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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Poly(sophorolipid) Structural Variation: Effects on Biomaterial Physical and Biological Properties.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2014
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Diacetylated lactonic sophorolipids (polyLSL[6'Ac,6?Ac]), a biosurfactant, can be efficiently polymerized by ring-opening metathesis polymerization (ROMP). In this paper, enzyme-mediated chemical transformations are developed to regioselectively modify LSL[6'Ac,6?Ac] at sophorose primary hydroxyl positions (6' and 6?). The resulting modified LSLs were polymerized to expand polyLSL structural diversity, that is, polyLSL[6'OH,6?Ac], polyLSL[6'OH,6?OH], polyLSL[6'Bu,6?Ac], polyLSL[6'N3,6?Ac], and polyLSL[6'MA,6?Ac]. Controlled placement of azide and methacrylate at sophorolipid moieties enables the use of "click" reactions to introduce bioactive groups. Thermal analyses of polyLSLs showed that the acylation pattern at sugar moieties has a remarkable effect on chain stiffness and crystallinity. Films of polyLSL[6'Ac,6?Ac], polyLSL[6'OH,6?Ac], and polyLSL[6'Bu,6?Ac] exhibited nonbrittle behaviors with compressive elastic moduli ranging from ?1.5 to ?4.9 MPa. PolyLSLs were cytocompatible with human mesenchymal stem cells (h-MSCs), and examination of material-induced osteogenic cell lineage progression uncovered a dependence on polyLSL substitution at sophorose 6'-sites. This research reveals opportunities to regulate polyLSL physical properties and cell response behaviors by variation in substituents at polyLSL sophorolipid moieties.
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Transmission dynamics and control for a brucellosis model in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China.
Math Biosci Eng
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Brucellosis is one of the major infectious and contagious bacterial diseases in Hinggan League of Inner Mongolia, China. The number of newly infected human brucellosis data in this area has increased dramatically in the last 10 years. In this study, in order to explore effective control and prevention measures we propose a deterministic model to investigate the transmission dynamics of brucellosis in Hinggan League. The model describes the spread of brucellosis among sheep and from sheep to humans. The model simulations agree with newly infected human brucellosis data from 2001 to 2011, and the trend of newly infected human brucellosis cases is given. We estimate that the control reproduction number Rc is about 1.9789 for the brucellosis transmission in Hinggan League and compare the effect of existing mixed cross infection between basic ewes and other sheep or not for newly infected human brucellosis cases. Our study demonstrates that combination of prohibiting mixed feeding between basic ewes and other sheep, vaccination, detection and elimination are useful strategies in controlling human brucellosis in Hinggan League.
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Demonstration of CNOT gate with Laguerre Gaussian beams via four-wave mixing in atom vapor.
Opt Express
PUBLISHED: 10-17-2014
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We present an experimental study of controlled-NOT (CNOT) gate through four-wave mixing (FWM) process in a Rubidium vapor cell. A degenerate FWM process in a two level atomic system is directly excited by a single diode laser, where backward pump beam and probe beam are Laguerre Gaussian mode. By means of photons carrying orbital angular momentum, we demonstrate the ability to realize CNOT gate with topological charges transformation in this nonlinear process. The fidelity of CNOT gate for a superposition state with different topological charge reaches about 97% in our experiment.
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[Effects of antibiotics plus efflux pump inhibitors on mutant selection window of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro].
Zhonghua Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2014
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To explore the effects of antibiotics plus efflux pump (EPI) inhibitors on mutant selection window of Pseudomonas aeruginosa in vitro.
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High chemoselectivity of an advanced iron catalyst for the hydrogenation of aldehydes with isolated C?C bond: a computational study.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-23-2014
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Knölker's iron complex is a "green" catalyst that exhibits low toxicity and is abundant in nature. Density functional theory (DFT) was used to explore the highly chemoselective nature of the catalytic hydrogenation of CH2?CHCH2CHO. An outer-sphere concerted hydrogen transfer was found to be the most reasonable kinetic route for the hydrogenation of the olefin. However, the C?C hydrogenation reaction has a high free energy barrier of 28.1 kcal/mol, requiring a high temperature to overcome. By comparison, the CH?O bond concerted hydrogen-transfer reaction catalyzed using Knölker's iron catalyst has an energy barrier of only 14.0 kcal/mol. Therefore, only the CH?O of CH2?CHCH2CHO can be hydrogenated in the presence of Knölker's catalyst at room temperature, due to kinetic domination. All computational results were in good agreement with experimental results.
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Dynamic adhesion forces between microparticles and substrates in water.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-09-2014
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The interactions between micrometer-sized particles and substrates in aqueous environment are fundamental to numerous natural phenomena and industrial processes. Here we report a dynamically induced enhancement in adhesion interactions between microparticles and substrates immerged in water, air, and hexane. The dynamic adhesion force was measured by pulling microsized spheres off various substrate (hydrophilic/hydrophobic) surfaces at different retracting velocities. It was observed that when the pull-off velocity varies from 0.02 to 1500 ?m/s, there is 100-200% increase in adhesion force in water while it has a 100% increase in nitrogen and hexane. The dynamic adhesion enhancement reduces with increasing effective contact angle defined by the average cosine of wetting angles of the substrates and the particles, and approaches the values measured in dry nitrogen and hexane as the effective contact angle is larger than 90(o). A dynamic model was developed to predict the adhesion forces resulting from this dynamic effect, and the predictions correlate well with the experimental results. The stronger dynamic adhesion enhancement in water is mainly attributed to electrical double layers and the restructuring of water in the contact area between particles and substrates.
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T-cell-mediated cross-strain protective immunity elicited by prime-boost vaccination with a live attenuated influenza vaccine.
Int. J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-27-2014
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Antigenic drift and shift of influenza viruses require frequent reformulation of influenza vaccines. In addition, seasonal influenza vaccines are often mismatched to the epidemic influenza strains. This stresses the need for a universal influenza vaccine.
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Generation of Airy beams by four-wave mixing in Rubidium vapor cell.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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We report on an experimental generation of Airy beams by four-wave mixing (FWM) in atomic vapor cells. This is achieved by using a non-degenerate FWM process, which occurs with two Gaussian pump beams and one Airy signal beam in hot Rubidium vapor. After satisfying the phase matching condition, a FWM field with the profile of an Airy beam can be generated. In our experiment, the diffraction-free and self-healing behaviors of the generated FWM beam are examined. The results shown that the generated FWM beam is an Airy beam. The nonlinear generation process can be extended to other configurations in the atomic medium, which will be useful for manipulation and application of Airy beams in atomic systems.
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Improved production of a heterologous amylase in Saccharomyces cerevisiae by inverse metabolic engineering.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2014
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The increasing demand for industrial enzymes and biopharmaceutical proteins relies on robust production hosts with high protein yield and productivity. Being one of the best-studied model organisms and capable of performing posttranslational modifications, the yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae is widely used as a cell factory for recombinant protein production. However, many recombinant proteins are produced at only 1% (or less) of the theoretical capacity due to the complexity of the secretory pathway, which has not been fully exploited. In this study, we applied the concept of inverse metabolic engineering to identify novel targets for improving protein secretion. Screening that combined UV-random mutagenesis and selection for growth on starch was performed to find mutant strains producing heterologous amylase 5-fold above the level produced by the reference strain. Genomic mutations that could be associated with higher amylase secretion were identified through whole-genome sequencing. Several single-point mutations, including an S196I point mutation in the VTA1 gene coding for a protein involved in vacuolar sorting, were evaluated by introducing these to the starting strain. By applying this modification alone, the amylase secretion could be improved by 35%. As a complement to the identification of genomic variants, transcriptome analysis was also performed in order to understand on a global level the transcriptional changes associated with the improved amylase production caused by UV mutagenesis.
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[miR-497 suppresses proliferation of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells by targeting cyclin E1].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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To evaluate the effect of miR-497 on proliferation of human cervical carcinoma HeLa cells and target relationship between miR-497 and cyclin E1 (CCNE1).
