To examine the evolutional origin of representational drawing, two experiments directly compared the drawing behavior of human children and chimpanzees. The first experiment observed free drawing after model presentation, using imitation task. From longitudinal observation of humans (N = 32, 11-31 months), the developmental process of drawing until the emergence of shape imitation was clarified. Adult chimpanzees showed the ability to trace a model, which was difficult for humans who had just started imitation. The second experiment, free drawing on incomplete facial stimuli, revealed the remarkable difference between two species. Humans (N = 57, 6-38 months) tend to complete the missing parts even with immature motor control, whereas chimpanzees never completed the missing parts and instead marked the existing parts or traced the outlines. Cognitive characteristics may affect the emergence of representational drawings.
An intracranial arachnoid cyst was detected in a 32-year-old, 44.6-kg, female chimpanzee at the Primate Research Institute, Kyoto University. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and computed tomography (CT) were performed and the cognitive studies in which she participated were reviewed. MRI revealed that the cyst was present in the chimpanzees right occipital convexity, and was located in close proximity to the posterior horn of the right lateral ventricle without ventriculomegaly. CT confirmed the presence of the cyst and no apparent signs indicating previous skull fractures were found. The thickness of the mandible was asymmetrical, whereas the temporomandibular joints and dentition were symmetrical. She showed no abnormalities in various cognitive studies since she was 3 years old, except a different behavioural pattern during a recent study, indicating a possible visual field defect. Detailed cognitive studies, long-term observation of her physical condition and follow-up MRI will be continued.
In addition to behavioral evaluations, stress assessments are also important for measuring animal welfare. Assessments of long-term stress are particularly important given that prolonged stress can affect physical health and reproduction. The use of hair cortisol as a marker of long-term stress has been increasing, but there has not yet been any report on the use of such methods with chimpanzees. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to establish and validate a methodology for analyzing hair cortisol in captive chimpanzees. In the first experiment, hair was removed from the arms of nine chimpanzees living in the Kumamoto Sanctuary (KS) and the regrown hair was sampled 3months later. Fecal samples were collected periodically during the hair-growth period. The results showed that hair cortisol level was positively correlated with the rate of receiving aggression. Although the correlation between hair and fecal cortisol levels was not significant, the individual with the highest hair cortisol concentration also had the highest fecal cortisol concentration. These results suggest that hair cortisol may reflect long-term stress in chimpanzees. In the second experiment, we investigated the physiological factors affecting hair cortisol concentrations. We cut hair from the arms, sides, and backs of 25 chimpanzees living at the KS and the Primate Research Institute. The results revealed that cortisol varied based on source body part and hair whiteness. Therefore, we recommend that hair should always be collected from the same body part and that white hair should be avoided as much as possible.
Hematopoietic cells (HPCs) develop from hemogenic endothelial cells (ECs), a specialized type of ECs undergoing hematopoietic transition. However, the mesoderm origin for hemogenic ECs or HPCs has not been clarified. To examine the origin for hemogenic mesoderm, we inactivated Etv2, a master regulator for EC/HPC commitment, in specific regions. Region-specific Etv2 ablation in early mesoderm caused local EC differentiation block, resulting in the loss of specific vascular beds without compensatory migration of residual ECs into avascular area. This feature of local EC/HPC differentiation block was correlated to the hemogenic potential of each mesoderm subset. We found that caudal-lateral mesoderm of E7.5-8.5 embryos represent the pre-committed population critical for generating hemogenic ECs. Etv2 ablation in caudal-lateral mesoderm by Hoxb6 Cre or Hoxb6CreER transgene affected vitelline plexus formation and intra-aortic hematopoietic clusters. In differentiated embryonic stem cells, this mesoderm subset marked by Hoxb6-lateral mesoderm promoter showed enriched T lymphopoietic potential among Flk-1(+) cells, which could be regarded as a characteristic for definitive HPCs. These findings indicate that critical mesoderm precursors possibly for definitive type hemogenic ECs are regionally specified in primitive mesoderm, suggesting that Hoxb6(+) caudal-lateral mesoderm represents the critical source of HPCs, which are potentially useful to enrich definitive HPCs from embryonic stem cells.
Early mesoderm can be classified into Flk-1+ or PDGF receptor alpha (PDGFR?)+ population, grossly representing lateral and paraxial mesoderm, respectively. It has been demonstrated that all endothelial (EC) and hematopoietic (HPC) cells are derived from Flk-1+ cells. Although PDGFR?+ cells give rise to ECs/HPCs in in vitro ES differentiation, whether PDGFR?+ population can become hemato-endothelial lineages has not been proved in mouse embryos.
