Indocyanine green (ICG), an organic anion used in liver function tests, is known to accumulate in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues after an intravenous injection. Because the intratumoral expression of transporters for chemical agents influences the behaviors of some malignant tumors, we investigated whether the expression of ICG-related transporters influenced the clinicopathologic features of HCC.
Lipids comprise the primary component of cell membranes. Imaging mass spectrometry is increasingly being used to visualize membranous lipids in clinical specimens, and it has revealed that abnormal lipid metabolism is related to the development of diseases. To characterize cell populations which are rare and sparsely localized in tissues, we conducted time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (TOF-SIMS) analyses of individual cells sorted by fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) and applied the method to analyze breast cancer stem cells (CSCs). TOF-SIMS analyses visualized phosphoric acids and four fatty acid (FA) species in the sorted CD45(-)/CD44(+)/CD24(-) CSCs, and these ions are suspected to have originated from membranous phospholipids as they were uniformly detected from the locus where the cells attached. Integrated ion intensity of palmitoleic acids [FA(16:1)] normalized by phosphoric acid signals were decreased significantly in CSCs as compared to that of CD45(-)/CD44(-)/CD24(+) non-stem cancer cells (NSCCs). This finding was supported by liquid chromatography coupled electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry analysis, which revealed phosphatidylcholine (PC)(16:0/16:1) to be less abundant and PC(16:0/16:0) to be more abundant in CSCs as compared to NSCCs. Therefore, our novel method successfully provided lipid composition analysis of individual cells classified by the expression of a complex combination of cell-surface markers. The lipid compositions of CSCs originating from the heterogeneous cellular populations of clinical specimens were successfully characterized by this method.
It is of importance to clarify pathophysiology of diabetic heart diseases such as heart failure and coronary artery disease. We reported a novel clinical phenotype called triglyceride deposit cardiomyovasculopathy (TGCV), showing aberrant TG accumulation in both coronary arteries and myocardium, in a cardiac transplant recipient. Here, we examined autopsied diabetics for TG deposition in cardiovasculature. Consecutive series of hearts from advanced diabetes mellitus (DM) subjects (DM group: DMG, n = 20) and those from age- and sex-matched non-diabetic controls (non DM group: NDMG, n = 20) were examined. The diagnostic criteria of 'advanced DM' was made based on 2014 Clinical Practice Recommendations proposed by the American Diabetes Association. The mean duration of DM was 15.8 years. All DMG suffered from heart diseases including coronary artery diseases and 14 subjects had multi-vessel disease. Tissue TG contents were measured biochemically. Coronary arterial TG contents was significantly higher in DMG compared with NDMG. Spatial distribution of TG in transverse sections of coronary arteries showed TG deposition mainly in smooth muscle cells by Imaging Mass Spectrometry. Abundant TG deposition in coronary artery might be associated with advanced DM.
Warthin tumor (War-T), the second most common benign salivary gland tumor, consists mainly of neoplastic epithelium and lymphoid stroma. Some proteins and genes thought to be involved in War-T were evaluated by molecular biology and immunology. However, lipids as an important component of many tumor cells have not been well studied in War-T. To elucidate the molecular biology and pathogenesis of War-T, we investigated the visualized distribution of phosphatidylcholines (PCs) by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In our IMS analysis of a typical case, 10 signals were significantly different in intensity (p?0.01) between the War-T and non-tumor (Non-T) regions. Five specific PCs were frequently found in the War-T regions of all of the samples: [PC (16:0/16:0)?+?K](+) (m/z 772.5), [PC (16:0/20:4)?+?K](+) (m/z 820.5), [PC (16:0/20:3)?+?K](+) (m/z 822.5), [PC (18:2/20:4)?+?K](+) (m/z 844.5), and [PC (18:0/20:5)?+?K](+) (m/z 846.5). PC (16:0/16:0) was increased specifically in the folliculus lymphaticus of War-T lymphoid stroma, suggesting a different metabolism. Localization of PC (16:0/16:0) might reflect inflammation activity participating in the pathogenesis of War-T. Thus, our IMS analysis revealed the profile of PCs specific to the War-T region. The molecules identified in our study provide important information for further studies of War-T pathogenesis.
Carnitine is well recognized as a key regulator of long-chain fatty acyl group translocation into the mitochondria. In addition, carnitine, as acetylcarnitine, acts as an acceptor of excess acetyl-CoA, a potent inhibitor of pyruvate dehydrogenase. Here, we provide a new methodology for accurate quantification of acetylcarnitine content and determination of its localization in skeletal muscles. We used matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) to visualize acetylcarnitine distribution in rat skeletal muscles. MALDI-IMS and immunohistochemistry of serial cross-sections showed that acetylcarnitine was enriched in the slow-type muscle fibers. The concentration of ATP was lower in muscle regions with abundant acetylcarnitine, suggesting a relationship between acetylcarnitine and metabolic activity. Using our novel method, we detected an increase in acetylcarnitine content after muscle contraction. Importantly, this increase was not detected using traditional biochemical assays of homogenized muscles. We also demonstrated that acetylation of carnitine during muscle contraction was concomitant with glycogen depletion. Our methodology would be useful for the quantification of acetylcarnitine and its contraction-induced kinetics in skeletal muscles.