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TiO2/CdSe core-shell nanofiber film for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2014
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We report on a novel core-shell TiO2/CdSe nanofiber photoanode for photoelectrochemical hydrogen generation. The core-shell nanofiber films, with a hierarchical network structure, are prepared on fluorine-doped tin oxide coated substrates via electrospinning pyrolysis and chemical bath deposition. The hierarchical network structure shows significantly improved photoelectrochemical properties due, we believe, to possessing more active sites for the oxidation reaction and a larger TiO2/CdSe interface area for photogenerated charges' separation. The synthesis details are discussed to provide a generic route for preparing other similar photoanodes with hierarchical network structures.
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miR-145 downregulates the expression of cyclin-dependent kinase 6 in human cervical carcinoma cells.
Exp Ther Med
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2014
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The present study aimed to investigate the effect of the inhibition of miR-145 on cyclin-dependent protein kinase 6 (CDK6) and the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma cells. The miR-145 sequence was synthesized and cloned into pcDNA™6.2-GW to construct the recombinant plasmid pcDNA6.2-GW-miR-145. HeLa cells were divided into the micro (mi)R-145, normal control and blank groups. The transcription levels of miR-145 and CDK6 were detected using quantitative polymerase chin reaction and western blot analysis was used to examine the CDK6 protein expression. In addition, the inhibitory effect of miR-145 on the proliferation of HeLa cells was measured by an MTT assay. The recombinant plasmid pcDNA6.2-GW-miR-145 was successfully constructed and used to transfect the HeLa cells in the MiR-145 group. The miR-145 expression level in the miR-145 group was significantly higher than that in the blank group. The CDK6 expression level in miR-145 group was significantly lower than that in the blank group. Furthermore, miR-145 inhibited the proliferation of HeLa cells. In conclusion, miR-145 overexpression suppresses the expression of CDK6 and inhibits the proliferative ability of HeLa cells.
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Molecular mechanism of acute radiation enteritis revealed using proteomics and biological signaling network analysis in rats.
Dig. Dis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Radiation enteritis (RE) has emerged as a significant complication that can progress to severe gastrointestinal disease and the mechanisms underlying its genesis remain poorly understood. The aim of this study was to identify temporal changes in protein expression potentially associated with acute inflammation and to elucidate the mechanism underlying radiation enteritis genesis.
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Using computational methods to explore improvements to Knölker's iron catalyst.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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Knölker's iron catalyst is characterized by low toxicity and relatively low price in comparison with precious metal catalysts. Density functional theory was used to explore improvements to this catalyst. It was found that electron-withdrawing substituents on the CpOH ring are favorable for improving the efficiency of iron catalysts. Increasing the acidity of CpOH is also an available means of improving the catalytic efficiency. However, replacing the hydroxyl of CpOH with the amino group is not a valid choice for improvement. In contrast, substituting phosphine ligands for carbonyls is the most effective method for improving the catalytic activity of the iron catalyst. But the PR3 ligand must have electron-donating groups and its steric effect should be controlled in a suitable range. Replacing carbonyl groups by PH3 and PPhH2 ligands can effectually improve the catalytic activity for hydrogenation of ketones.
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Albumin-micelles via a one-pot technology platform for the delivery of drugs.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 05-10-2014
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A new micelle delivery platform based on albumin coated nanoparticles is able to selectively deliver the payload to cancerous cells while healthy cells remain less affected. The technology is simple and can be used in a one-pot procedure.
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Transfer and conversion of images based on EIT in atom vapor.
Opt Lett
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2014
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Transfer and conversion of images between different wavelengths or polarization has significant applications in optical communication and quantum information processing. We demonstrated the transfer of images based on electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) in a rubidium vapor cell. In experiments, a 2D image generated by a spatial light modulator is used as a coupling field, and a plane wave served as a signal field. We found that the image carried by coupling field could be transferred to that carried by signal field, and the spatial patterns of transferred image are much better than that of the initial image. It also could be much smaller than that determined by the diffraction limit of the optical system. We also studied the subdiffraction propagation for the transferred image. Our results may have applications in quantum interference lithography and coherent Raman spectroscopy.
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Sol-gel-Derived highly sensitive optical oxygen sensing materials using Ru(II) complex via covalent grafting strategy.
J Nanosci Nanotechnol
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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The preparation and oxygen sensing properties of Ru(ll) covalently-grafted and physically-incorporated silica based hybrid materials by sol-gel technique are described in this article. The Ru(II) complexes are successfully grafted onto the backbone of the silica via the condensation reaction of the tetraethoxysilane and the functionalized Ru(II) complex 2-[4'-{3-(Triethoxysilyl)propyl}phenyl]imidazo [4,5-f]-1,10-phenanthroline that contains the hydrolysable tri-alkoxylsilyl group. The luminescence quenching of Ru(II) complex by oxygen within the silica matrix is efficient. The oxygen quenching sensitivity of the covalently-grafted sample is higher than that of the physically-incorporated one due to the strong Si-CH2 bond that is useful to prolong the excited state lifetimes and enhance the photobleaching of the luminophore. The downward oxygen sensing Stern-Volmer plots can be well fitted using the Demas two-site model and the Lehrer model due to the heterogeneous distribution of the Ru(ll) complex within the sol-gel derived silica.
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Targeted silencing of anthrax toxin receptors protects against anthrax toxins.
J. Biol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 04-17-2014
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Anthrax spores can be aerosolized and dispersed as a bioweapon. Current postexposure treatments are inadequate at later stages of infection, when high levels of anthrax toxins are present. Anthrax toxins enter cells via two identified anthrax toxin receptors: tumor endothelial marker 8 (TEM8) and capillary morphogenesis protein 2 (CMG2). We hypothesized that host cells would be protected from anthrax toxins if anthrax toxin receptor expression was effectively silenced using RNA interference (RNAi) technology. Thus, anthrax toxin receptors in mouse and human macrophages were silenced using targeted siRNAs or blocked with specific antibody prior to challenge with anthrax lethal toxin. Viability assays were used to assess protection in macrophages treated with specific siRNA or antibody as compared with untreated cells. Silencing CMG2 using targeted siRNAs provided almost complete protection against anthrax lethal toxin-induced cytotoxicity and death in murine and human macrophages. The same results were obtained by prebinding cells with specific antibody prior to treatment with anthrax lethal toxin. In addition, TEM8-targeted siRNAs also offered significant protection against lethal toxin in human macrophage-like cells. Furthermore, silencing CMG2, TEM8, or both receptors in combination was also protective against MEK2 cleavage by lethal toxin or adenylyl cyclase activity by edema toxin in human kidney cells. Thus, anthrax toxin receptor-targeted RNAi has the potential to be developed as a life-saving, postexposure therapy against anthrax.
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Robot-assisted three-dimensional registration for cochlear implant surgery using a common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography probe.
J Biomed Opt
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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Cochlear implantation offers the potential to restore sensitive hearing in patients with severe to profound deafness. However, surgical placement of the electrode array within the cochlea can produce trauma to sensorineural components, particularly if the initial turn of the cochlea is not successfully navigated as the array is advanced. In this work, we present a robot-mounted common-path swept-source optical coherence tomography endoscopic platform for three-dimensional (3-D) optical coherence tomography (OCT) registration and preoperative surgical planning for cochlear implant surgery. The platform is composed of a common-path 600-?m diameter fiber optic rotary probe attached to a five degrees of freedom robot capable of 1 ?m precision movement. The system is tested on a dry fixed ex vivo human temporal bone, and we demonstrate the feasibility of a 3-D OCT registration of the cochlea to accurately describe the spatial and angular profiles of the canal formed by the scala tympani into the first cochlear turn.
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[The value of transbronchial needle aspiration combined with rapid on-site evaluation of cytology in the diagnosis of lung cancer].
Zhongguo Fei Ai Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-27-2014
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There have been several studys about transbronchial needle aspiration (TBNA) combined with rapid on-site evaluation (ROSE) so far at home and abroad, yet few studys were especially for patients with lung cancer. The aim of our study is to investigate the effect of TBNA combined with ROSE in the diagnosis of lung cancer.