An adult male chimpanzee living in a captive social group at the Primate Research Institute of Kyoto University developed acute tetraparesis. He was paralyzed and received intensive care and veterinary treatment as previously reported in Miyabe-Nishiwaki et al. (J Med Primatol 39:336-346, 2010). The behavioral recovery of the chimpanzee was longitudinally monitored using an index of upright posture between 0 and 41 months after the onset of tetraparesis. Four phases were identified during the course of behavioral recovery. During Phase 0 (0-13 months), the chimpanzee remained lying on his back during the absence of human caretakers. An increase in upright posture occurred in Phase I (14-17 months), then remained at a stable level of around 50-70 % in Phase II (18-29 months). During Phases I and II, the subjects small treatment cage represented a spatial limitation. Thus, behavioral recovery was mainly mediated by arm muscle strengthening caused by raising the body trunk with the aid of materials attached to the cage walls as environmental enrichment. When the chimpanzee was moved to a larger rehabilitation room in Phase III (30-41 months), the percentage of upright posture constantly exceeded 80 %, except in the 40th month when he injured his ankle and was inactive for several days. The enlargement of the living space had a positive effect on behavioral recovery by increasing the types of locomotion exhibited by the subject, including the use of legs during walking. Rehabilitation works were applied in face-to-face situations which enabled the use of rehabilitation methods used in humans. The process of behavioral recovery reported in this study provides a basic data set for planning future rehabilitation programs and for comparisons with further cases of physical disability in non-human primates.
Etv2 (Ets Variant 2) has been shown to be an indispensable gene for the development of hematopoietic cells (HPCs)/endothelial cells (ECs). However, how Etv2 specifies the mesoderm-generating HPCs/ECs remains incompletely understood. In embryonic stem cell (ESC) differentiation culture and Etv2-null embryos, we show that Etv2 is dispensable for generating primitive Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) mesoderm but is required for the progression of Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) cells into vascular/hematopoietic mesoderm. Etv2-null ESCs and embryonic cells were arrested as Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) and failed to generate Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) mesoderm. Flk-1(+)/Etv2(+) early embryonic cells showed significantly higher hemato-endothelial potential than the Flk-1(+)/Etv2(-) population, suggesting that Etv2 specifies a hemato-endothelial subset of Flk-1(+) mesoderm. Critical hemato-endothelial genes were severely down-regulated in Etv2-null Flk-1(+) cells. Among those genes Scl, Fli1, and GATA2 were expressed simultaneously with Etv2 in early embryos and seemed to be critical targets. Etv2 reexpression in Etv2-null cells restored the development of CD41(+), CD45(+), and VE-cadherin(+) cells. Expression of Scl or Fli1 alone could also restore HPCs/ECs in the Etv2-null background, indicating that these 2 genes are critical downstream targets. Furthermore, VEGF induced Etv2 potently and rapidly in Flk-1(+) mesoderm. We propose that Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(+) primitive mesoderm is committed into Flk-1(+)/PDGFR?(-) vascular mesoderm through Etv2 and that up-regulation of Etv2 by VEGF promotes this commitment.
We investigated the effects of cognitive experiments by direct comparison of activity budgets between wild and captive chimpanzees. One goal of captive management is to ensure that the activity budgets of captive animals are as similar as possible to those of their wild counterparts. However, such similarity has rarely been achieved. We compared the activity budget among three groups of chimpanzees: wild chimpanzees in Bossou (Guinea, n = 10), and captive chimpanzees who participated in cognitive experiments (experimental chimpanzees, n = 6) or did not participate in the experiments (nonexperimental chimpanzees, n = 6) at the Primate Research Institute (Japan). The experimental chimpanzees voluntarily participated in computer-controlled cognitive tasks and small pieces of fruits were provided as rewards. The data from captivity were obtained on the experimental days (weekdays) and nonexperimental days (weekends). In both study sites, we followed each chimpanzee from about 7 a.m. until the time when chimpanzees started to rest in the evening. The behaviors were recorded every 1?min. The results showed that on weekdays, feeding time and resting time of the experimental chimpanzees were almost the same as those of wild chimpanzees. However, for the nonexperimental chimpanzees, feeding time was significantly shorter and resting time was longer than those of the wild chimpanzees. In contrast, no difference was found in feeding time or resting time of the two groups of captive chimpanzees on weekends. The results suggested that the cognitive experiments worked as an efficient method for food-based enrichment.
The forests surrounding Bossou, Guinea, are home to a small, semi-isolated chimpanzee community studied for over three decades . In 1992, Matsuzawa  reported the death of a 2.5-year-old chimpanzee (Jokro) at Bossou from a respiratory illness. The infants mother (Jire) carried the corpse, mummified in the weeks following death, for at least 27 days. She exhibited extensive care of the body, grooming it regularly, sharing her day- and night-nests with it, and showing distress whenever they became separated. The carrying of infants corpses has been reported from a number of primate species, both in captivity and the wild [3-7] - albeit usually lasting a few days only - suggesting a phylogenetic continuity for a behavior that is poignant testament to the close mother-infant bond which extends across different primate taxa. In this report we recount two further infant deaths at Bossou, observed over a decade after the original episode but with striking similarities.