The nitration of tyrosine to 3-nitrotyrosine is an oxidative modification of tyrosine by nitric oxide and is associated with many diseases, and targeting of protein kinase G (PKG)-I represents a potential therapeutic strategy for pulmonary hypertension and chronic pain. The direct assignment of tyrosine residues of PKG-I has remained to be made due to the low sensitivity of the current proteomic approach. In order to assign modified tyrosine residues of PKG-I, we nitrated purified PKG-I? expressed in insect Sf9 cells by use of peroxynitrite in vitro and analyzed the trypsin-digested fragments by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight mass spectrometry and liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Among the 21 tyrosine residues of PKG-I?, 16 tyrosine residues were assigned in 13 fragments; and six tyrosine residues were nitrated, those at Y71, Y141, Y212, Y336, Y345, and Y567, in the peroxynitrite-treated sample. Single mutation of tyrosine residues at Y71, Y212, and Y336 to phenylalanine significantly reduced the nitration of PKG-I?; and four mutations at Y71, Y141, Y212, and Y336 (Y4F mutant) reduced it additively. PKG-I? activity was inhibited by peroxynitrite in a concentration-dependent manner from 30 ?M to 1 mM, and this inhibition was attenuated in the Y4F mutant. These results demonstrated that PKG-I? was nitrated at multiple tyrosine residues and that its activity was reduced by nitration of these residues.
The pathogenesis of abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is characterized to be inflammation-associated degeneration of vascular wall. Neovascularization is regularly found in human AAA and considered to play critical roles in the development and rupture of AAA. However, little is known about lymphangiogenesis in AAA. The purpose of this study was to demonstrate both angiogenesis and lymphangiogenesis in AAA. Abdominal aortic tissue was harvested either from autopsy (control group) and during open-repair surgery for AAA (AAA group). Adventitial lymphatic vasa vasorum was observed in both groups, but seemed to be no significant morphological changes in AAA. Immunohistochemical studies identified infiltration of lymphatic vessel endothelial hyaluronan receptor (LYVE) -1, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF)-C, and matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-9-positive macrophages and podoplanin and Prox-1-positive microvessels in the intima/media in AAA wall, where hypoxia-inducible factors (HIF)-1? was expressed. VEGF-C and MMP-9 were not expressed in macrophages infiltrating in the adventitia. Intraoperative indocyanine green fluorescence lymphography revealed lymph stasis in intima/medial in AAA. Fluorescence microscopy of the collected samples also confirmed the accumulation of lymph in the intima/media but not in adventitia. These results demonstrate that infiltration of macrophages in intima/media is associated with lymphangiogenesis and angiogenesis in AAA. Lymph-drainage appeared to be insufficient in the AAA wall.
Cytosolic carboxypeptidase 5 (CCP5) is a member of a subfamily of enzymes that cleave C-terminal and/or side chain amino acids from tubulin. CCP5 was proposed to selectively cleave the branch point of glutamylated tubulin, based on studies involving overexpression of CCP5 in cell lines and detection of tubulin forms with antisera. In the present study, we examined the activity of purified CCP5 toward synthetic peptides as well as soluble ?- and ?-tubulin and paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules using a combination of antisera and mass spectrometry to detect the products. Mouse CCP5 removes multiple glutamate residues and the branch point glutamate from the side chains of porcine brain ?- and ?-tubulin. In addition, CCP5 excised C-terminal glutamates from detyrosinated ?-tubulin. The enzyme also removed multiple glutamate residues from side chains and C termini of paclitaxel-stabilized microtubules. CCP5 both shortens and removes side chain glutamates from synthetic peptides corresponding to the C-terminal region of ?3-tubulin, whereas cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 shortens the side chain without cleaving the peptides ?-linked residues. The rate of cleavage of ? linkages by CCP5 is considerably slower than that of removal of a single ?-linked glutamate residue. Collectively, our data show that CCP5 functions as a dual-functional deglutamylase cleaving both ?- and ?-linked glutamate from tubulin.
Although it is clear that lipids are responsible for insulin resistance, it is poorly understood what types of lipids are involved. In this study, we verified the characteristic lipid species in skeletal muscle of a chronic exercise training model and a high-fat induced-obesity model. Three different lipidomics analyses revealed phospholipid qualitative changes. As a result, linoleic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine and sphingomyelin and docosahexanoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine were characterized as chronic exercise training-induced lipids. On the contrary, arachidonic acid-containing phosphatidylcholines, phosphatidylethanolamines, and phosphatidylinositol were characterized as high-fat diet-induced lipids. In addition, minor sphingomyelin, which has long-chain fatty acids, was identified as a high-fat diet-specific lipid. This is the first report to reveal compositional changes in phospholipid molecular species in chronic exercise and high-fat-diet-induced insulin-resistant models. Due to their influence on cell permeability and receptor stability at the cell membrane, these molecules may contribute to the mechanisms underlying insulin sensitivity and several metabolic disorders.
