Most CMS patients have been reported in Western and Middle Eastern countries, and only four patients with COLQ mutations have been reported in Japan. We here report six mutations in acetylcholine receptor (AChR) subunit genes in five Japanese patients. Five mutations are novel, and one mutation is shared with a European American patient but with a different haplotype. Among the observed mutations, p.Thr284Pro (p.Thr264Pro according to the legacy annotation) in the epsilon subunit causes a slow-channel CMS. Five other mutations in the delta and epsilon subunits are splice site, frameshift, null, or missense mutations causing endplate AChR deficiency. We also found a heteroallelic p.Met465Thr in the beta subunit in another patient. p.Met465Thr, however, was likely to be polymorphism, because single channel recordings showed mild shortening of channel openings without affecting cell surface expression of AChR, and the minor allelic frequency of p.Met465Thr was 5.1% in the Japanese population. Lack of shared mutant alleles between the Japanese and the other patients suggests that most mutations described here are ethnically unique or de novo in each family.
Related JoVE Video
Gefitinib leads to complete resolution of postoperative cervical chyloma and chylothorax in a lung cancer patient.
Tumori
PUBLISHED: 05-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cervical chyloma is a not uncommon complication after neck surgery, especially following diagnostic excision of supraclavicular lymph nodes. Conservative treatment remains the standard approach but is inevitably distressful. We describe the case of a 60-year-old Asian woman who was diagnosed as having adenocarcinoma of the lung with cervical and supraclavicular node involvement. She developed persistent cervical chyle leak after excisional biopsy of the supraclavicular nodes and proved refractory to all management. Subsequent gefitinib therapy led to rapid resolution of chyloma and tumor regression. This case provided a unique experience of managing intractable postoperative chyloma in a cancer patient.
Related JoVE Video
Gangliocytomas in the sellar region.
Clin Neurol Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Gangliocytomas occurring in the sellar region are extremely rare. We examined a cohort of these tumors to examine their clinical presentations and prognoses. Between January 2000 and December 2012, 23 patients were diagnosed with sellar region gangliocytomas in Huashan Hospital. These patients were retrospectively reviewed for medical histories, endocrinological examinations, preoperative magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), pathological findings and follow-ups. Endocrinological tests revealed elevated prolactin (PRL) levels in 10 cases (43.5%) and elevated growth hormone (GH) and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) levels in 9 cases (39.1%). Scattered ganglion cells admixed with adenomatous components were observed in 16 cases (69.6%). In the remaining 7 cases (30.4%), only fragments with ganglion cells dispersed in the fibrillar matrix without adenohypophyseal components were detected. Immunohistochemistry revealed PRL-positive adenomas in 6 cases (26.1%) and GH-positive adenomas in 8 cases (34.8%). The average follow-up period was 4.2 years (range: 1-12.7 years). Gross total resection was achieved in 20 cases (87.0%). One patient recurred five years after tumor resection (4.3%). One patient died of acute myocardial infarction six years after operation. Gangliocytomas located in the sellar region may represent a unique immunopathological entity. The surgical results and prognoses of the gangliocytomas were comparable with those of pituitary adenomas.
Related JoVE Video
Dysregulation of Catalase Activity in Newborn Myocytes During Hypoxia Is Mediated by c-Abl Tyrosine Kinase.
J. Cardiovasc. Pharmacol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the adult heart, catalase (CAT) activity increases appropriately with increasing levels of hydrogen peroxide, conferring cardioprotection. This mechanism is absent in the newborn for unknown reasons. In the present study, we examined how the posttranslational modification of CAT contributes to its activation during hypoxia/ischemia and the role of c-Abl tyrosine kinase in this process. Hypoxia studies were carried out using primary cardiomyocytes from adult (>8 weeks) and newborn rats. Following hypoxia, the ratio of phosphorylated to total CAT and c-Abl in isolated newborn rat myocytes did not increase and were significantly lower (1.3- and 4.2-fold, respectively; P < .05) than their adult counterparts. Similarly, there was a significant association (P < .0005) between c-Abl and CAT in adult cells following hypoxia (30.9 ± 8.2 to 70.7 ± 13.1 au) that was absent in newborn myocytes. Although ubiquitination of CAT was higher in newborns compared to adults following hypoxia, inhibition of this did not improve CAT activity. When a c-Abl activator (5-(1,3-diaryl-1H-pyrazol-4-yl)hydantoin [DPH], 200 µmol/L) was administered prior to hypoxia, not only CAT activity was significantly increased (P < .05) but also phosphorylation levels were also significantly improved (P < .01) in these newborn myocytes. Additionally, ischemia-reperfusion (IR) studies were performed using newborn (4-5 days) rabbit hearts perfused in a Langendorff method. The DPH given as an intracardiac injection into the right ventricle of newborn rabbit resulted in a significant improvement (P < .002) in the recovery of developed pressure after IR, a key indicator of cardiac function (from 74.6% ± 6.6% to 118.7% ± 10.9%). In addition, CAT activity was increased 3.92-fold (P < .02) in the same DPH-treated hearts. Addition of DPH to adult rabbits in contrast had no significant effect (from 71.3% ± 10.7% to 59.4% ± 12.1%). Therefore, in the newborn, decreased phosphorylation of CAT by c-Abl potentially mediates IR-induced dysfunction, and activation of c-Abl may be a strategy to prevent ischemic injury associated with surgical procedures.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of alpha 7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protects mice from radiation-induced intestinal injury and mortality.