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Simple, green and high-yield production of single- or few-layer graphene by hydrothermal exfoliation of graphite.
Nanoscale
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2014
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Graphene is widely used as promising electronic material and devices, owing to its exceptional electronic and optoelectronic properties. Up to now, defect-free graphene has been limited to the method for controllable, reproducible and scalable mass production. A simple, green, and nontoxic approach for large-scale preparation of high quality graphene is produced by exfoliation of graphite sheets collaborated with intercalant (FeCl2) under hydrothermal conditions, the absence of defects or oxides in graphene with a yield up to 10 wt% can be a practical application and industrial process such as optical limiters, transparent conductors, and sensors. This new process could potentially be improved to give a yield of up to 35 wt% of the starting graphite mass with sediment recycling. We show with experiments and theories that exfoliation graphene is the result of a combined action by diminishing the van der Waals interactions between graphite layers and the shear force drove by the Brownian motion of H2O and FeCl2 molecules. Hydrothermal exfoliation has potential applications in the exfoliation of other layered materials (e.g. BN, MoS2) and carbon nantubes, and in the synthesis of intercalation compounds, nanoribbons, and nanoparticles, thus opening new ways of exfoliation engineering.
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Intranasal immunization with influenza antigens conjugated with cholera toxin subunit B stimulates broad spectrum immunity against influenza viruses.
Hum Vaccin Immunother
PUBLISHED: 03-14-2014
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Frequent mutation of influenza viruses keep vaccinated and non-vaccinated populations vulnerable to new infections, causing serious burdens to public health and the economy. Vaccination with universal influenza vaccines would be the best way to effectively protect people from infection caused by mismatched or unforeseen influenza viruses. Presently, there is no FDA approved universal influenza vaccine. In this study, we expressed and purified a fusion protein comprising of influenza matrix 2 protein ectodomain peptides, a centralized influenza hemagglutinin stem region, and cholera toxin subunit B. Vaccination of BALB/c mice with this novel artificial antigen resulted in potent humoral immune responses, including induction of specific IgA and IgG, and broad protection against infection by multiple influenza viruses. Furthermore, our results demonstrated that when used as a mucosal antigen, cholera toxin subunit B improved antigen-stimulated T cell and memory B cell responses.
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Impact of the electron-transport layer on the performance of solution-processed small-molecule organic solar cells.
ChemSusChem
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Although the performance of polymer solar cells has been improved significantly recently through careful optimization with different interlayers for the same materials, more improvement is needed in this respect for small-molecule-based solar cells, particularly for the electron-transport layers (ETLs). In this work, three different solution-processed ETLs, PFN, ZnO nanoparticles, and LiF, were investigated and compared in the performance of small-molecule-based devices, and power conversion efficiencies (PCEs) of 8.32, 7.30, and 7.38% were achieved, respectively. The mechanism for the ETL-induced enhancement has been studied, and different ETLs have a significantly different impact on the device performance. The clearly improved performance of PFN is attributed to the combination of reduced bimolecular recombination and increased effective photon absorption in the active layer.
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Extravascular optical coherence tomography: evaluation of carotid atherosclerosis and pravastatin therapy.
Stroke
PUBLISHED: 03-13-2014
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Extravascular optical coherence tomography (OCT), as a noninvasive imaging methodology with micrometer resolution, was evaluated in a murine model of carotid atherosclerosis by way of assessing the efficacy of pravastatin therapy.
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[Expression of miR-145 in transfected HeLa cells and its effect on the targeted inhibition of CDK6].
Xi Bao Yu Fen Zi Mian Yi Xue Za Zhi
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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To construct the eukaryotic expression vector of miR -145 and evaluate the inhibitory effect of miR-145 targeting cyclin-dependent kinase 6 (CDK6) gene on the proliferation of human cervical carcinoma cells.
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Anomalous capacitive behaviors of graphene oxide based solid-state supercapacitors.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Substantial differences in charge storage mechanisms exist between dielectric capacitors (DCs) and electrochemical capacitors (ECs), resulting in orders of magnitude difference of stored charge density in them. However, if ionic diffusion, the major charge transport mechanism in ECs, is confined within nanoscale dimensions, the Helmholtz layers and diffusion layers will overlap, resulting in dismissible ionic diffusion. An interesting contradiction between appreciable energy density and unrecognizable ionic diffusion is observed in solid-state capacitors made from reduced graphene oxide films that challenge the fundamental charge storage mechanisms proposed in such devices. A new capacitive model is proposed, which combines the two distinct charge storage mechanisms of DCs and ECs, to explain the contradiction, of high storage capacity yet undetectable ionic diffusion, seen in graphene oxide based supercapacitors.
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A supramolecular hydrogel as a carrier to deliver microRNA into the encapsulated cells.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2014
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A supramolecular hydrogel formed by dipeptide Gly-Ala linked with biphenyl-substituted tetrazole serves not only as a 3D matrix for live cells, but also as a carrier to deliver microRNA into the encapsulated cells.
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Improved sensitivity of polychlorinated-biphenyl-orientated porous-ZnO surface photovoltage sensors from chemisorption-formed ZnO-CuPc composites.
Sci Rep
PUBLISHED: 02-17-2014
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We report a new mechanism for the enhancement of porous-ZnO surface photovoltage (SPV) response to polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs, a notorious class of persistent organic pollutants as global environmental hazard) based on copper phthalocyanine (CuPc) chemisorptive bonding on porous-ZnO. A new ZnO-CuPc composite is formed on the porous-ZnO surface due to the interaction between the surface ZnO and CuPc, with its valence band (VB) energy level being higher than that of the pristine porous-ZnO. So that the efficiency of the photogenerated-electron transfer from the composite VB to the adjacent ZnO's surface states is drastically increased due to the reduced energy gap between the transition states. As a result, the sensitivity of the PCB-orientated SPV sensor is much improved by showing amplified variation of the SPV-signals perturbed by PCBs adsorbed on the ZnO-CuPc@porous-ZnO sensitive material.
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Catalytic asymmetric assembly of octahydroindolones: divergent synthesis of lycorine-type amaryllidaceae alkaloids (+)-?-lycorane and (+)-lycorine.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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We report the first catalytic asymmetric approach to octahydroindolones and a divergent enantioselective synthesis of perhydroindole alkaloids, as exemplified by lycorine-type Amaryllidaceae alkaloids (+)-?-lycorane and (+)-lycorine, from a common intermediate by using a highly concise route. The assembly of octahydroindolones employs a catalytic enantioselective 1,4-conjugate addition of nitro dienynes, followed by a TsOH-catalyzed cascade synthesis of highly functionalized enones, and a diastereoselective intramolecular Michael addition.
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Addition of poly (propylene glycol) to multiblock copolymer to optimize siRNA delivery.
Bioengineered
PUBLISHED: 01-16-2014
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Previous studies have examined different strategies for siRNA delivery with varying degrees of success. These include use of viral vectors, cationic liposomes, and polymers. Several copolymers were designed and synthesized based on blocks of poly(ethylene glycol) PEG, poly(propylene glycol) PPG, and poly(l-lysine). These were designated as P1, P2, and P3. We studied the copolymer self-assembly, siRNA binding, particle size, surface potential, architecture of the complexes, and siRNA delivery. Silencing of GFP using copolymer P3 to deliver GFP-specific siRNA to Neuro-2a cells expressing GFP was almost as effective as using Lipofectamine 2000, with minimal cytotoxicity. Thus, we have provided a new copolymer platform for siRNA delivery that we can continue to modify for improved delivery of siRNA in vitro and eventually in vivo.
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Catalytic asymmetric synthesis of 1,3-enyne scaffolds: design and synthesis of conjugated nitro dienynes as novel Michael acceptors and development of a new synthetic methodology.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 01-08-2014
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A novel catalytic enantioselective synthesis of functionalized 1,3-enynes has been developed featuring the design and synthesis of conjugated nitro dienynes as a useful new class of Michael acceptors. Moreover, a simple, yet flexible catalytic cascade approach to functionalized enantioenriched acyclic ?,?-enones and cyclic dienones has also been developed.