The identification of cancer biomarkers is critical for target-linked cancer therapy. The overall level of phosphatidylcholine (PC) is elevated in colorectal cancer (CRC). To investigate which species of PC is overexpressed in colorectal cancer, an imaging mass spectrometry was performed using a panel of non-neoplastic mucosal and CRC tissues. In the present study, we identified a novel biomarker, PC(16:0/16:1), in CRC using imaging mass spectrometry. Specifically, elevated levels of PC(16:0/16:1) expression were observed in the more advanced stage of CRC. Our data further showed that PC(16:0/16:1) was specifically localized in the cancer region when examined using imaging mass spectrometry. Notably, because the ratio of PC(16:0/16:1) to lyso-PC(16:0) was higher in CRC, we postulated that lyso-PC acyltransferase (LPCAT) activity is elevated in CRC. In an in vitro analysis, we showed that LPCAT4 is involved in the deregulation of PC(16:0/16:1) in CRC. In an immunohistochemical analysis, LPCAT4 was shown to be overexpressed in CRC. These data indicate the potential usefulness of PC(16:0/16:1) for the clinical diagnosis of CRC and implicate LPCAT4 in the elevated expression of PC(16:0/16:1) in CRC.
Most oral cancers are oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC). The anatomical features of OSCC have been histochemically evaluated with hematoxylin and eosin. However, the border between the cancer and stromal regions is unclear and large portions of the cancer and stromal regions are resected in surgery. To reduce the resected area and maintain oral function, a new method of diagnosis is needed. In this study, we tried to clearly distinguish the border on the basis of biomolecule distributions visualized by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). In the IMS dataset, eleven signals were significantly different in intensity (p?0.01) between the cancer and stromal regions. Two signals at m/z 770.5 and m/z 846.6 were distributed in each region, and a clear border was revealed. Tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) analysis identified these signals as phosphatidylcholine (PC) (16:0/16:1) at m/z 770.5 in the cancer region and PC (18:1/20:4) at m/z 846.6 in the stromal region. Moreover, the distribution of PC species containing arachidonic acid in the stromal region suggests that lymphocytes accumulated in response to the inflammation caused by cancer invasion. In conclusion, the cancer and stromal regions of OSCCs were clearly distinguished by use of these PC species and IMS analysis, and this molecular identification can provide important information to elucidate the mechanism of cancer invasion.
Dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM) is characterized by ventricular dilation associated with systolic dysfunction, which could be caused by mutations in lamina/C gene (LMNA). LMNA-linked DCM is severe in males in both human patients and a knock-in mouse model carrying a homozygous p.H222P mutation (LmnaH222P/H222P). The aim of this study was to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the gender difference of LMNA-linked DCM.
Periodontal disease is a serious dental problem because it does not heal naturally and leads to tooth loss. In periodontal disease, inflammation at periodontal tissue is thought as predominant, and its effect against tooth itself remains unclear. In this study, we applied matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to teeth for the first time. By comparing anatomical structure of tooth affected with periodontal disease with normal ones, we analyzed traces of the disease on tooth. We found signals characteristic of enamel, dentin, and dental pulp, respectively, in mass spectra obtained from normal teeth. Ion images reconstructed using these signals showed anatomical structures of the tooth clearly. Next, we performed IMS upon teeth of periodontal disease. Overall characteristic of the mass spectrum appeared similar to normal ones. However, ion images reconstructed using signals from the tooth of periodontal disease revealed loss of periodontal ligament visualized together with dental pulp in normal teeth. Moreover, ion image clearly depicted an accumulation of signal at m/z 496.3 at root surface. Such an accumulation that cannot be examined only from mass spectrum was revealed by utilization of IMS. Recent studies about inflammation revealed that the signal at m/z 496.3 reflects lyso-phosphatidylcholine (LPC). Infiltration of the signal is statistically significant, and its intensity profile exhibited the influence has reached deeply into the tooth. This suggests that influence of periodontal disease is not only inflammation of periodontal tissue but also infiltration of LPC to root surface, and therefore, anti-inflammatory treatment is required besides conventional treatments.
Imaging mass spectrometry (MS) is an emerging technique that can detect numerous biomolecular distributions in a non-targeting manner. In the present study, we applied a mass imaging modality, mass microscopy, to human lung tissue and identified several molecules including surfactant constituents in a specific structure of the lung alveoli. Four peaks were identified using imaging MS, and the ion at m/z 772.5, in particular, was localized at some spots in the alveolar walls. Using an MS/MS analysis, the ion was identified as phosphatidylcholine (PC)(16:0/16:0), which is the main component of lung surfactant. In a larger magnification of the lung specimen, PC (16:0/16:0) was distributed in a mottled fashion in a section of the lung. Importantly, the distribution of PC (16:0/16:0) was identical to that of anti-SLC34A2 antibody immunoreactivity, which is known to be a specific marker of type II alveolar epithelial cells, in the same section. Our experience suggests that imaging MS has excellent potential in human pathology research.