Radiat. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Radiation-induced gastrointestinal syndrome occurs when the body is exposed to a high dose of radiation. Currently, safe and effective radioprotectants are not available. Apoptosis was reported to play a primary role in radiation-induced injury. Recent evidence suggests that stimulation of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR) prevents cell death by inhibition of apoptosis. In this study, we demonstrated that a single dose of PNU282987 (100 ?g/kg, i.p.), a selective ?7nAChR agonist, protected mice from intestinal injury and significantly improved survival when administered prior to lethal 8 Gy total body irradiation. In vitro, PNU282987 protected against 8 Gy radiation-induced cell death in human umbilical venous endothelial cells by inhibiting apoptosis. We conclude that activation of ?7nAChR may provide a new therapeutic pathway for the treatment of radiation-induced damage and mortality.
Related JoVE Video
Core-Shell Structure of Hierarchical Quasi-Hollow MoS2 Microspheres Encapsulated Porous Carbon as Stable Anode for Li-Ion Batteries.
Small
PUBLISHED: 05-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Monodisperse sulfonated polystyrene (SPS) microspheres are employed as both the template and carbon source to prepare MoS2 quasi-hollow microspheres-encapsulated porous carbon. The synthesis procedure involves the hydrothermal growth of MoS2 ultrathin nanosheets on the surface of SPS microspheres and subsequent annealing to remove SPS core. Incomplete decomposition of SPS during annealing due to the confining effect of MoS2 shells leaves residual porous carbon in the interior. When being evaluated as the anode materials of Li-ion batteries, the as-prepared C@MoS2 microspheres exhibit excellent cycling stability (95% of capacity retained after 100 cycles) and high rate behavior (560 mAh g(-1) at 5 A g(-1) ).
Related JoVE Video
The biocompatibility evaluation of mPEG-PLGA-PLL copolymer and different LA/GA ratio effects for biocompatibility.
J Biomater Sci Polym Ed
PUBLISHED: 05-08-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Biomaterial poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA), a FDA-approved material for clinical application, showed broad prospects in the past, but gradually can no longer meet present clinical developments and requirements, which we synthesized monomethoxy(polyethylene glycol)-poly(D,L-lactic-co-glycolic acid)-poly(L-lysine) (mPEG-PLGA-PLL) (PEAL) and have had some relevant reports. But studies on biocompatibility and the impacts of LA and GA ratio (LA/GA=60/40, 70/30, and 80/20) in main material have not yet been reported. Hemolysis experiment indicates that the hemolysis rate of PEAL extraction medium is less than 5%. Whole blood clotting time (CT), plasma recalcification time, activated partial thromboplastin time, prothrombin time evaluations, and dynamic CT assay show that the anticoagulant time of PEAL copolymer for blood is longer than that under negative and positive control. Protein adsorption assay indicates that PEAL films adsorb less protein than PLGA films (p<0.01); but comparing with expanded polytetrafluoroethylene, the aforementioned difference is not significant (p>0.05). Complement activation test shows that PEAL surface does not induce complement activation. CCK8 measurement shows that the relative growth rates of Huh7, L02, and L929 cells co-incubated with PEAL nanoparticles (NPs) are more than 90%. PEAL NPs co-incubated with 5% foetal bovine serum or 2% bovine serum albumin, through dynamic light scattering assay, remain stable. Different concentrations of PEAL NPs co-incubated with zebrafish embryos at 6-72?h post fertilization show that comparing with negative control, 10, 100, or 500??M of NPs for embryos development has no significant effects (p>0.05), only 1000 or 2000??M of NPs has some effects (p<0.05). It is concluded that the PEAL copolymer, with excellent biocompatibility, proves to be a high-safety dose as drug carrier and implant candidate in vivo.
Related JoVE Video
Radiofrequency ablation of hepatic metastases: factors influencing local tumor progression.
Ann. Surg. Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Although radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of nonresectable hepatic metastases has gained wide acceptance by showing survival benefit in selected patients, scattered reports are available regarding risk factors of local control of percutaneous RFA. The purpose of this study was to prospectively evaluate the factors influencing local tumor progression after percutaneous RFA of hepatic metastases.
Related JoVE Video
The atherogenic effects of serum amyloid A are potentially mediated via inflammation and apoptosis.
J. Atheroscler. Thromb.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The mechanism through which SAA contributes to the pathogenesis of atherosclerosis remains unclear. The objective of this study was therefore to determine whether SAA plays a role in the onset of atherosclerosis via inflammatory and apoptotic pathways.
Related JoVE Video
The national trend of blood lead levels among Chinese children aged 0-18 years old, 1990-2012.
Environ Int
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We analyzed the epidemiological data during 1990-2012 that investigated the blood lead level (BLL) in the population aged 0-18 years old in China mainland and provided evidence of the benefits of implementing policies to prevent lead pollution based on the dynamic changes of BLL. Data were collected through databases including China Knowledge Resource Integrated Database (CNKI), CBM disc, Wanfang Data, Pubmed and Medline. The inclusion criteria were: 1. Epidemiological study in healthy population not included studies limited to specific patient; 2. Study subject was not the specific lead exposure population; 3. Sample size should be no less than 100 (for neonatal, no less than 50); 4. BLL detection was under strict quality control; and 5. Results should be presented as BLL (arithmetic mean level or geometric mean level). 62 articles were included in this study. All the surveys in these articles contained 189,352 subjects in 19 provinces, autonomous regions and municipalities. Linear regression analysis showed a significant decrease between 1990 and 2012 with an estimated regression coefficient of 3.05/year (SE=0.01, p<0.001). BLL gradually declined since early 21st century. Median levels of BLL among the three economic zones were 51.4 ?g/L in the eastern zone, 52.72 ?g/L in the central zone and 46.2 ?g/L in the western zone respectively. Median BLLs in male and female population aged 0-18 years old of China were 48.8 ?g/L and 46.1?g/L. Median levels of BLL among the different age ranges were 74.9 ?g/L in newborn, 46.4 ?g/L in 0 to 3 years old, 57.6 ?g/L in 3 to 7 years old and 55.6 ?g/L in above 7 years old respectively. In conclusion, the BLL in the Chinese population of 0-18 years old has gradually dropped in the past 10 years. The decline in temporal trend still remains under potential impacts of several factors such as economical level, gender and age difference. Although, China has made significant achievements in the control prevention of lead pollution, concerted efforts are still warranted to reduce children lead poisoning.