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Construction and evaluation of replication-defective recombinant optimized triosephosphate isomerase adenoviral vaccination in Schistosoma japonicum challenged mice.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Schistosomiasis is an endemic, zoonotic parasitic disease that remains a public health concern in China. Development of transmission blocking veterinary vaccines against Schistosoma japonicum infection is urgently needed. Replication-defective adenoviral vector is an efficient vaccine delivery system that has been widely used. Its use is associated with high levels of gene insertion and expression. It is easy to construct and prepare, and is safe. It is not known whether this delivery system can improve the protective effect of schistosome vaccination. Triosephosphate isomerase from S. japonicum (SjTPI) is a promising vaccine candidate. Thus far it has induced only partial protection in animal models and needs to be further enhanced to be effective. We constructed a replication-defective adenoviral vector-based vaccine with optimized SjTPI (rAdV-SjTPI.opt). The specific immune responses and protective efficiency in mice were evaluated. Results showed that intramuscular rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced Th1 biased immune responses in the host, while subcutaneous rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced Th2 predominant immune responses. Oral rAdV-SjTPI.opt induced low levels of immune responses and no significant protection. Intramuscular rAdV-SjTPI.opt provided a consistent and repeatable higher protective effect in mice (more than 50%). These findings may be due to the associated higher levels of specific Th1, antibody responses and partially lower level of IL-17A. This report provides a foundation for developing transmission-blocking veterinary vaccines in larger animals.
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Prediction and control of brucellosis transmission of dairy cattle in zhejiang province, china.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Brucellosis is a bacterial disease caused by brucella; mainly spread by direct contact transmission through the brucella carriers, or indirect contact transmission by the environment containing large quantities of bacteria discharged by the infected individuals. At the beginning of 21st century, the epidemic among dairy cows in Zhejiang province, began to come back and has become a localized prevalent epidemic. Combining the pathology of brucellosis, the reported positive data characteristics, and the feeding method in Zhejiang province, this paper establishes an [Formula: see text] dynamic model to excavate the internal transmission dynamics, fit the real disease situation, predict brucellosis tendency and assess control measures in dairy cows. By careful analysis, we give some quantitative results as follows. (1) The external input of dairy cows from northern areas may lead to high fluctuation of the number of the infectious cows in Zhejiang province that can reach several hundreds. In this case, the disease cannot be controlled and the infection situation cannot easily be predicted. Thus, this paper encourages cows farms to insist on self-supplying production of the dairy cows. (2) The effect of transmission rate of brucella in environment to dairy cattle on brucellosis spreading is greater than transmission rate of the infectious dairy cattle to susceptible cattle. The prevalence of the epidemic is mainly aroused by environment transmission. (3) Under certain circumstances, the epidemic will become a periodic phenomenon. (4) For Zhejiang province, besides measures that have already been adopted, sterilization times of the infected regions is suggested as twice a week, and should be combined with management of the birth rate of dairy cows to control brucellosis spread.
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A Ser252Trp mutation in fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2) mimicking human Apert syndrome reveals an essential role for FGF signaling in the regulation of endochondral bone formation.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A S252W mutation of fibroblast growth factor receptor 2 (FGFR2), which is responsible for nearly two-thirds of Apert syndrome (AS) cases, causes retarded development of the skeleton and skull malformation resulting from premature fusion of the craniofacial sutures. We utilized a Fgfr2(+/S252W) mouse (a knock-in mouse model mimicking human AS) to demonstrate decreased bone mass due to reduced trabecular bone volume, reduced bone mineral density, and shortened growth plates in the long bones. In vitro bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) culture studies revealed that the mutant mice showed reduced BMSC proliferation, a reduction in chondrogenic differentiation, and reduced mineralization. Our results suggest that these phenomena are caused by up-regulation of p38 and Erk1/2 phosphorylation. Treatment of cultured mutant bone rudiments with SB203580 or PD98059 resulted in partial rescue of the bone growth retardation. The p38 signaling pathway especially was found to be responsible for the retarded long bone development. Our data indicate that the S252W mutation in FGFR2 directly affects endochondral ossification, resulting in growth retardation of the long bone. We also show that the p38 and Erk1/2 signaling pathways partially mediate the effects of the S252W mutation of FGFR2 on long bone development.
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Simple additive-free method to manganese monoxide mesocrystals and their template application for the synthesis of carbon and graphitic hollow octahedrons.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2013
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Mesocrystals are of great importance owing to their novel hierarchical microstructures and potential applications. In the present work, a simple additive-free method has been developed for the controllable synthesis of manganese monoxide (MnO) mesocrystals, in which cheap manganese acetate (Mn(Ac)2) and ethanol were used as raw materials without involving any other expensive additives such as surfactants, polyelectrolyte, or polymers. The particle size of the resulting MnO mesocrystals is tunable in the range 400-1500 nm by simply altering the concentration of Mn(Ac)2 in ethanol. The percentage yield of the octahedral MnO mesocrystals is about 38 wt % with respect to the starting Mn(Ac)2. The selective adsorption of oligomers, which was resulted from the polymerization of ethanol, acted as an important role for the mesocrystal formation. A mechanism involving the oriented aggregation of MnO nanoparticle subunits and the subsequent ripening process was proposed. Moreover, for the first time, the as-synthesized MnO mesocrystals were employed as a novel template to fabricate functional materials with an octahedral morphology including MnO@C core/shells, carbon, and graphitic hollow octahedrons. This method shows the importance of mesocrystals not only for the field of material research but also for the application in functional materials synthesis.
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Dynamic enhancement in adhesion forces of microparticles on substrates.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 10-29-2013
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We report a dynamically induced enhancement in interfacial adhesion between microsized particles and substrates under dry and humid conditions. The adhesion force of soft (polystyrene) and hard (SiO2 and Al2O3) microparticles on soft (polystyrene) and hard (fused silica and sapphire) substrates was measured by using an atomic force microscope with retraction (z-piezo) speed ranging over 4 orders of magnitude. The adhesion is strongly enhanced by the dynamic effect. When the retraction speed varies from 0.02 to 156 ?m/s, the adhesion force increases by 10% to 50% in dry nitrogen while it increases by 15% to 70% in humid air. Among the material systems tested, the soft-soft contact systems exhibit the smallest dynamic effect while the hard-hard contacts show the largest enhancement. A dynamic model was developed to predict this dynamic effect, which agrees well with the experimental results. The influence of dynamic factors related to the adhesion enhancement, such as particle inertia, viscoelastic deformations, and crack propagation, was discussed to understand the dynamic enhancement mechanisms.
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Photodegradable supramolecular hydrogels with fluorescence turn-on reporter for photomodulation of cellular microenvironments.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-09-2013
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Photodegradable hydrogels that allow 3D encapsulation of cells are important biomaterials to modulate cellular microenvironments with temporal and spatial resolution. Herein we report a photodegradable hydrogel formed by the self-assembly of short peptides modified with a novel phototrigger. The phototrigger is a biaryl-substituted tetrazole moiety that, upon mild light irradiation, undergoes rapid intramolecular photoclick ligation to form a highly fluorescent pyrazoline moiety. Short peptides linked with a tetrazole-containing moiety, Tet(I) or Tet(II), are able to self-assemble into hydrogels, among which the Tet(I)-GFF and Tet(II)-GFRGD gels show good mechanical strength and biocompatibility for 3D encapsulation and prolonged culture of live cells. The phototriggered tetrazole-to-pyrazoline transformation generates a highly fluorescent reporter and induces the disassembly of the hydrogel matrix by disturbing the balance between hydrophilic interaction and ?-? stacking of the self-assembled system. Photomodulation of cellular microenvironments was demonstrated not only for the cells grown on top of the gel but also for stem cells encapsulated inside the hydrogels.
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Liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in aqueous halloysite nanotube dispersions.
