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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Regulation of the susceptibility of HIV-1 to a neutralizing antibody KD-247 by nonepitope mutations distant from its epitope.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2011
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A humanized neutralizing antibody, KD-247, targets the V3 loop of HIV-1 Env. HIV-1 bearing the GPGR sequence at the V3 loop is potentially susceptible to KD-247. However, not all GPGR-positive HIV-1 isolates are neutralized by KD-247. We examined the potential mechanism by which the susceptibility of HIV-1 to KD-247-mediated neutralization is regulated.
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Single-cell gene-expression profiling reveals qualitatively distinct CD8 T cells elicited by different gene-based vaccines.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2011
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CD8 T cells play a key role in mediating protective immunity against selected pathogens after vaccination. Understanding the mechanism of this protection is dependent upon definition of the heterogeneity and complexity of cellular immune responses generated by different vaccines. Here, we identify previously unrecognized subsets of CD8 T cells based upon analysis of gene-expression patterns within single cells and show that they are differentially induced by different vaccines. Three prime-boost vector combinations encoding HIV Env stimulated antigen-specific CD8 T-cell populations of similar magnitude, phenotype, and functionality. Remarkably, however, analysis of single-cell gene-expression profiles enabled discrimination of a majority of central memory (CM) and effector memory (EM) CD8 T cells elicited by the three vaccines. Subsets of T cells could be defined based on their expression of Eomes, Cxcr3, and Ccr7, or Klrk1, Klrg1, and Ccr5 in CM and EM cells, respectively. Of CM cells elicited by DNA prime-recombinant adenoviral (rAd) boost vectors, 67% were Eomes(-) Ccr7(+) Cxcr3(-), in contrast to only 7% and 2% stimulated by rAd5-rAd5 or rAd-LCMV, respectively. Of EM cells elicited by DNA-rAd, 74% were Klrk1(-) Klrg1(-)Ccr5(-) compared with only 26% and 20% for rAd5-rAd5 or rAd5-LCMV. Definition by single-cell gene profiling of specific CM and EM CD8 T-cell subsets that are differentially induced by different gene-based vaccines will facilitate the design and evaluation of vaccines, as well as enable our understanding of mechanisms of protective immunity.
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Influence of advanced age on Mycobacterium bovis BCG vaccination in guinea pigs aerogenically infected with Mycobacterium tuberculosis.
Clin. Vaccine Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 08-04-2010
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Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the only tuberculosis (TB) vaccine currently available, but its efficacy against adult pulmonary TB remains controversial. BCG induces specific immune responses to mycobacterial antigens and may elicit protective immunity against TB. TB remains a major public health problem, especially among the elderly, yet the efficacy of BCG in the elderly is unknown. We investigated the ability of BCG vaccination to prevent TB in young (6-week-old), middle-aged (18-month-old), and old (60-month-old) guinea pigs. BCG-Tokyo vaccination reduced the growth of Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv in all three groups. By use of an enzyme-linked immunospot (ELISPOT) assay, antigen-specific gamma interferon (IFN-?)-producing cells were detected in the 60-month-old guinea pigs after a booster vaccination with BCG-Tokyo. Our findings suggest that BCG-Tokyo has a protective effect against tuberculosis infection regardless of age.
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Different vaccine vectors delivering the same antigen elicit CD8+ T cell responses with distinct clonotype and epitope specificity.
J. Immunol.
PUBLISHED: 07-20-2009
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Prime-boost immunization with gene-based vectors has been developed to generate more effective vaccines for AIDS, malaria, and tuberculosis. Although these vectors elicit potent T cell responses, the mechanisms by which they stimulate immunity are not well understood. In this study, we show that immunization by a single gene product, HIV-1 envelope, with alternative vector combinations elicits CD8(+) cells with different fine specificities and kinetics of mobilization. Vaccine-induced CD8(+) T cells recognized overlapping third V region loop peptides. Unexpectedly, two anchor variants bound H-2D(d) better than the native sequences, and clones with distinct specificities were elicited by alternative vectors. X-ray crystallography revealed major differences in solvent exposure of MHC-bound peptide epitopes, suggesting that processed HIV-1 envelope gave rise to MHC-I/peptide conformations recognized by distinct CD8(+) T cell populations. These findings suggest that different gene-based vectors generate peptides with alternative conformations within MHC-I that elicit distinct T cell responses after vaccination.
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Postinfection passive transfer of KD-247 protects against simian/human immunodeficiency virus-induced CD4+ T-cell loss in macaque lymphoid tissue.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2009
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Preadministration of high-affinity humanized anti-HIV-1 mAb KD-247 by passive transfer provides sterile protection of monkeys from heterologous chimeric simian/human immunodeficiency virus infection.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.