The gracile axonal dystrophy (gad) mutation in Uch-l1, the gene encoding the ubiquitin carboxy-terminal hydrolase isozyme L1 (UCH-L1), causes selective dying back degeneration of dorsal root ganglion neuron in the medulla oblongata along with progressive sensory-motor ataxia. Axonal spheroids are observed within degenerating axons, and their contents may illuminate the pathogenic mechanisms leading to neurodegeneration in gad mice. To analyze changes in negatively charged lipid molecules in dystrophic axons of gad mice, we performed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), electron microscopy, and fluorescence immunohistochemistry on tissue sections from gad and wild-type mouse medulla. MALDI-IMS revealed that m/z 806.68 and 822.68 molecules, assigned to sulfatide (ST) C18:0 and ST C18:0(OH), respectively, were concentrated in the dorsomedial medulla. This spatial distribution overlapped significantly with that of axonal spheroids. Immunostaining revealed that spheroids accumulated myelin and lymphocyte protein, a known ST binding protein. Sulfatides with short-chain fatty acids (C16-C20) are generally localized in intracellular vesicles; therefore, ST C18:0 accumulation may reflect intracellular vesicle aggregation within spheroids. Ubiquitin system disruption apparently alters lipid metabolism, membrane organization, protein turnover, and axonal transport. Changes in membrane organization, particularly STs within lipid rafts, may disrupt cellular signaling pathways necessary for neuronal viability.
Several lipid synthesis pathways play important roles in the development and progression of hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC), although the precise molecular mechanisms remain to be elucidated. Here, we show the relationship between HCC progression and alteration of phospholipid composition regulated by lysophosphatidylcholine acyltransferase (LPCAT).
As the only imaging method available, Imaging Mass Spectrometry (IMS) can determine both the identity and the distribution of hundreds of molecules on tissue sections, all in one single run. IMS is becoming an established research technology, and due to recent technical and methodological improvements the interest in this technology is increasing steadily and within a wide range of scientific fields. Of the different IMS methods available, matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) IMS is the most commonly employed. The course at IMSC 2012 in Kyoto covered the fundamental principles and techniques of MALDI-IMS, assuming no previous experience in IMS. This mini review summarizes the content of the one-day course and describes some of the most recent work performed within this research field.
Abdominal aortic aneurysm (AAA) is a common disease among elderly individuals. However, the precise pathophysiology of AAA remains unknown. In AAA, an intraluminal thrombus prevents luminal perfusion of oxygen, allowing only the adventitial vaso vasorum (VV) to deliver oxygen and nutrients to the aortic wall. In this study, we examined changes in the adventitial VV wall in AAA to clarify the histopathological mechanisms underlying AAA. We found marked intimal hyperplasia of the adventitial VV in the AAA sac; further, immunohistological studies revealed proliferation of smooth muscle cells, which caused luminal stenosis of the VV. We also found decreased HemeB signals in the aortic wall of the sac as compared with those in the aortic wall of the neck region in AAA. The stenosis of adventitial VV in the AAA sac and the malperfusion of the aortic wall observed in the present study are new aspects of AAA pathology that are expected to enhance our understanding of this disease.
It has been recognized that ceramides are decreased in the epidermis of patients with psoriasis and atopic dermatitis. Here, we generated Sptlc2 (serine palmitoyltransferase long-chain base subunit 2)-targeted mice (SPT-cKO mice), thereby knocking out serine palmitoyltransferase (SPT), the critical enzyme for ceramide biosynthesis, in keratinocytes. SPT-cKO mice showed decreased ceramide levels in the epidermis, which impaired water-holding capacity and barrier function. From 2 weeks of age, they developed skin lesions with histological aberrations including hyperkeratosis, acanthosis, loss of the granular layer, and inflammatory cell infiltrates. Epidermal Langerhans cells showed persistent activation and enhanced migration to lymph nodes. Skin lesions showed upregulation of psoriasis-associated genes, such as IL-17A, IL-17F, IL-22, S100A8, S100A9, and ?-defensins. In the skin lesions and draining lymph nodes, there were increased numbers of ?? T cells that produced IL-17 (??-17 cells), most of which also produced IL-22, as do Th17 cells. Furthermore, IL-23-producing CD11c(+) cells were observed in the lesions. In vivo treatment of SPT-cKO mice with an anti-IL-12/23p40 antibody ameliorated the skin lesions and reduced the numbers of ??-17 cells. Therefore, we conclude that a ceramide deficiency in the epidermis leads to psoriasis-like lesions in mice, probably mediated by IL-23-dependent IL-22-producing ??-17 cells.
Control of liver metastasis is an important issue in the treatment of colorectal cancer (CRC). MicroRNAs have been shown to be involved in the development of many cancers, but little is known about their role in the process of colorectal liver metastasis. We compared miRNA expression between primary colorectal tumors and liver metastasis to identify those involved in the process of metastasis. Cancer cells were isolated from formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded primary CRC samples and their corresponding metastatic liver tumors in six patients using laser capture microdissection, and miRNA expression was analyzed using TaqMan miRNA arrays. The most abundant miRNA in liver metastasis compared with primary tumors was miR-122. Immunohistochemical analysis revealed that the expression levels of cationic amino acid transporter 1 (CAT1), a negative target gene of miR-122, were lower in liver metastases than primary tumors (P < 0.001). Expression levels of CAT1 in 132 primary tumors were negatively correlated with the existence of synchronous liver metastasis (P = 0.0333) and tumor stage (P < 0.0001). In an analysis of 121 colon cancer patients without synchronous liver metastasis, patients with CAT1-low colon cancer had significantly shorter liver metastasis-free survival (P = 0.0258) but not overall survival or disease-free survival. Overexpression of miR-122 and concomitant suppression of CAT1 in the primary tumor appears to play important roles in the development of colorectal liver metastasis. Expression of CAT1 in the primary CRC has the potential to be a novel biomarker to predict the risk of postoperative liver metastasis of CRC patients.