Langmuir
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2013
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The liquid crystalline phase behavior and sol-gel transition in halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) aqueous dispersions have been investigated by applying polarized optical microscopy (POM), macroscopic observation, rheometer, small-angle X-ray scattering, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy. The liquid crystalline phase starts to form at the HNT concentration of 1 wt %, and a full liquid crystalline phase forms at the HNT concentration of 25 wt % as observed by POM and macroscopic observation. Rheological measurements indicate a typical shear flow behavior for the HNT aqueous dispersions with concentrations above 20 wt % and further confirm that the sol-gel transition occurs at the HNT concentration of 37 wt %. Furthermore, the HNT aqueous dispersions exhibit pH-induced gelation with more intense birefringence when hydrochloric acid (HCl) is added. The above findings shed light on the phase behaviors of diversely topological HNTs and lay the foundation for fabrication of the long-range ordered nano-objects.
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Inhibition effects of gold nanoparticles on proliferation and migration in hepatic carcinoma-conditioned HUVECs.
Bioorg. Med. Chem. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2013
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Tumor angiogenesis is a complicated process based upon a sequence of interactions between tumor and vessel endothelial cells. Tumor conditioned medium has been widely used to stimulate endothelial cells in vitro angiogenesis. This work was aimed to investigate the effects of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) on angiogenesis in hepatic carcinoma-conditioned endothelial cells. Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were cultured with conditioned medium (CM) from the human hepatocarcinoma cell line HepG2 (HepG2-CM), and then treated with different concentrations of GNPs. The effects of GNPs on the viability, migration and active VEGF level of HUVECs were investigated by MTT assay, wound healing assay and transwell chamber assay, and ELISA assay, respectively. The data showed that GNPs significantly inhibited HUVECs proliferation and migration induced by HepG2-CM, and also reduced the levels of active VEGF in the co-culture system. Then, the alterations in morphology and ultrastructure of HUVECs detected by atomic force microscopy (AFM) showed that there appeared obvious pseudopodia, larger membrane particle sizes and much rougher surface in HUVECs after HepG2-CM treatment, which were all reversed after GNPs treatment. Changes in cytoskeleton of HUVECs determined by immunocytochemistry demonstrated that GNPs treatment remarkably inhibited the activation effect of HepG2-CM on HUVECs, which was associated with the disruption of actin filaments induced by GNPs. This study indicates that GNPs can significantly inhibit HepG2-CM activated endothelial cell proliferation and migration through down-regulation of VEGF activity and disruption of cell morphology, revealing the potential applications of GNPs as antiangiogenic agent for the treatment of hepatic carcinoma.
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Surface passivation of undoped hematite nanorod arrays via aqueous solution growth for improved photoelectrochemical water splitting.
J Colloid Interface Sci
PUBLISHED: 08-22-2013
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A facile solution-based strategy was found to be effective for surface passivation of undoped hematite nanorod photoanodes by adding noble-metal chlorides such as HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 in the Fe(3+) precursor solution. XPS and Raman spectra revealed that noble-metal ions would not be doped into, but lead to surface disorder of hematite. Incident photon to current efficiency (IPCE) of the hematite photoanode grown in HAuCl4 and H2PtCl6 contained precursor solution was increased from 3.6% to 11.5% and 12.9%, respectively, at 365nm and 1.23V vs. RHE (reversible hydrogen electrode). This photoelectrochemical (PEC) enhancement was ascribed to the surface passivation, which resulted in a reduced recombination of photogenerated carriers, as confirmed by ultrafast transient absorption spectroscopy.
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Anti-yo associated paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration in a man with large cell cancer of the lung.
Case Rep Neurol Med
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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Purkinje cell cytoplasmic antibody type 1 (PCA-1), or anti-Yo, is the most frequently detected autoantibody in paraneoplastic cerebellar degeneration (PCD). The vast majority of cases of anti-Yo PCD, however, occur in females over 60 years old and are associated with gynecologic tumors. Only 10 cases have been reported in males, and only 2 were associated with cancer of the lung. Here we describe the youngest known case of PCA-1 positive PCD in a male, whose lung tumor was undetectable even on FDG-PET.
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HPLC method development, validation and impurity characterization for an antitumor Hsp90 inhibitor-PU-H71 (NSC 750424).
J Pharm Biomed Anal
PUBLISHED: 07-29-2013
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An HPLC method for the assay of the heat shock protein 90 inhibitor, PU-H71 (NSC 750424), has been developed and validated. The stress testing of PU-H71 was carried out in accordance with ICH guidelines Q1A (R2) under aqueous, acidic, alkaline, oxidative, thermolytic and photolytic conditions. The separation of PU-H71 from its impurities and degradation products was achieved within 50min on a Mac-Mod ACE 3 C18 column (150mm×4.6mm i.d., 3?m) with a gradient mobile phase comprising 20-95% acetonitrile in water, with 0.1% trifluroacetic acid in both phases. LC-quadrupole TOF/MS was used to obtain accurate mass data on various components as well as on their fragments for characterization of impurities and degradation products. The proposed HPLC assay method was validated for specificity, linearity (concentration range 0.1-0.3mg/mL, r?0.9998), accuracy (recovery 99.7-101.1%), precision (intra-lab RSD?1.39%, inter-lab RSD?0.91%), sensitivity (LOD 0.08?g/mL), and ruggedness. The developed method was suitable for the assay and stability monitoring of PU-H71 drug substance.
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Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament related genes identification using microarray gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis.
Gene
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2013
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Ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament (OPLL) is a kind of disease with physical barriers and neurological disorders. The objective of this study was to explore the differentially expressed genes (DEGs) in OPLL patient ligament cells and identify the target sites for the prevention and treatment of OPLL in clinic. Gene expression data GSE5464 was downloaded from Gene Expression Omnibus; then DEGs were screened by limma package in R language, and changed functions and pathways of OPLL cells compared to normal cells were identified by DAVID (The Database for Annotation, Visualization and Integrated Discovery); finally, an interaction network of DEGs was constructed by string. A total of 1536 DEGs were screened, with 31 down-regulated and 1505 up-regulated genes. Response to wounding function and Toll-like receptor signaling pathway may involve in the development of OPLL. Genes, such as PDGFB, PRDX2 may involve in OPLL through response to wounding function. Toll-like receptor signaling pathway enriched genes such as TLR1, TLR5, and TLR7 may involve in spine cord injury in OPLL. PIK3R1 was the hub gene in the network of DEGs with the highest degree; INSR was one of the most closely related genes of it. OPLL related genes screened by microarray gene expression profiling and bioinformatics analysis may be helpful for elucidating the mechanism of OPLL.
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Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of seven ginsenosides and three aconitum alkaloids in Shen-Fu decoction.
Chem Cent J
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2013
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Shen-Fu decoction is a traditional Chinese medicine prescription with a 3:2 ratio of Radix Ginseng and Fuzi (Radix Aconiti lateralis praeparata). Ginsenosides and alkaloids are considered to be the main active components of Shen-Fu decoction. However, no analytical methods have been used to quantitatively analyse both components in Shen-Fu decoction simultaneously.
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A new model for the study of secondary intra-abdominal hypertension in rats.
J. Surg. Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-08-2013
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To build a new and appropriate model of secondary intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) in rats.
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The mechanism for the hydrogenation of ketones catalyzed by Knölkers iron-catalyst.
Org. Biomol. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 07-05-2013
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Knölkers iron-based catalysts have some value in "green" transformations given the relatively low toxicity of iron compared to more commonly used precious-metal catalysts. Density functional methods have been used to extensively explore the use of an iron catalyst for hydrogen-transfer processes. Several inner- (with substrate coordination) and outer-sphere mechanisms (with no substrate coordination) were analyzed using a semi-simplified system. An outer-sphere route involving a concerted hydrogen-transfer to the substrate was found to be the most kinetically feasible mechanism, with a free energy barrier of only 10.2 kcal mol(-1). This mechanism was then used to explore the complete system at the same theoretical level. The real system had a higher free energy barrier (20.7 kcal mol(-1)) which is due to the steric effect of the substituent group. All the calculated results were in good agreement with the experimental results.