Related JoVE Video
DPAGT1 myasthenia and myopathy: genetic, phenotypic, and expression studies.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate patients with DPAGT1 (UDP-N-acetylglucosamine-dolichyl-phosphate N-acetylglucosaminephosphotransferase 1)-associated myasthenic syndrome.
Related JoVE Video
Prenatal exposure to manganese at environment relevant level and neonatal neurobehavioral development.
Environ. Res.
PUBLISHED: 04-11-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Effects of prenatal Manganese (Mn) exposure at an environmental relevant level on neonatal neurodevelopment remains unclear.
Related JoVE Video
High-salt diet enhances hippocampal oxidative stress and cognitive impairment in mice.
Neurobiol Learn Mem
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Previous evidence suggests that a high-salt (HS) diet may increase oxidative stress and contribute to the development of hypertension that is already present. Oxidative stress is thought to play a critical role in the development of neurodegenerative diseases. Lower dietary sodium intake putatively contributes to a lower rate of cognitive impairment; however, the specific effects of HS diet on cognitive function remain poorly understood. In this work, C57BL/6J mice were administered a normal-salt (NS) diet (0.4% NaCl) or a HS diet (7.0% NaCl) for 12 weeks, and cognitive ability and oxidative stress in the brain were measured. It was found that the HS diet significantly impaired retention of spatial memory. Additionally, superoxide anion production in the hippocampus was significantly increased in the HS diet mice compared with that in the NS mice. Interestingly, the antioxidant defense capacities for HS diet mice were markedly reduced in the hippocampus, but not in the cerebral cortex, compared with the NS mice. Taken together, these data demonstrate that HS diet directly impairs retention of spatial memory, which may be related to the increased oxidative stress observed in the hippocampus.
Related JoVE Video
Interactions of nonlocal dark solitons under competing cubic-quintic nonlinearities.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigate analytically and numerically the interactions of dark solitons under competing nonlocal cubic and local quintic nonlinearities. It is shown that the self-defocusing quintic nonlinearity will strengthen the attractive interaction and decrease the relative distance between solitons, whereas the self-focusing quintic nonlinearity will enhance the repulsive interaction and increase soliton separation. We demonstrate these results by approximate variational approach and direct numerical simulation.
Related JoVE Video
Distinct MR Imaging Features of Triple-Negative Breast Cancer with Brain Metastasis.
J Neuroimaging
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Patients with triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) are at increased risk of brain metastases (BMs). In this retrospective single-institutional study, we assessed the radiographic features from a cohort of breast cancer (BC) patients with confirmed BM.
Related JoVE Video
Development of a novel method for quantification of autophagic protein degradation by AHA labeling.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Autophagy is a catabolic process during which cellular components including protein aggregates and organelles are degraded via a lysosome-dependent process to sustain metabolic homeostasis during nutrient or energy deprivation. Measuring the rate of proteolysis of long-lived proteins is a classical assay for measurement of autophagic flux. However, traditional methods, such as a radioisotope labeling assay, are technically tedious and have low sensitivity. Here, we report a novel method for quantification of long-lived protein degradation based on L-azidohomoalanine (AHA) labeling in mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) and in human cancer cells. AHA is a surrogate for L-methionine, containing a bio-orthogonalazide moiety. When added to cultured cells, AHA is incorporated into proteins during active protein synthesis. After a click reaction between an azide and an alkyne, the azide-containing proteins can be detected with an alkyne-tagged fluorescent dye, coupled with flow cytometry. Induction of autophagy by starvation or mechanistic target of rapamycin (MTOR) inhibitors was able to induce a significant reduction of the fluorescence intensity, consistent with other autophagic markers. Coincidently, inhibition of autophagy by pharmacological agents or by Atg gene deletion abolished the reduction of the fluorescence intensity. Compared with the classical radioisotope pulse-labeling method, we think that our method is sensitive, quantitative, nonradioactive, and easy to perform, and can be applied to both human and animal cell culture systems.
Related JoVE Video
Improving the resolution in proton-detected through-space heteronuclear multiple quantum correlation NMR spectroscopy.