Triglyceride (TG) accumulation in arterial tissue is associated with the development of cardiovascular disease; however, the underlying mechanism remains unclear. Cilostazol (CLZ), a selective inhibitor of phosphodiesterase 3, has antiplatelet and vasodilating effects and may decrease serum TG levels. We examined the effect of CLZ on TG accumulation in the arterial tissue of a rat model of carotid artery ligation.
Gaucher disease (GD) is the most common of the lysosomal storage disorders and is caused by defects in the GBA gene encoding glucocerebrosidase (GlcCerase). The accumulation of its substrate, glucocylceramide (GlcCer) is considered the main cause of GD. We found here that the expression of human mutated GlcCerase gene (hGBA) that is associated with neuronopathy in GD patients causes neurodevelopmental defects in Drosophila eyes. The data indicate that endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was elevated in Drosophila eye carrying mutated hGBAs by using of the ER stress markers dXBP1 and dBiP. We also found that Ambroxol, a potential pharmacological chaperone for mutated hGBAs, can alleviate the neuronopathic phenotype through reducing ER stress. We demonstrate a novel mechanism of neurodevelopmental defects mediated by ER stress through expression of mutants of human GBA gene in the eye of Drosophila.
Breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer and mortality in women worldwide. Recent studies have argued that there is a close relationship between lipid synthesis and cancer progression because some enzymes related to lipid synthesis are overexpressed in breast cancer tissues. However, lipid distribution in breast cancer tissues has not been investigated. We aimed to visualize phosphatidylcholines (PCs) and lysoPCs (LPCs) in human breast cancer tissues by performing matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a novel technique that enables the visualization of molecules comprehensively. Twenty-nine breast tissue samples were obtained during surgery and subjected to MALDI-IMS analysis. We evaluated the heterogeneity of the distribution of PCs and LPCs on the tissues. Three species [PC(32?1), PC(34?1), and PC(36?1)] of PCs with 1 mono-unsaturated fatty acid chain and 1 saturated fatty acid chain (MUFA-PCs) and one [PC(34?0)] of PCs with 2 saturated fatty acid chains (SFA-PC) were relatively localized in cancerous areas rather than the rest of the sections (named reference area). In addition, the LPCs did not show any biased distribution. The relative amounts of PC(36?1) compared to PC(36?0) and that of PC(36?1) to LPC(18?0) were significantly higher in the cancerous areas. The protein expression of stearoyl-CoA desaturase-1 (SCD1), which is a synthetic enzyme of MUFA, showed accumulation in the cancerous areas as observed by the results of immunohistochemical staining. The ratios were further analyzed considering the differences in expressions of the estrogen receptor (ER), human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2), and Ki67. The ratios of the signal intensity of PC(36?1) to that of PC(36?0) was higher in the lesions with positive ER expression. The contribution of SCD1 and other enzymes to the formation of the observed phospholipid composition is discussed.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC) is the most abundant component of lipid bilayers and exists in various molecular forms, through combinations of two acylated fatty acids. Arachidonic acid (AA)-containing PC (AA-PC) can be a source of AA, which is a crucial mediator of synaptic transmission and intracellular signaling. However, the distribution of AA-PC within neurons has not been indicated. In the present study, we used imaging mass spectrometry to characterize the distribution of PC species in cultured neurons of superior cervical ganglia. Intriguingly, PC species exhibited a unique distribution that was dependent on the acyl chains at the sn-2 position. In particular, we found that AA-PC is enriched within the axon and is distributed across a proximal-to-distal gradient. Inhibitors of actin dynamics (cytochalasin D and phallacidin) disrupted this gradient. This is the first report of the gradual distribution of AA-PC along the axon and its association with actin dynamics.
The Purkinje cell degeneration (pcd) mouse has a disruption in the gene encoding cytosolic carboxypeptidase 1 (CCP1). This study tested two proposed functions of CCP1: degradation of intracellular peptides and processing of tubulin. Overexpression (2-3-fold) or knockdown (80-90%) of CCP1 in human embryonic kidney 293T cells (HEK293T) did not affect the levels of most intracellular peptides but altered the levels of ?-tubulin lacking two C-terminal amino acids (delta2-tubulin) ? 5-fold, suggesting that tubulin processing is the primary function of CCP1, not peptide degradation. Purified CCP1 produced delta2-tubulin from purified porcine brain ?-tubulin or polymerized HEK293T microtubules. In addition, CCP1 removed Glu residues from the polyglutamyl side chains of porcine brain ?- and ?-tubulin and also generated a form of ?-tubulin with two C-terminal Glu residues removed (delta3-tubulin). Consistent with this, pcd mouse brain showed hyperglutamylation of both ?- and ?-tubulin. The hyperglutamylation of ?- and ?-tubulin and subsequent death of Purkinje cells in pcd mice was counteracted by the knock-out of the gene encoding tubulin tyrosine ligase-like-1, indicating that this enzyme hyperglutamylates ?- and ?-tubulin. Taken together, these results demonstrate a role for CCP1 in the processing of Glu residues from ?- as well as ?-tubulin in vitro and in vivo.