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Focusing giga-electronvolt heavy ions to micrometers at the Institute of Modern Physics.
Rev Sci Instrum
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2013
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To study the radiation effect of cosmic heavy ions of low fluxes in electronics and living samples, a focusing heavy ion microbeam facility, for ions with energies of several MeV/u up to 100 MeV/u, was constructed in the Institute of Modern Physics of the Chinese Academy of Sciences. This facility has a vertical design and an experiment platform for both in-vacuum analysis and in-air irradiation. Recently, microbeam of (12)C(6+) with energy of 80.55 MeV/u was successfully achieved at this interdisciplinary microbeam facility with a full beam spot size of 3 ?m × 5 ?m on target in air. Different from ions with energy of several MeV/u, the very high ion energy of hundred MeV/u level induces problems in beam micro-collimation, online beam spot diagnosis, radiation protection, etc. This paper presents the microbeam setup, difficulties in microbeam formation, and the preliminary experiments performed with the facility.
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Microtube bundle carbon derived from Paulownia sawdust for hybrid supercapacitor electrodes.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-29-2013
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The structure and capacitive properties of microtube bundle carbons (MTBCs) from carbonization of paulownia sawdust (PS) followed by NaOH activation were investigated. Morphology analyses indicated that MTBCs had abundant micropores and mesopores with a high specific surface area of about 1900 m(2) g(-1). Cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy studies demonstrated the excellent charge storage, transfer capability, and low impedance of MTBCs. The specific capacitance of MTBCs-4 was as high as 227 F g(-1) at 2 mV s(-1). Experimental results indicated that MTBCs provide smooth charge-transfer pathways for the ions in electrolytes and gateways to micropores and mesopores in the bulk. The hybrid supercapacitor model of MTBCs based on electrical double-layer capacitors and electrostatic capacitors was discussed and demonstrated. MTBCs are electrostatic capacitors at low frequency current, and may provide the pathways for easy accessibility of efficient charge transmission and high energy storage.
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Fabrication of reduced graphene oxide and sliver nanoparticle hybrids for Raman detection of absorbed folic acid: a potential cancer diagnostic probe.
ACS Appl Mater Interfaces
PUBLISHED: 05-23-2013
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Reduced graphene oxide (RGO) and silver nanoparticle (AgNP) hybrids (RGO-AgNP) were prepared by a facile one-pot method using Poly (N-vinyl-2-pyrrolidone) as reductant and stabilizer. Folic acid (FA) molecules were attached to the RGO-AgNP by physisorption for targeting specific cancer cells with folate receptors (FRs) and using as Raman reporter molecules. The internalization of the FA loaded RGO-AgNP (RGO-AgNP-FA) inside the FRs-positive cancer cell was confirmed by confocal laser scanning and transmission electron microscopy. The Raman signals of the FA in live cancer cells were detected by confocal Raman spectroscope at 514 nm excitation, indicating that the RGO-AgNP-FA material has great potential as a Raman probe for cancer diagnosis in vitro.
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Identification of predictive biomarkers for early diagnosis of larynx carcinoma based on microRNA expression data.
Cancer Genet
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2013
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The abnormal expression of microRNAs (miRNAs) plays a key role in tumorigenesis. In order to identify potential miRNA biomarkers for early diagnosis of larynx carcinoma, we employed a miRNA microarray technique and applied bioinformatic algorithms to characterize miRNA classifiers in early larynx carcinoma and normal esophageal mucosa tissue samples from 69 patients who were selected retrospectively for this study. We identified 47 miRNAs that were significantly differentially expressed in primary larynx tumor tissues compared to normal tissues using a SAM algorithm. Of these, 30 were up-regulated and 17 down-regulated in early larynx cancer, including hsa-miR-657, which was overexpressed, and hsa-miR-1287, which was underexpressed. These two candidate miRNA biomarkers were combined as a single classifier to recognize the biological characteristics in early larynx carcinoma. Real-time quantitative reverse-transcription PCR validated the microarray results in both trial and test samples. The hsa-miR-657-hsa-miR-1287 classifier displayed high sensitivity and specificity for discriminating between early larynx carcinoma and normal mucosa tissues, suggesting they may be suitable as potential predictive biomarkers for the early diagnosis of larynx carcinoma.
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Controlling the effective surface area and pore size distribution of sp2 carbon materials and their impact on the capacitance performance of these materials.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2013
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A series of sp(2) carbon materials with different specific surface area (SSA) and controlled pore size distribution (PSD) were synthesized at large scale through a facile and low-cost method. The SSA and PSD of these carbon materials were controlled by using different carbon sources and preparation methods. With different total and effective SSA (E-SSA) and PSD, the impacts on their capacitance performance were investigated thoroughly, which demonstrated that both E-SSA and PSD played the most important roles in their capacitance performance. Furthermore, theoretical modeling was performed, and the results are in agreement with the experimental results for the influence of E-SSA and PSD on their capacitance performance. Based on these, a general model using the slit/cylindrical NL-DFT approach is proposed for the estimation of the specific capacitance of sp(2) carbon materials, which offers a simple but reliable method to predict the capacitance performance of these materials, thus speeding up the design and screening of the materials for high-performance supercapacitor and other surface area related devices.
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GSK-3?/?-mediated phosphorylation of CRMP-2 regulates activity-dependent dendritic growth.
J. Neurochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-25-2013
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Neuronal activity shapes the dendritic arbour; however, most of the molecular players in this process remain to be identified. We observed that depolarization-induced neuronal activity causes an increase in the phosphorylation of glycogen synthase kinase-3 (GSK-3)?/? on Ser21/9 in cerebellar granule neurons. Using several approaches, including gene knockdown and GSK-3?/?(S21A/S21A/S9A/S9A) double knockin mice, we demonstrated that both GSK-3? and GSK-3? mediate activity-dependent dendritic growth and that Ser21/9 phosphorylation of GSK-3?/? plays an important role in this process. Collapsin response mediator protein-2 (CRMP-2), which is crucial for axon development, is phosphorylated at Thr514 and inactivated by GSK-3. We found CRMP-2 was located mainly in the dendrites of cerebellar granule neurons, in contrast to the axonal distribution in hippocampal neurons. Over-expression of CRMP-2 promoted and knockdown of CRMP-2 impaired dendritic growth, suggesting that CRMP-2 is necessary and sufficient for activity-dependent dendritic development. Furthermore, silencing CRMP-2 completely blocked the dendritic growth-promoting effects of GSK-3 knockdown, and expression of Thr514 nonphosphorylated form of CRMP-2 counteracted the inhibitory effect of constitutively active GSK-3. This data indicate that CRMP-2 functions downstream of GSK-3. Together, these findings identify a novel GSK-3/CRMP-2 pathway that connects neuronal activity to dendritic growth.
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A simple additive-free approach for the synthesis of uniform manganese monoxide nanorods with large specific surface area.
Nanoscale Res Lett
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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A simple additive-free approach is developed to synthesize uniform manganese monoxide (MnO) one-dimensional nanorods, in which only manganese acetate and ethanol were used as reactants. The as-synthesized MnO nanorods were characterized in detail by X-ray diffraction, scanning and transmission electron microscopy (TEM) including high-resolution TEM and selected-area electron diffraction, Fourier transform infrared spectrum, and nitrogen adsorption isotherm measurements. The results indicate that the as-synthesized MnO nanorods present a mesoporous characteristic with large specific surface area (153 m2 g-1), indicating promising applications in catalysis, energy storage, and biomedical image. On the basis of experimental results, the formation mechanism of MnO one-dimensional nanorods in the absence of polymer additives was also discussed.
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Oral vaccination with an adenovirus-vectored vaccine protects against botulism.