J. Magn. Reson.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Connectivities and proximities between protons and low-gamma nuclei can be probed in solid-state NMR spectroscopy using two-dimensional (2D) proton-detected heteronuclear correlation, through Heteronuclear Multiple Quantum Correlation (HMQC) pulse sequence. The indirect detection via protons dramatically enhances the sensitivity. However, the spectra are often broadened along the indirect F1 dimension by the decay of heteronuclear multiple-quantum coherences under the strong (1)H-(1)H dipolar couplings. This work presents a systematic comparison of the performances of various decoupling schemes during the indirect t1 evolution period of dipolar-mediated HMQC (D-HMQC) experiment. We demonstrate that (1)H-(1)H dipolar decoupling sequences during t1, such as symmetry-based schemes, phase-modulated Lee-Goldburg (PMLG) and Decoupling Using Mind-Boggling Optimization (DUMBO), provide better resolution than continuous wave (1)H irradiation. We also report that high resolution requires the preservation of (1)H isotropic chemical shifts during the decoupling sequences. When observing indirectly broad spectra presenting numerous spinning sidebands, the D-HMQC sequence must be fully rotor-synchronized owing to the rotor-synchronized indirect sampling and dipolar recoupling sequence employed. In this case, we propose a solution to reduce artefact sidebands caused by the modulation of window delays before and after the decoupling application during the t1 period. Moreover, we show that (1)H-(1)H dipolar decoupling sequence using Smooth Amplitude Modulation (SAM) minimizes the t1-noise. The performances of the various decoupling schemes are assessed via numerical simulations and compared to 2D (1)H-{(13)C} D-HMQC experiments on [U-(13)C]-L-histidine?HCl?H2O at various magnetic fields and Magic Angle spinning (MAS) frequencies. Great resolution and sensitivity enhancements resulting from decoupling during t1 period enable the detection of heteronuclear correlation between aliphatic protons and ammonium (14)N sites in L-histidine?HCl?H2O.
Related JoVE Video
Malignant bowel obstruction: A retrospective clinical analysis.
Mol Clin Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Malignant bowel obstruction (MBO) is a disease with a poor prognosis, particularly in patients with advanced bowel or gynecological cancers. Multimodality teatments may be used to relieve the symptoms in patients with MBO; however, there is currently no consensus regarding the optimal treatment and no strong evidence supporting the efficacy of any treatment in improving the quality of life (QOL) and prolonging survival. We conducted a search through our medical center database of cancer registries for MBO cases between January, 1995 and December, 2008 and analyzed the clinicopathological characteristics and association between treatments and prognosis or QOL. The primary type of cancer causing MBO was found to be adenocarcinoma of colon. The overall survival time was found to be significantly higher among patients presenting with MBO as the initial symptom and improved QOL was achieved in patients who received surgical treatment. The mean survival time and the functional status of colorectal cancer patients receiving targeted therapy and chemotherapy were more satisfactory compared with those receiving surgery alone or conservative treatment. Furthermore, for end-stage cancer patients with MBO, hospice care was effective in reducing pain scores and relieving the symptoms of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Stem cell therapy for bone repair: a systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies with large animal models.
Br J Clin Pharmacol
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Injury to bone is a significant clinical challenge, due to its limited regenerative capacity. The current methods of repairing bone defect are surgical, highly invasive and not always successful. A systematic review and meta-analysis of preclinical studies involving large animals with bone defects were conducted to determine the treatment outcomes with stem cell therapies.
Related JoVE Video
PREPL deficiency with or without cystinuria causes a novel myasthenic syndrome.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the genetic and physiologic basis of the neuromuscular symptoms of hypotonia-cystinuria syndrome (HCS) and isolated PREPL deficiency, and their response to therapy.
Related JoVE Video
Increased risk of emergency hospital admissions for children with renal diseases during heatwaves in Brisbane, Australia.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Heatwaves have a significant impact on population health including both morbidity and mortality. In this study we examined the association between heatwaves and emergency hospital admissions (EHAs) for renal diseases in children (aged 0-14 years) in Brisbane, Australia.
Related JoVE Video
The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on number of scans in covariance spectroscopy.
Solid State Nucl Magn Reson
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The dependence of signal-to-noise ratio on the number of scans in covariance spectroscopy has been systematically analyzed for the first time with the intriguing relationship of SNRcov?n/2, which is different from that in FT2D spectrum with SNRFT?n. This relationship guarantees the signal-to-noise ratio when increasing the number of scans.
Related JoVE Video
Design, synthesis, and evaluation of conformationally restricted acetanilides as potent and selective ?3 adrenergic receptor agonists for the treatment of overactive bladder.
J. Med. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A series of conformationally restricted acetanilides were synthesized and evaluated as ?3-adrenergic receptor agonists (?3-AR) for the treatment of overactive bladder (OAB). Optimization studies identified a five-membered ring as the preferred conformational lock of the acetanilide. Further optimization of both the aromatic and thiazole regions led to compounds such as 19 and 29, which have a good balance of potency and selectivity. These compounds have significantly reduced intrinsic clearance compared to our initial series of pyridylethanolamine ?3-AR agonists and thus have improved unbound drug exposures. Both analogues demonstrated dose dependent ?3-AR mediated responses in a rat bladder hyperactivity model.
Related JoVE Video
The treatment outcome of multiple myeloma patients ineligible for hematopoietic transplantation-a single institutional experience in Taiwan.
Ann. Hematol.
PUBLISHED: 02-03-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Multiple myeloma (MM) is characterized by the neoplastic proliferation of monoclonal plasma cells in the bone marrow and results in complications. In Taiwan, melphalan and several novel agents are used to treat myeloma patients who are not candidate for hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT). This retrospective study aimed to evaluate the characteristics, treatment outcome, and prognostic factors of MM patients who were ineligible for HSCT at our institution from October 2000 until November 2012. A total of 101 MM patients were reviewed. The median age was 71.0 years, and median overall survival (OS) was 22.0 months. Most of patients were diagnosed as IgG-type myeloma (55.4 %). The initial presentations included anemia (89.1 %), skeletal events (49.5 %), severe renal insufficiency (30.7 %), and hypercalcemia (28.7 %). With regard to the frontline therapy, thalidomide/steroid was the most common. Infection was the leading cause of death and adverse effects. Treatment with bortezomib, almost in the second- or third-line setting, was associated with longer median OS (35.5 months) and the median time to progression (TTP) (6.0 months). Bortezomib treatment, chemotherapy, International Staging System (ISS) stage I, and better performance status significantly correlated with survival benefit. In the bortezomib-treated subgroup, better treatment response caused excellent median OS (67.7 months) and also significantly delayed TTP. Therefore, this current analysis concluded a median OS of 22 months in myeloma patients ineligible for HSCT at our institution during the past 10 years. The use of bortezomib with better treatment response also achieved significantly better median OS and TTP.