Direct tissue analysis using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) mass spectrometry (MS) provides the means for in situ molecular analysis of a wide variety of biomolecules. This technology--known as imaging mass spectrometry (IMS)--allows the measurement of biomolecules in their native biological environments without the need for target-specific reagents such as antibodies. In this study, we applied the IMS technique to formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded samples to identify a substance(s) responsible for the intestinal obstruction caused by an unidentified foreign body. In advance of IMS analysis, some pretreatments were applied. After the deparaffinization of sections, samples were subjected to enzyme digestion. The sections co-crystallized with matrix were desorbed and ionized by a laser pulse with scanning. A combination of ?-amylase digestion and the 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid matrix gave the best mass spectrum. With the IMS Convolution software which we developed, we could automatically extract meaningful signals from the IMS datasets. The representative peak values were m/z 1,013, 1,175, 1,337, 1,499, 1,661, 1,823, and 1,985. Thus, it was revealed that the material was polymer with a 162-Da unit size, calculated from the even intervals. In comparison with the mass spectra of the histopathological specimen and authentic materials, the main component coincided with amylopectin rather than amylose. Tandem MS analysis proved that the main components were oligosaccharides. Finally, we confirmed the identification of amylopectin by staining with periodic acid-Schiff and iodine. These results for the first time show the advantages of MALDI-IMS in combination with enzyme digestion for the direct analysis of oligosaccharides as a major component of histopathological samples.
We report the detection of a group of endogenous low molecular weight metabolites (LMWM) in mouse brain (80-500 Da) using TiO(2) nanoparticles (NPs) in nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (Nano-PALDI-IMS) without any washing and separation step prior to MS analysis. The identification of metabolites using TiO(2) NPs was compared with a conventional organic matrix 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) where signals of 179 molecules were specific to TiO(2) NPs, 4 were specific to DHB, and 21 were common to both TiO(2) NPs and DHB. The use of TiO(2) NPs enabled the detection of a higher number of LMWM as compared to DHB and gold NPs as a matrix. This approach is a simple, inexpensive, washing, and separation free for imaging and identification of LMWM in mouse brain. We believe that the biochemical information from distinct regions of the brain using a Nano-PALDI-IMS will be helpful in elucidating the imbalances linked with diseases in biomedical samples.
Infantile neuroaxonal dystrophy (INAD) is a fatal neurodegenerative disease characterized by the widespread presence of axonal swellings (spheroids) in the CNS and PNS and is caused by gene abnormality in PLA2G6 [calcium-independent phospholipase A(2)? (iPLA(2)?)], which is essential for remodeling of membrane phospholipids. To clarify the pathomechanism of INAD, we pathologically analyzed the spinal cords and sciatic nerves of iPLA(2)? knock-out (KO) mice, a model of INAD. At 15 weeks (preclinical stage), periodic acid-Schiff (PAS)-positive granules were frequently observed in proximal axons and the perinuclear space of large neurons, and these were strongly positive for a marker of the mitochondrial outer membrane and negative for a marker of the inner membrane. By 100 weeks (late clinical stage), PAS-positive granules and spheroids had increased significantly in the distal parts of axons, and ultrastructural examination revealed that these granules were, in fact, mitochondria with degenerative inner membranes. Collapse of mitochondria in axons was accompanied by focal disappearance of the cytoskeleton. Partial membrane loss at axon terminals was also evident, accompanied by degenerative membranes in the same areas. Imaging mass spectrometry showed a prominent increase of docosahexaenoic acid-containing phosphatidylcholine in the gray matter, suggesting insufficient membrane remodeling in the presence of iPLA(2)? deficiency. Prominent axonal degeneration in neuroaxonal dystrophy might be explained by the collapse of abnormal mitochondria after axonal transportation. Insufficient remodeling and degeneration of mitochondrial inner membranes and presynaptic membranes appear to be the cause of the neuroaxonal dystrophy in iPLA(2)?-KO mice.
Immunoglobulin A (IgA) nephropathy is the most common glomerular disease worldwide. To investigate the pathogenesis of this renal disease, we used animal models that spontaneously develop mesangioproliferative lesions with IgA deposition, which closely resemble the disease in humans. We analyzed the molecular distribution of lipids in hyper-IgA (HIGA) murine kidneys using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time of flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF)-based imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which supplies both spatial distribution of the detected molecules and allows identification of their structures by their molecular mass signature. For both HIGA and control (Balb/c) mice, we found two phosphatidylcholines, PC(16:0/22:6) and PC(18:2/22:6), primarily located in the cortex area and two triacylglycerols, TAG(16:0/18:2/18:1) and TAG(18:1/18:2/18:1), primarily located in the hilum area. However, several other molecules were specifically seen in the HIGA kidneys, particularly in the tubular areas. Two HIGA-specific molecules were O-phosphatidylcholines, PC(O-16:0/22:6) and PC(O-18:1/22:6). Interestingly, common phosphatidylcholines and these HIGA-specific ones possess 22:6 lipid side chains, suggesting that these molecules have a novel, unidentified renal function. Although the primary structure of the HIGA-specific molecules corresponding to m/z 854.6, 856.6, 880.6, and 882.6 remained undetermined, they shared similar fragmentation patterns, indicating their relatedness. We also showed that all the HIGA-specific molecules were derived from urine, and that artificial urinary stagnation-due to unilateral urethral obstruction-caused HIGA-specific distribution of lipids in the tubular area.