Endothelin type A receptor (ET(A)R) plays an important role in some cardiovascular disorders where ET(A)R levels are increased. However, regulatory mechanisms for ET(A)R levels are unknown. Here, we identified Jun activation domain-binding protein 1 (Jab1) as an ET(A)R-interacting protein by yeast two-hybrid screening of human heart cDNA library using carboxyl terminal tail (C-tail) of ET(A)R as a bait. The interaction was confirmed by glutathione S-transferase pull-down assay, co-immunoprecipitation in HEK293T cells expressing ET(A)R-myc and FLAG-Jab1, and confocal microscopy. Jab1 knockdown increased whole cell and cell surface levels of ET(A)R and ET-1-induced ERK1/2 phosphorylation in HEK293T cells expressing ET(A)R, whereas Jab1 overexpression decreased them. Jab1 overexpression accelerated disappearance rate of ET(A)R after protein synthesis inhibition as an index of a degradation rate. ET(A)R was constitutively ubiquitinated, and the level of ubiquitination was enhanced by Jab1 overexpression. Long-term ET-1 stimulation markedly accelerated the rate of ET(A)R degradation and increased the amount of Jab1 bound to ET(A)R with a maximal level of 500% at 3h. In the absence of ET-1 stimulation, the level of ET(B)R was lower than that of ET(A)R and the degradation rate of ET(B)R was markedly faster than that of ET(A)R. Notably, the amount of Jab1 bound to ET(B)R and ubiquitination level of ET(B)R were markedly higher than those for ET(A)R. Taken together, these results suggest that the amount of Jab1 bound to ETR regulates the degradation rate of ET(A)R and ET(B)R by modulating ubiquitination of these receptors, leading to changes in ET(A)R and ET(B)R levels.
Spatial construction tasks are basic tests of visual-spatial processing. Two studies have assessed spatial construction skills in chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) and young children (Homo sapiens sapiens) with a block modelling task. Study 1a subjects were three young chimpanzees and five adult chimpanzees. Study 1b subjects were 30 human children belonging to five age groups (24, 30, 36, 42, 48 months). Subjects were given three model constructions to reproduce: Line, Cross-Stack and Arch, which differed in type and number of spatial relations and dimensions, but required comparable configurational understanding. Subjects constructions were rated for accuracy. Our results show that: (1) chimpanzees are relatively advanced in constructing in the vertical dimension; (2) Among chimpanzees only adults make accurate copies of constructions; (3) Chimpanzees do not develop in the direction of constructing in two dimensions as human children do starting from age 30 months. The pattern of development of construction skills in chimpanzees partially diverges from that of human children and indicates that spatial analysis and spatial representation are partially different in the two species.
Stacking blocks provides a way to evaluate cognitive development in humans and other species using the same comparative measures. The present study used regular cubic blocks as well as cubic blocks with bumps on two sides. The bumps changed the physical properties of the blocks and increased the difficulty involved in stacking them. Subjects were required to choose the appropriate orientation for stacking the blocks. Three juvenile chimpanzees and 14 human children (aged 2-3 years) were tested under identical task settings in a face-to-face situation. The goal of a trial was to stack up four blocks (two cubic blocks and two cubic blocks with bumps). The results showed initial difficulty in stacking the blocks with bumps in both chimpanzees and humans. Experienced juvenile chimpanzees and humans older than 3 years became proficient at solving the task. Behavioral strategies adopted to succeed in the task were common to both species. The subjects spontaneously adopted a strategy of stacking as the last block of the tower a block with a bump facing upwards. The subjects also showed active change in the orientation of the blocks when necessary, although correct orientation changes were infrequent especially during the early phases of experiment. The results are discussed in the context of the underlying cognitive development in the domain of physical understanding in both species.
Descriptions of manual function in nonhuman primates have largely focused on static precision and power grasping (as first defined by Napier,1956), while identification and description of dynamic manual function are rare and incomplete. Here, we describe several forms of in-hand movements used by chimpanzees (Pan troglodytes) when manipulating small objects. In-hand movements are defined as the movement of an object within one hand via manipulation of the digits. We presented adult and young juvenile chimpanzees (ages 5-29 years) with a task that required inserting small objects through correspondingly shaped cutouts in a transparent Plexiglas panel. While attempting to insert the objects through the cutouts, the subjects used at least two forms of in-hand movements to change their grip on the object for more precise alignment. We describe in detail the in-hand movements they used and the variability observed in form and execution among the subjects. In general, the adult subjects used in-hand movements more frequently and used a wider variety of forms than did the young juvenile subjects, suggesting that in-hand movements are in the process of fine-tuning around the age of 5 years in chimpanzees. The dexterity exhibited by the adults, however, shows that the neuromuscular and morphological requirements for relatively complex digital manipulation are present in the adult chimpanzee.