Related JoVE Video
Association between cyclooxygenase-2 gene polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk.
J Craniofac Surg
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme that catalyzes prostaglandins through inflammatory response, which may be involved in autoimmune diseases and cancer pathogenesis. Two potentially functional genetic single-nucleotide polymorphisms (COX-2 -1195G>A and 8473T>C) were supposed to contribute to head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) susceptibility. The aim of this study was to determine the association of these polymorphisms with HNSCC susceptibility in a Chinese Han population. In this study, 2 SNPs were genotyped by TaqMan methods in a patient-control study including 260 patients with HNSCC and 1047 cancer-free controls in a Chinese Han population. We found significant difference in the frequency of alcohol consumption between the patients with HNSCC and controls (P < 0.001), but the genotype frequencies of the 2 polymorphisms were not significantly different between the patients and controls. Further stratified analysis indicated that none of the genotypes were associated with increased risk for HNSCC. This research indicated that the COX-2 -1195G>A and 8473T>C polymorphisms may not be involved in the development of HNSCC in the Chinese Han population. However, further perspective studies are warranted to test these findings and further investigate the potential interactions involving the COX-2 polymorphism and HNSCC.
Related JoVE Video
[Efficacy and safety of a phenylalanine-free amino acid-based enteral formula (AA-PKU2) in 1-8 year-old children with phenylketonuria: a prospective, open, self-controlled and multi-center study in China].
Zhongguo Dang Dai Er Ke Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 01-28-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate the efficacy and safety of a phenylalanine-free amino acid-based enteral formula (AA-PKU2) in the treatment of children with phenylketonuria (PKU) aged 1-8 years.
Related JoVE Video
Glibenclamide attenuates myocardial injury by lipopolysaccharides in streptozotocin-induced diabetic mice.
Cardiovasc Diabetol
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Sepsis is a common disease that continues to increase in incidence in the world. Diseases, such as diabetes mellitus, may make the situation worse. Diabetic patients are at increased risk for common infections. This study was designed to investigate the role of glibenclamide on myocardial injury by lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in streptozotocin induced diabetic mice (STZ-mice).
Related JoVE Video
PTPN2 rs1893217 single-nucleotide polymorphism is associated with risk of Behçet's disease in a Chinese Han population.
Clin. Exp. Rheumatol.
PUBLISHED: 01-24-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Behçet's disease (BD) is a rare, chronic, relapsing, systemic, immune-mediated vasculitis and the etiology remains to be defined. This study investigated single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNP) of tyrosine-protein phosphatase non-receptor type 2 (PTPN2) and inducible T-cell co-stimulator-ligand gene (ICOSLG) in Chinese Han BD patients and healthy controls because SNPs of these two genes are associated with risk of developing other auto-inflammation diseases.
Related JoVE Video
A quantitative chemical proteomics approach to profile the specific cellular targets of andrographolide, a promising anticancer agent that suppresses tumor metastasis.
Mol. Cell Proteomics
PUBLISHED: 01-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Drug target identification is a critical step toward understanding the mechanism of action of a drug, which can help one improve the drug's current therapeutic regime and expand the drug's therapeutic potential. However, current in vitro affinity-chromatography-based and in vivo activity-based protein profiling approaches generally face difficulties in discriminating specific drug targets from nonspecific ones. Here we describe a novel approach combining isobaric tags for relative and absolute quantitation with clickable activity-based protein profiling to specifically and comprehensively identify the protein targets of andrographolide (Andro), a natural product with known anti-inflammation and anti-cancer effects, in live cancer cells. We identified a spectrum of specific targets of Andro, which furthered our understanding of the mechanism of action of the drug. Our findings, validated through cell migration and invasion assays, showed that Andro has a potential novel application as a tumor metastasis inhibitor. Moreover, we have unveiled the target binding mechanism of Andro with a combination of drug analog synthesis, protein engineering, and mass-spectrometry-based approaches and determined the drug-binding sites of two protein targets, NF-?B and actin.
Related JoVE Video
Parent-adolescent interaction and risk of adolescent internet addiction: a population-based study in Shanghai.
BMC Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 01-14-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Family-based intervention is essential for adolescents with behavioral problems. However, limited data are available on the relationship between family-based factors and adolescent internet addiction (AIA). We aimed to examine this relationship using a representative sample of Shanghai adolescents.
Related JoVE Video
Activation of ?7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor protects against oxidant stress damage through reducing vascular peroxidase-1 in a JNK signaling-dependent manner in endothelial cells.
Cell. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Alpha7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (?7nAChR), a subtype of nAChR regulating neurotransmission in central nervous system, is an essential regulator of cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in periphery. The present study was to determine the effects of activation of ?7nAChR on oxidant stress-induced injury in endothelial cells.