Vaccine
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2013
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We have previously shown that an adenovirus vectored vaccine delivered intramuscularly or intranasally was effective in protection against botulism in a mouse model. The adenoviral vector encodes a human codon-optimized heavy chain C-fragment (H(C)50) of botulinum neurotoxin type C (BoNT/C). Here, we evaluate the same vaccine candidate as an oral vaccine against BoNT/C in a mouse model. To elicit protective immunity, the mice were orally vaccinated with a single dose of 1×10(4) to 1×10(7)plaque forming units (pfu) of the adenoviral vector. The immune sera, collected six weeks after oral vaccination with 2×10(7)pfu adenovirus, have shown an ability to neutralize the biological activity of BoNT/C in vitro. Additionally, animals receiving a single dose of 2×10(6)pfu adenovirus or greater were completely protected against challenge with 100×MLD(50) of BoNT/C. The data demonstrated the feasibility to develop an adenovirus-based oral vaccine against botulism.
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The effects of intra-abdominal hypertension on the secretory function of canine adrenal glands.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Intra-abdominal hypertension (IAH) can damage multiple organ systems, but the explicit impact on the adrenal gland is unclear. To evaluate the effects of intra-abdominal pressure (IAP) on the secretory function of the adrenal glands, we established canine models of IAH. By comparing morphology; hemodynamics; plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations; and the expression of IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? in adrenal gland tissue from these dogs, we found that hemodynamic instability occurred after IAH and that IAH increased the plasma cortisol, aldosterone, epinephrine, and norepinephrine concentrations. Higher IAPs resulted in more significant changes, and the above indicators gradually returned to normal 2 h after decompression. Compared with the sham-operated group, IAH significantly increased IL-1, IL-6, and TNF-? levels in adrenal tissue, with larger increases in the presence of higher IAPs. However, the concentrations of these markers remained higher than those in the sham-operated group despite their decrease after 2 h of decompression. Histopathological examination revealed congestion, red blood cell exudation, and neutrophil infiltration in the adrenal glands when IAP was elevated; these conditions became more significant with more severe IAH. These results suggest that the secretion of adrenal hormones and adrenal gland inflammation are positively correlated with IAP and that abdominal decompression effectively corrects adrenal gland function.
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One-step synthesis of amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon nanoparticles by hydrothermal carbonization of chitosan.
Chem. Commun. (Camb.)
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2011
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Highly amino-functionalized fluorescent carbon nanoparticles (CNPs) were fabricated by hydrothermal carbonization of chitosan at a mild temperature. They were applied to bioimaging of human lung adenocarcinoma A549 cells, showing low cytotoxicity and excellent biocompatibility.
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Cucurbitane glucosides from the root of Machilus yaoshansis.
J. Nat. Prod.
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2011
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Seven new cucurbitane triterpene glucosides (1-5, 8, and 9) and five known analogues (6, 7, 10, cucurbitacin I 2-O-?-d-glucopyranoside, and khekadaengoside K) have been isolated from an ethanol extract of roots of Machilus yaoshansis. Compounds 1 and 2 have an unusual 16,23:22,25-diepoxy unit, 4 is an uncommon cucurbitane 25-carbamate with the carbamoyl amino group attached at C-24 to form an oxazolidinone ring in the side chain, and 8 is the first example of a trinorcucurbitane derivative. The configurations in several pairs of C-24 epimeric cucurbitacins with 24,25-dihydroxy-22-one side chains were assigned, and the validity of J(23a,24) and J(23b,24) values to differentiate the configuration at C-24 in these cucurbitane derivatives is discussed. Compounds 2-4 showed in vitro activity against protein tyrosine phosphatase 1B with IC50 values of 8.63, 2.81, and 4.26 ?M, respectively. Cucurbitacin E 2-O-?-d-glucopyranoside (10) showed selective cytotoxicity against BGC-823 and A549 cancer cells with IC50 values of 4.98 and 3.20 ?M, respectively.
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A potential fluorescence detection approach to trace hexachlorobenzene via disaggregating with ethanol.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 10-14-2011
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A potential ultra-sensitive detection approach for hexachlorobenzene (HCB), based on the measurement of the intrinsic fluorescence of well-separated HCB molecules in ethanol, has been proposed. Owing to the strong intermolecular ?-? stacking interaction of the planar aromatic rings, self-aggregated HCB shows almost no fluorescence. However, the intrinsic emission of HCB can readily be detected in ethanol due to the enhanced emission from the disaggregated HCB, which is related to the hydrogen bond formation between ethanol and HCB. By simply measuring the HCB intrinsic fluorescence, a HCB concentration a little bit higher than 10(-14) M (~0.001 ppt) in ethanol can be detected; moreover, the fluorescence intensity of the HCB increases linearly with the HCB concentration ranging from 10(-10) to 10(-7) M. The approach might provide a simple, fast and efficient method for HCB quantification.
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Cellular transport pathways of polymer coated gold nanoparticles.
Nanomedicine
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2011
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The different transport pathways of 5-nm polymer-coated gold nanoparticles (Au NPs) crossing epithelial Caco-2 cell monolayers were explored. We found that the majority of cationic and neutral Au NPs depended heavily on endocytosis for cellular uptake and transport, and the anionic charged nanoparticles trafficked preferentially through the tight junctions (i.e., a paracellular pathway). The current study demonstrates that the surface chemistry of neutral polymer coatings dictate the trafficking through Caco-2 cell monolayers; poly(ethylene glycol)-coated Au NPs traffic via an endocytosis pathway assisted by microtubules; poly(2,3-hydroxy-propylacrylamide)-coated Au NPs traffic via endocytosis but assisted by other nonmicrotubular pathways. The Au NPs coated with poly(N-isopropylacrylamide) (hydrophobic above the lower critical solution temperature of 32°C) traffic via either the microtubule-assisted endocytosis pathway or the paracellular pathway depending on the temperature. This knowledge will aid in the future of the design of nanoparticles as potential oral drug carriers.
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Hydrothermal synthesis of Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO3-LaCrO3 solid-solution single-crystal nanocubes for visible-light-driven photocatalytic H2 evolution.
Chemistry
PUBLISHED: 05-26-2011
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Cubic perovskite structure photocatalysts of Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO(3) and (Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO(3))(1.00)(LaCrO(3))(0.08) solid solution that consisted of well-defined single-crystal nanocubes were successfully prepared by means of facile and surfactant-free hydrothermal reactions for the first time. The results from different instrumental characterizations and theoretical calculations consistently confirmed the formation of nanocubic single-crystal solid solution of (Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO(3))(1.00)(LaCrO(3))(0.08), and clearly revealed the modification of its physicochemical properties compared with those of Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO(3). In particular, the effective narrowing of the bandgap (from 3.19 to 2.25 eV) by Cr(3+) in the solid solution made it possible to utilize visible light. The solid-solution configuration maintained the charge balance to preserve the valence of Cr(3+) rather than Cr(6+), and accommodated Cr(3+) with high content to form new energy bands instead of localized impurity levels. The hydrothermal preparation strategy ensured the formation of single crystals with high purity, few defects, and regulated morphology; it also guaranteed the valences of Ti(4+) and Cr(3+) in the solid solution. Consequently, the recombination of photogenerated carriers could be effectively suppressed to benefit photocatalytic H(2) evolution. (Na(0.5)La(0.5)TiO(3))(1.00)(LaCrO(3))(0.08) nanocubic single-crystal solid solution showed stable photocatalytic activity, and thus was proved to be a promising candidate for visible-light-driven photocatalytic H(2) evolution.
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Ethanol induces endoplasmic reticulum stress in the developing brain.
Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res.
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2011
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Ethanol exposure during brain development causes profound damages to the central nervous system (CNS). The underlying cellular/molecular mechanisms remain unclear. The endoplasmic reticulum (ER) is involved in posttranslational protein processing and transport. The accumulation of unfolded or misfolded proteins in the ER lumen triggers ER stress, which is characterized by translational attenuation, synthesis of ER chaperone proteins, and activation of transcription factors. Sustained ER stress ultimately leads to cell death. ER stress is implicated in various neurodegenerative processes.
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Caspase-3 is a target gene of c-Jun:ATF2 heterodimers during apoptosis induced by activity deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons.