Etv2 is a master gene for the commitment of hematopoietic/endothelial cells and is a potent inducer of endothelial/hematopoietic cells from embryonic stem cells. Etv2 is highly expressed in endothelial/hematopoietic precursors but is downregulated when they are differentiated, indicating that Etv2 should have transient but not constitutive function. However, relatively little attention has been paid to the importance of transient Etv2 expression. To determine whether transient Etv2 expression is essential to normal development and cell differentiation, we generated mice that constitutively express Etv2 from a Cre-activatable ROSA26 locus in endothelial/hematopoietic, somite, or neuronal lineages. Constitutive Etv2 expression caused profound phenotypes in hematopoietic/endothelial cells, with little effect on somite or neuronal lineages. In hematopoietic/endothelial lineages, constitutive Etv2 expression induced by Tie-2 Cre transgene caused abnormal yolk sac vasculature. Prolonged vascular endothelial cadherin expression and decreased B lymphopoiesis were observed in Etv2 expressing vascular endothelial cadherin(+)/CD45(+) cells, indicating that Etv2 forces endothelial program on hematopoietic cells. Etv2 expression in adult hematopoietic cells by Vav-iCre transgene also conferred an endothelial phenotype on hematopoietic stem cells and suppressed hematopoiesis, with erythropoiesis severely affected. We conclude that constitutive Etv2 expression perturbs vascular development and hematopoiesis. While promoting hematopoiesis/vasculogenesis, Etv2 expression should be tightly regulated to achieve normal vascular development and hematopoiesis.
Six strains, TKU 25, TKU 28, TKU 30, TKU 31(T), TKU 33 and TKU 34, were isolated from the oral cavity of a chimpanzee (Pan troglodytes). Colonies of strains grown on Mitis-Salivarius agar were similar in morphology to that of Streptococcus mutans. The novel strains were Gram-stain-positive, facultatively anaerobic cocci that lacked catalase activity. Analysis of the partial 16S rRNA gene sequences of these isolates showed that the most closely related strain was the type strain of S. mutans (96.4?%). The next closely related strains to the isolates were the type strains of Streptococcus devriesei (94.5?%) and Streptococcus downei (93.9?%). These isolates could be distinguished from S. mutans by inulin fermentation and alkaline phosphatase activity (API ZYM system). The peptidoglycan type of the novel isolates was Glu-Lys-Ala(3). Strains were not susceptible to bacitracin. On the basis of phenotypic characterization, partial 16S rRNA gene and two housekeeping gene (groEL and sodA) sequence data, we propose a novel taxon, Streptococcus troglodytae sp. nov.; the type strain is TKU 31(T) (?=?JCM 18038(T)?=?DSM 25324(T)).
Chimpanzees and bonobos are the closest living relatives of humans and diverged relatively recently in their phylogenetic history. However, a number of reports have suggested behavioral discrepancies between the two Pan species, such as more cooperative and tolerant social interaction and poorer tool-using repertoires in bonobos. Concerning hunting behavior and meat consumption, recent studies from the field have confirmed both behaviors not only in chimpanzees but also in bonobos. The present study reports an encounter by wild bonobos at Wamba with a duiker trapped in a snare. Bonobos interacted with the live duiker for about 10 min but did not eventually kill the animal. They showed fear responses when the duiker moved and exhibited behaviors related to anxiety and stress such as branch-drag displays and self-scratching. Although bonobos manipulated nearby saplings and parts of the snare, they did not use detached objects to make indirect contact with the duiker. Juveniles and adults of both sexes engaged in active interactions with the trapped duiker. Overall, bonobos behavioral responses indicated species-specific cognitive characteristics largely different from those of chimpanzees.
Several lines of evidence suggest that the adult hematopoietic system has multiple developmental origins, but the ontogenic relationship between nascent hematopoietic populations under this scheme is poorly understood. In an alternative theory, the earliest definitive blood precursors arise from a single anatomical location, which constitutes the cellular source for subsequent hematopoietic populations. To deconvolute hematopoietic ontogeny, we designed an embryo-rescue system in which the key hematopoietic factor Runx1 is reactivated in Runx1-null conceptuses at specific developmental stages. Using complementary in vivo and ex vivo approaches, we provide evidence that definitive hematopoiesis and adult-type hematopoietic stem cells originate predominantly in the nascent extraembryonic mesoderm. Our data also suggest that other anatomical sites that have been proposed to be sources of the definitive hematopoietic hierarchy are unlikely to play a substantial role in de novo blood generation.
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