Related JoVE Video
Pyrazoles as non-classical bioisosteres in prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Bioisosteres are integral components of modern pharmaceutical research that allow structural optimization to maximize in vivo efficacy and minimize adverse effects by selectively modifying pharmacodynamic, pharmacokinetic and physicochemical properties. A recent medicinal chemistry campaign focused on identifying small molecule inhibitors of prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) initiated an investigation into the use of pyrazoles as bioisosteres for amides. The results indicate that pyrazoles are suitable bioisosteric replacements of amide functional groups. The study is an example of managing bioisosteric replacement by incorporating subsequent structural modifications to maintain potency against the selected target. A heuristic model for an embedded pharmacophore is also described.
Related JoVE Video
Identification and characterization of sebaceous gland atrophy-sparing DGAT1 inhibitors.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Inhibition of Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase 1 (DGAT1) has been a mechanism of interest for metabolic disorders. DGAT1 inhibition has been shown to be a key regulator in an array of metabolic pathways; however, based on the DGAT1 KO mouse phenotype the anticipation is that pharmacological inhibition of DGAT1 could potentially lead to skin related adverse effects. One of the aims in developing small molecule DGAT1 inhibitors that target key metabolic tissues is to avoid activity on skin-localized DGAT1 enzyme. In this report we describe a modeling-based approach to identify molecules with physical properties leading to differential exposure distribution. In addition, we demonstrate histological and RNA based biomarker approaches that can detect sebaceous gland atrophy pre-clinically that could be used as potential biomarkers in a clinical setting.
Related JoVE Video
3-Nitropropionic acid induces ovarian oxidative stress and impairs follicle in mouse.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Oxidative stress induces many serious reproductive diseases in female mammals and thus poses a serious threat to reproductive health. However, the relationship between reactive oxygen species (ROS)-induced oxidative stress and follicular development, oocyte and embryo quality is not clear. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of ovarian oxidative stress on the health of follicle and oocyte development. Female ICR mice were dosed with 3-nitropropionic acid (3-NPA) at three different concentrations (6.25, 12.5 and 25 mg/kg) and saline (control) via continuous intraperitoneal injection for 7 days. The treatment with 12.5 mg/kg reduced the weight of mouse ovaries, and significantly increased ROS levels and the activities of antioxidant enzymes--total superoxide dismutase (T-SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and catalase (CAT)--in granulosa cells and ovarian tissues, but not in other tissues (brain, liver, kidney and spleen). The same treatment significantly increased the percentage of atretic large follicles, and reduced the number of large follicles, the number of ovulated oocytes, and the capacity for early embryonic development compared with controls. It also significantly decreased the ratio of Bcl-2 to Bax, while causing an increase in the mRNA expression of (SOD2, CAT and GP X) and ROS levels in granulosa cells. Collectively, these data indicate that 3-NPA induces granulosa cell apoptosis, large follicle atresia, and an increase of ROS levels in the ovary. Therefore, we have established an in vivo model of ovarian oxidative stress for studying the mechanism of resulting damage induced by free radicals and for the screening of novel antioxidants.
Related JoVE Video
Administration of gemcitabine and cisplatin in cancer patients with renal failure under hemodialysis.
J BUON
PUBLISHED: 12-18-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Purpose: There is no optimal dosing schedule of gemcitabine (GEM) and cisplatin (CDDP) combination for cancer patients with renal failure (RF) on hemodialysis (HD). The purpose of this study was to share our experience of using GEM and CDDP in such patients. Methods: The starting dose of GEM was defined based on single-agent treatment of two cancer patients with RF. Between November 2006 and June 2009, 4 RF cancer patients on HD received a GEM and CDDP combination chemotherapy (CDDP 30mg/m(2) on days 1, 8, 15 and GEM 600mg/m(2) on day 15; repeated every 28 days). The HD was conducted within 24 hours after the completion of GEM and/or CDDP administration. Results: Reduced-dose GEM and CDDP combination showed efficacy and good tolerability for cancer patients with RF under HD.
Related JoVE Video
Critical role of SCD1 in autophagy regulation via lipogenesis and lipid rafts-coupled AKT-FOXO1 signaling pathway.
Autophagy
PUBLISHED: 11-26-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
SCD1 (stearoyl-coenzyme A desaturase 1) is an endoplasmic reticulum-bound enzyme that catalyzes the formation of the first double bond at the cis-?9 position of saturated fatty acids (SFA) to form monounsaturated fatty acids (MUFA). Increasing evidence indicates that autophagy plays an important role in regulating lipid metabolism, while little is known about whether key enzymes of lipogenesis like SCD1 can regulate autophagy. In this study, we examined the role of SCD1 in autophagy using the tsc2(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblasts (MEFs) possessing constitutively active MTORC1 as a cellular model. We found that mRNA and protein levels of SCD1 are significantly elevated in the tsc2(-/-) MEFs compared with Tsc2(+/+) MEFs, resulting in significant increases in levels of various lipid classes. Furthermore, inhibition of SCD1 activity by either a chemical inhibitor or genetic knockdown resulted in an increase of autophagic flux only in the tsc2(-/-) MEFs. Induction of autophagy was independent of MTOR as MTORC1 activity was not suppressed by SCD1 inhibition. Loss of phosphorylation on AKT Ser473 was observed upon SCD1 inhibition and such AKT inactivation was due to disruption of lipid raft formation, without affecting the formation and activity of MTORC2. Increased nuclear translocation of FOXO1 was observed following AKT inactivation, leading to increased transcription of genes involved in the autophagic process. The tsc2(-/-) MEFs were also more susceptible to apoptosis induced by SCD1 inhibition and blockage of autophagy sensitized the cell death response. These results revealed a novel function of SCD1 on regulation of autophagy via lipogenesis and the lipid rafts-AKT-FOXO1 pathway.