Neurosci. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-18-2011
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Caspase-3, a key executor of neuronal apoptosis, is up-regulated and activated during apoptosis induced by activity deprivation in cerebellar granule neurons (CGNs). However, the transcriptional mechanism regulating caspase-3 during CGN apoptosis remains unknown. Here, we show that the caspase-3 gene is transactivated and its induction is preceded by c-Jun NH(2)-terminal kinase (JNK)/c-Jun:ATF2 pathway activation following activity deprivation in CGNs. We observed that caspase-3 induction is abolished by pharmacological inhibition of the JNK/c-Jun:ATF2 pathway. Destroying c-Jun:ATF2 heterodimers with dominant negative mutants of c-Jun and ATF2 or knockdown by small RNA interference reduced caspase-3 promoter activity and mRNA level. Furthermore, chromatin immunoprecipitation showed increased binding of c-Jun:ATF2 heterodimers to the caspase-3 promoter in response to activity deprivation in vivo. Site-directed mutagenesis of the caspase-3 promoter revealed that caspase-3 transcriptional activation depends primarily on an ATF site -233 to -225 nucleotides upstream of the start site. Taken together, these data demonstrate that caspase-3 is a target gene of c-Jun:ATF2 heterodimers during apoptosis induced by activity deprivation in CGNs.
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Machilusides A and B: structurally unprecedented homocucurbitane glycosides from the stem bark of Machilus yaoshansis.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Two structurally novel homocucurbitane triterpenoid glycosides, machilusides A (1) and B (2), possessing an unprecedented C(36) skeleton with a D-fructose moiety incorporated into a cucurbitane nucleus forming unique cage-like tricyclic ring moieties, were isolated from the stem bark of Machilus yaoshansis. Their structures were determined by spectroscopic methods. Both compounds exhibited nonselective cytotoxic activities against several human cancer cell lines. The biosynthetic pathway of 1 and 2 was postulated.
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Two conserved residues are important for inducing highly ordered membrane domains by the transmembrane domain of influenza hemagglutinin.
Biophys. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-13-2011
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The interaction with lipids of a synthetic peptide corresponding to the transmembrane domain of influenza hemagglutinin was investigated by means of electron spin resonance. A detailed analysis of the electron spin resonance spectra from spin-labeled phospholipids revealed that the major effect of the peptide on the dynamic membrane structure is to induce highly ordered membrane domains that are associated with electrostatic interactions between the peptide and negatively charged lipids. Two highly conserved residues in the peptide were identified as being important for the membrane ordering effect. Aggregation of large unilamellar vesicles induced by the peptide was also found to be correlated with the membrane ordering effect of the peptide, indicating that an increase in membrane ordering, i.e., membrane dehydration, is important for vesicle aggregation. The possibility that hydrophobic interaction between the highly ordered membrane domains plays a role in vesicle aggregation and viral fusion is discussed.
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Egr-1 transactivates Bim gene expression to promote neuronal apoptosis.
J. Neurosci.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2011
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The proapoptotic BH3-only protein Bim is a crucial regulator of neuronal apoptosis. Previous studies have indicated the involvement of the c-Jun, FOXO1/3a, and B/C-Myb transcription factors in the regulation of Bim during neuronal apoptosis. However, the mechanism underlying the transcriptional regulation of Bim in activity deprivation-induced neuronal apoptosis has remained unclear. The present study demonstrates that early growth response 1 (Egr-1), rather than c-Jun, FOXO1/3a, or B/C-Myb, directly transactivates Bim gene expression to mediate apoptosis of rat cerebellar granule neurons. We showed that Egr-1 was sufficient and necessary for neuronal apoptosis. Suppression of Egr-1 activity using dominant-negative mutant or knockdown of Egr-1 using small interfering RNAs led to a decrease in Bim expression, whereas overexpression of Egr-1 resulted in induction of Bim. Deletion and site-directed mutagenesis of the Bim promoter revealed that Bim transcriptional activation depends primarily on a putative Egr-binding sequence between nucleotides -56 and -47 upstream of the start site. We also showed that Egr-1 binding to this sequence increased in response to activity deprivation in vitro and in vivo. Moreover, inhibition of Egr-1 binding to the Bim promoter, by mithramycin A and chromomycin A3, reduced the activity deprivation-induced increases in Bim promoter activity and mRNA and protein levels and protected neurons from apoptosis, further supporting the Egr-1-mediated transactivation of Bim. Additionally, Bim overcame the Egr-1 knockdown-mediated inhibition of apoptosis, whereas Bim knockdown impaired the increase in apoptosis induced by Egr-1. These findings establish Bim as an Egr-1 target gene in neurons, uncovering a novel Egr-1/Bim pathway by which activity deprivation induces neuronal apoptosis.
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Interaction of densely polymer-coated gold nanoparticles with epithelial Caco-2 monolayers.
Biomacromolecules
PUBLISHED: 03-08-2011
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We synthesized a library of polymer-coated gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) with well-defined sizes (5, 10, and 20 nm) and surface properties, and investigated their efficiency to cross the Caco-2 epithelial barrier and disrupt tight junctions connecting the cellular barrier. The positively charged and hydrophobic polymer-coated AuNPs showed little or no translocation across the model Caco-2 monolayer. Most of these positive and hydrophobic nanoparticles were either bound to the surface or internalized within the cell. The neutral and negatively charged polymer-coated AuNPs with a size of 5 nm showed a significantly higher translocation. All polymer-coated AuNPs induced the translocation of small molecules across the cellular monolayer, suggesting the loosening of the paracellular tight junction joining individual cells. The decrease in the TEER values of the monolayers supported the opening of the tight junctions. These tight junctions fully recovered for most polymer-coated AuNPs 12 h after removal of the nanoparticles. The exception was the cationic polymer-coated AuNPs in which the barrier function only recovered up to 62%. The library of polymer-coated AuNPs showed no apparent signs of hemolysis to erythrocytes at physiological pH. Our investigation has provided insight on the influence of polymer coatings on the epithelial barrier.
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Isolation and identification of the DNA aptamer target to acetamiprid.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2011
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As an alternative to antibodies, aptamers have a great potential as analytical tools for pesticide detection. In this work, aptamers targeting acetamiprid were selected by a specific systematic evolution of ligands by exponential enrichment (SELEX) strategy, where a single-stranded DNA (ssDNA) library was immobilized and target modification was eliminated. After 18 rounds of repeated selection, the ssDNA pool was enriched and then 14 sequences were selected and carefully identified. At last, an acetamiprid-specific aptamer with the apparent dissociation constant (K(d)) estimated to be 4.98 ?M was successfully obtained. Further work is ongoing to develop an aptamer-based detection method for field determination of this pesticides in agricultural products and environmental samples.
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Analysis and comparison of proteomic profiles of tear fluid from human, cow, sheep, and camel eyes.
Invest. Ophthalmol. Vis. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2011
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To investigate the tear proteome profiles of human, cow, sheep, and camel comparatively and to explore the difference of tear protein profiles among different species.
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Fluorescence detection of trace PCB101 based on PITC immobilized on porous AAO membrane.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2010
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A sensitive and selective fluorescent membrane for rapid detection of trace 2,2,4,5,5-pentachlorinated biphenyl (PCB101) has been achieved by immobilizing the fluorophore phenyl isothiocyanate (PITC) onto porous anodic aluminium oxide (AAO) membrane (denoted as PITC@AAO). The fluorescence of the PITC@AAO membrane is obviously enhanced after titrating the analyte PCB101 into the membrane, being ascribed to the halogen-bonding interaction between the fluorophore PITC and the analyte PCB101. The fluorescence intensity increases with the PCB101 concentration in the low range below 1 ppm, and there exists an approximate linear relationship between the relative fluorescence intensity and the PCB101 concentration in the low range of 1-6 ppb. Moreover, the PITC@AAO membrane shows good selectivity; for example, it is insensitive to common structural analogs (polychlorinated aromatics). The mechanisms of the fluorescence enhancement and the better sensitivity and selectivity of the PITC@AAO membrane to PCB101 than that of PITC/n-hexane solution are also discussed. This work demonstrates that trace (in ppb range) PCBs can be detected by simple fluorescence measurement.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.