Human hair is one of the essential components that define appearance and is a useful source of samples for non-invasive biomonitoring. We describe a novel application of imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) of hair biomolecules for advanced molecular characterization and a better understanding of hair aging. As a cosmetic and biomedical application, molecules whose levels in hair altered with aging were comprehensively investigated.
After partial hepatectomy (PH), regenerating liver accumulates unknown lipid species. Here, we analyzed lipids in murine liver and adipose tissues following PH by thin-layer chromatography (TLC), imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), and real-time RT-PCR. In liver, IMS revealed that a single TLC band comprised major 19 TG species. Similarly, IMS showed a single phospholipid TLC band to be major 13 species. In adipose tissues, PH induced changes to expression of genes regulating lipid metabolism. Finally, IMS of phosphatidylcholine species demonstrated distribution gradients in lobules that resembled hepatic zonation. IMS is thus a novel and power tool for analyzing lipid species with high resolution.
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) enables the visualization of individual molecules present on tissue sections. We attempted to identify and visualize specific markers for aortic atherosclerotic lesions.
The mammalian tongue is one of the most important organs during food uptake because it is helpful for mastication and swallowing. In addition, taste receptors are present on the surface of the tongue. Lipids are the second most abundant biomolecules after water in the tongue. Lipids such as phosphatidylcholine (PC), lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and sphingomyelin (SM) are considered to play fundamental roles in the mediation of cell signaling. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is powerful tool for determining and visualizing the distribution of lipids across sections of dissected tissue. In this study, we identified and visualized the PC, LPC, and SM species in a mouse tongue body section with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-IMS. The ion image constructed from the peaks revealed that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA)-containing PC, LPC, linoleic acid-containing PC and SM (d18:1/16:0), and oleic acid-containing PC were mainly distributed in muscle, connective tissue, stratified epithelium, and the peripheral nerve, respectively. Furthermore, the distribution of SM (d18:1/16:0) corresponded to the distribution of nerve tissue relating to taste in the stratified epithelium. This study represents the first visualization of PC, LPC and SM localization in the mouse tongue body.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) is a powerful tool that enables the simultaneous detection and identification of biomolecules in analytes. MALDI-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) is a two-dimensional MALDI-MS technique used to visualize the spatial distribution of biomolecules without extraction, purification, separation, or labeling of biological samples. This technique can reveal the distribution of hundreds of ion signals in a single measurement and also helps in understanding the cellular profile of the biological system. MALDI-IMS has already revealed the characteristic distribution of several kinds of lipids in various tissues. The versatility of MALDI-IMS has opened a new frontier in several fields, especially in lipidomics. In this review, we describe the methodology and applications of MALDI-IMS to biological samples.
Schizophrenia is one of the major psychiatric disorders, and lipids have focused on the important roles in this disorder. In fact, lipids related to various functions in the brain. Previous studies have indicated that phospholipids, particularly ones containing polyunsaturated fatty acyl residues, are deficient in postmortem brains from patients with schizophrenia. However, due to the difficulties in handling human postmortem brains, particularly the large size and complex structures of the human brain, there is little agreement regarding the qualitative and quantitative abnormalities of phospholipids in brains from patients with schizophrenia, particularly if corresponding brain regions are not used. In this study, to overcome these problems, we employed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), enabling direct microregion analysis of phospholipids in the postmortem brain of a patient with schizophrenia via brain sections prepared on glass slides. With integration of traditional histochemical examination, we could analyze regions of interest in the brain at the micrometric level. We found abnormal phospholipid distributions within internal brain structures, namely, the frontal cortex and occipital cortex. IMS revealed abnormal distributions of phosphatidylcholine molecular species particularly in the cortical layer of frontal cortex region. In addition, the combined use of liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry strengthened the capability for identification of numerous lipid molecular species. Our results are expected to further elucidate various metabolic processes in the neural system.
Analyses of energy metabolism in human cancer have been difficult because of rapid turnover of the metabolites and difficulties in reducing time for collecting clinical samples under surgical procedures. Utilization of xenograft transplantation of human-derived colon cancer HCT116 cells in spleens of superimmunodeficient NOD/SCID/IL-2R?(null) (NOG) mice led us to establish an experimental model of hepatic micrometastasis of the solid tumor, whereby analyses of the tissue sections collected by snap-frozen procedures through newly developed microscopic imaging mass spectrometry (MIMS) revealed distinct spatial distribution of a variety of metabolites. To perform intergroup comparison of the signal intensities of metabolites among different tissue sections collected from mice in fed states, we combined matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-IMS) and capillary electrophoresis-mass spectrometry (CE-MS), to determine the apparent contents of individual metabolites in serial tissue sections. The results indicated significant elevation of ATP and energy charge in both metastases and the parenchyma of the tumor-bearing livers. To note were significant increases in UDP-N-acetyl hexosamines, and reduced and oxidized forms of glutathione in the metastatic foci versus the liver parenchyma. These findings thus provided a potentially important method for characterizing the properties of metabolic systems of human-derived cancer and the host tissues in vivo.