Related JoVE Video
[A study of maxillary sinus lateral wall thickness of Han population in Jiangsu region using cone-beam CT].
Shanghai Kou Qiang Yi Xue
PUBLISHED: 11-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To evaluate maxillary sinus lateral wall thickness by use of cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT), in order to provide anatomical basis for preoperative risk assessment and operation guidance of maxillary sinus lifting.
Related JoVE Video
The Relation Among Sleep Duration, Homework Burden, and Sleep Hygiene in Chinese School-Aged Children.
Behav Sleep Med
PUBLISHED: 11-04-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Insufficient sleep in school-aged children is common in modern society, with homework burden being a potential risk factor. The aim of this article is to explore the effect of sleep hygiene on the association between homework and sleep duration. Children filled out the Chinese version of the Adolescent Sleep Hygiene Scale, and parents filled out a sociodemographic questionnaire. The final sample included 363 boys and 371 girls with a mean age of 10.82 ± 0.38 years. Children with more homework went to bed later and slept less. Better sleep hygiene was associated with earlier bedtimes and longer sleep duration. Findings suggest that homework burden had a larger effect on sleep duration than sleep hygiene. Fifth-grade children in Shanghai have an excessive homework burden, which overwrites the benefit of sleep hygiene on sleep duration.
Related JoVE Video
[Electroencephalogram evaluation of hyperphenylalaninemia patients on dietetic treatments].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To explore the electroencephalographic changes of patients with hyperphenylalaninemia (HPA) after dietetic treatments.
Related JoVE Video
At the end of the autophagic road: an emerging understanding of lysosomal functions in autophagy.
Trends Biochem. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
In the past decade, autophagy studies have largely focused on the early stage of autophagy: the molecular mechanisms leading to autophagosome formation. Recently, however, we have observed significant progress in understanding the role of lysosomes, the specific cellular organelle that degrades cellular components delivered via autophagy. The discoveries include connections between autophagy and lysosomal biogenesis, activation, reformation, and turnover, as well as the identification of an autophagosomal SNARE (soluble N-ethylmaleimide-sensitive factor attachment protein receptor) protein in control of autophagosome-lysosome fusion. We illustrate these findings in the context of the underlying molecular mechanisms and the relevance to human health and disease.
Related JoVE Video
Lateral shifts and photon tunneling in a frustrated total internal reflection structure with a negative-zero-positive index metamaterial.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Motivated by the realization of the Dirac point (DP) with a double-cone structure for optical field in the negative-zero-positive index metamaterial (NZPIM), the lateral shift and tunneling time of photon tunneling through a frustrated total internal reflection structure containing a NZPIM barrier are investigated by employing Artmans stationary phase method. Near the DP, the lateral shift can vary from positive to negative and the photon tunneling displays a superluminal dynamic. Because of the Hartman effect, both lateral shift and tunneling time tend to a saturation value when the barrier thickness increases. These results may lead to potential applications in integral optics and optical-based devices and also suggest analogous phenomena of valance electron in single-layered carbon graphene.
Related JoVE Video
[Comparative study on the morphology of crown, alveolar ridge crest and gingival in maxillary anterior region].
Zhonghua Kou Qiang Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To investigate the correlation among the morphology of crown, alveolar ridge crest and gingiva in maxillary anterior region of adults and to provide anatomical basis for clinical implant esthetics.
Related JoVE Video
Quantitative assessment of the influence of CYP1B1 polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma risk.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The associations between CYP1B1 polymorphisms and head and neck squamous cell carcinoma (HNSCC) risk have been conflicting. We therefore performed a meta-analysis to derive a more precise relationship. Six published case-control studies were collected; odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence interval (CI) were used to assess the association between CYP1B1 Leu432Val, Asn453Ser polymorphisms, and HNSCC risk. The Sensitivity analysis and publication bias also were performed to guarantee the statistical power. Overall, the pooled OR with 95 % CIs indicated that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism was significantly related with HNSCC risk (for Val vs. Leu: OR = 1.13, 95 % CI = 1.03-1.25, P?=?0.014, P heterogeneity?=?0.141; for Val/Val vs. Leu/Leu: OR = 1.30, 95 % CI = 1.06-1.60, P?=?0.013, P heterogeneity?=?0.253; for Val/Val vs. Leu/Leu + Leu/Val: OR = 1.23, 95 % CI = 1.05-1.46, P?=?0.013, P heterogeneity?=?0.456). The similar results were also been found in succeeding analysis of HWE and stratified analysis of Caucasian population. Furthermore, no significant association between CYP1B1 Asn453Ser polymorphism and HNSCC risk was found in this meta-analysis. In conclusion, our meta-analysis demonstrates that CYP1B1 Leu432Val polymorphism may be a risk factor for developing HNSCC.
Related JoVE Video
Discovery and optimization of orally active cyclohexane-based prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) inhibitors.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The synthesis, SAR, binding affinities and pharmacokinetic profiles are described for a series of cyclohexane-based prolylcarboxypeptidase (PrCP) inhibitors discovered by high throughput screening. Compounds show high levels of ex vivo target engagement in mouse plasma 20 h post oral dose.
Related JoVE Video
Evaluation on the efficacy and safety of Chinese herbal medication Xifeng Dingchan Pill in treating Parkinsons disease: study protocol of a multicenter, open-label, randomized active-controlled trial.
J Integr Med
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Parkinsons disease (PD) is a complicated disease, commonly diagnosed among the elderly, which leads to degeneration of the central nervous system. It presently lacks an effective therapy for its complex pathogenesis. Adverse effects from Western drug-based medical intervention prevent long-term adherence to these therapies in many patients. Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM) has long been used to improve the treatment of PD by alleviating the toxic and adverse effects of Western drug-based intervention. Therefore, the aim of this study is to evaluate the efficacy and safety of Xifeng Dingchan Pill (XFDCP), a compound traditional Chinese herbal medicine, taken in conjunction with Western medicine in the treatment of PD patients at different stages in the progression of the disease.
Related JoVE Video
Epigenetic silencing of glutaminase 2 in human liver and colon cancers.
BMC Cancer
PUBLISHED: 07-15-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Glutaminase 2 (Gls2) is a p53 target gene and is known to play an important role in energy metabolism. Gls2 has been reported to be downregulated in human hepatocellular carcinomas (HCC). However, the underlying mechanism responsible for its downregulation is still unclear. Here, we investigated Gls2 expression and its promoter methylation status in human liver and colon cancers.
Related JoVE Video
"Total arterial devascularization first" technique for resection of pancreatic head cancer during pancreaticoduodenectomy.
J. Huazhong Univ. Sci. Technol. Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Integrated resection of the pancreatic head is the most difficult step in radical pancreaticoduodenectomy (RPD) in patients with the portal vein (PV) and superior mesenteric vein (SMV) invasion or oppression by the tumor. This study introduced a new idea and skill named the "total arterial devascularization first" (TADF) technique and its applications in RPD. Three arterial blood supplies of pancreatic head were obstructed before dissection of veins. The critical steps included exposure of the anterior surface of the abdominal aorta (AA) by completely transecting neural and connective tissue between superior mesenteric artery (SMA) and pancreatic mesounsinate, and transection of the mesounsinate from the origin of SMA to the root of the celiac trunk. From January 2012 through May 2013, a total of 58 patients with PV/SMV invasion or oppression underwent RPD using this technique. The median operative time was 5.1 h (ranging 4.5-8.1 h). The median intraoperative blood loss was 450 mL (ranging 200-900 mL). No intraoperative and postoperative bleeding of pancreatic head region occurred. Among the 58 patients, 21 were subjected to vessel lateral wall angiectomy or angiorrhaphy, and 10 to angiectomy and end-to-end anastomosis. The incidence of postoperative bleeding, postoperative pancreatic fistula and biliary fistula was 5.2%, 6.8%, and 1.7%, respectively. No patients died 3 months after operation. The TADF technique is a new method for intricate RPD and could improve the security of surgery and reduce intraoperative bleeding, which is expected to become standardized surgical approach for RPD.
Related JoVE Video
GFPT1-myasthenia: clinical, structural, and electrophysiologic heterogeneity.
Neurology
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To identify patients with GFPT1-related limb-girdle myasthenia and analyze phenotypic consequences of the mutations.
Related JoVE Video
A comprehensive experimental study on material properties of human brain tissue.
J Biomech
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A comprehensive study on the biomechanical response of human brain tissue is necessary to investigate traumatic brain injury mechanisms. Published brain material property studies have been mostly performed under a specific type of loading, which is insufficient to develop accurate brain tissue constitutive equations. In addition, inconsistent or contradictory data in the literature made it impossible for computational model developers to create a single brain material model that can fit most, if not all, experimental results. In the current study, a total of 240 brain tissue specimens were tested under tension (n=72), compression (n=72), and shear (n=96) loading modes at varying strain rates. Gray-white matter difference, regional difference, and directional difference within white matter were also investigated. Stress-strain relationships of human brain tissue were obtained up to 50% of engineering strain. Strain rate dependency was observed under all three loading modes. White matter was stiffer than gray matter in compression and shear. Corona radiata was found to be stiffer than cortex, thalamus, and corpus callosum in tension and compression. Directional dependency of white matter was observed under shear loading.
Related JoVE Video
PHF20 regulates NF-?B signalling by disrupting recruitment of PP2A to p65.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Constitutive NF-?B activation in cancer cells is caused by defects in the signalling network responsible for terminating the NF-?B response. Here we report that plant homeodomain finger protein 20 (PHF20) maintains NF-?B in an active state in the nucleus by inhibiting the interaction between PP2A and p65. We show that PHF20 induces canonical NF-?B signalling by increasing the DNA-binding activity of NF-?B subunit p65. In PHF20 overexpressing cells, the termination of tumour necrosis factor-induced p65 phosphorylation is impaired whereas upstream signalling events triggered by tumour necrosis factor are unaffected. This effect strictly depends on the interaction between PHF20 and methylated lysine residues of p65, which hinders recruitment of PP2A to p65, thereby maintaining p65 in a phosphorylated state. We further show that PHF20 levels correlate with p65 phosphorylation levels in human glioma specimens. Our work identifies PHF20 as a novel regulator of NF-?B activation and suggests that elevated expression of PHF20 may drive constitutive NF-?B activation in some cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Environmental risk factor assessment: a multilevel analysis of childhood asthma in China.
World J Pediatr
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Rapid changes in socioeconomic environment and their diverse patterns in China raise a question: how socio-environmental factors affect childhood asthma in China. We performed a multilevel analysis based on a 2005 national survey to understand the association between environmental factors and asthma, and to provide insights on developing prevention strategies.
Related JoVE Video
A modified technique of end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy with transpancreatic interlocking mattress sutures.
J Surg Oncol
PUBLISHED: 05-02-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) represents the most important cause of morbidity after pancreaticoduodenectomy (PD) and contributes to prolonged hospitalization and increased mortality rates. This study presents a new technique, which involves end-to-end pancreaticojejunostomy with transpancreatic interlocking mattress sutures, and evaluates its safety and reliability.
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.