In this study, we directly imaged subnanometer-scale structures of tubulins by performing frequency modulation atomic force microscopy (FM-AFM) in liquid. Individual ?-helices at the surface of a tubulin protofilament were imaged as periodic corrugations with a spacing of 0.53 nm, which corresponds to the common pitch of an ?-helix backbone (0.54 nm). The identification of individual ?-helices allowed us to determine the orientation of the deposited tubulin protofilament. As a result, C-terminal domains of tubulins were identified as protrusions with a height of 0.4 nm from the surface of the tubulin. The imaging mechanism for the observed subnanometer-scale contrasts is discussed in relation to the possible structures of the C-terminal domains. Because the C-terminal domains are chemically modified to regulate the interactions between tubulins and other biomolecules (e.g., motor proteins and microtubule-associated proteins), detailed structural information on individual C-terminal domains is valuable for understanding such regulation mechanisms. The results obtained in this study demonstrate that FM-AFM is capable of visualizing the structural variation of tubulins with subnanometer resolution. This is an important first step toward using FM-AFM to analyze the functions of tubulins.
Although the main cause of gastrointestinal stromal tumor (GIST) is gain-of-function mutations in the c-kit gene in the interstitial cells of Cajal, concomitant genetic or epigenetic changes other than c-kit appear to occur in the development of metastasis. We sought to identify the genes involved in the metastatic process of gastric GIST. Microarray analysis was performed to compare gene expressions between three gastric GIST and four metastatic liver GIST. Expression levels were higher for 165 genes and lower for 146 genes in metastatic liver GIST. The upregulation of five oncogenes and downregulation of four tumor suppressor genes including versican and CD9 were confirmed by quantitative reverse transcriptional PCR. Immunohistochemistry in 117 GIST revealed that protein levels of versican and CD9 were higher and lower, respectively, in metastatic GIST. High expression of versican and low expression of CD9 in 104 primary gastric GIST correlated with poor disease-free survival (P = 0.0078 and P = 0.0018). In addition to the c-kit gene mutation, genetic or epigenetic changes other than c-kit play important roles in the metastatic process. In particular, versican and CD9 are potential prognostic markers in gastric GIST.
Arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) using vein grafts are frequently used for vascular access in hemodialysis. When superficial veins are used as autogenous access grafts for hemodialysis, atherosclerotic-like tissue degeneration often causes stenosis and obstruction. Although the differences between the pathology of degeneration in AVF and atherosclerosis (i.e., peripheral artery occlusive disease (PAD)) are known, their underlying molecular mechanisms are not. We determined the characteristic abnormal lipid metabolism of AVF. Oil red O staining clearly showed the accumulation of lipid molecules in AVF and PAD tissues. We found that the staining pattern was different between AVF and PAD tissues. The media and adventitia of AVF and the intima and media of PAD were intensely stained. Quantitative lipid analysis revealed that the amount of PL was significantly increased in AVF and PAD. Next, we performed matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectroscopy and determined the characteristic distribution of lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) and phosphatidylcholine (PC) in AVF. The distribution patterns of LPC (1-acyl 16:0) and PC (diacyl 16:0/20:4) were consistent with the Oil red O staining images, suggesting that metabolisms related to LPC (1-acyl 16:0) and PC (diacyl 16:0/20:4) are altered in AVF.
We report the use of matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry combined with capillary electrophoresis (CE) mass spectrometry to visualize energy metabolism in the mouse hippocampus by imaging energy-related metabolites. We show the distribution patterns of ATP, ADP, and AMP in the hippocampus as well as changes in their amounts and distribution patterns in a murine model of limbic, kainate-induced seizure. As an acute response to kainate administration, we found massive and moderate reductions in ATP and ADP levels, respectively, but no significant changes in AMP levels--especially in cells of the CA3 layer. The results suggest the existence of CA3 neuron-selective energy metabolism at the anhydride bonds of ATP and ADP in the hippocampal neurons during seizure. In addition, metabolome analysis of energy synthesis pathways indicates accelerated glycolysis and possibly TCA cycle activity during seizure, presumably due to the depletion of ATP. Consistent with this result, the observed energy depletion significantly recovered up to 180 min after kainate administration. However, the recovery rate was remarkably low in part of the data-pixel population in the CA3 cell layer region, which likely reflects acute and CA3-selective neural death. Taken together, the present approach successfully revealed the spatiotemporal energy metabolism of the mouse hippocampus at a cellular resolution--both quantitatively and qualitatively. We aim to further elucidate various metabolic processes in the neural system.
It has become necessary to assess the authenticity of beef origin because of concerns regarding human health hazards. In this study, we used a metabolomic approach involving matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry to assess the authenticity of beef origin. Highly accurate data were obtained for samples of extracted lipids from beef of different origin; the samples were grouped according to their origin. The analysis of extracted lipids in this study ended within 10 min, suggesting this approach can be used as a simple authenticity assessment before a definitive identification by isotope analysis.
Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a powerful tool for detecting and visualizing biomolecules in tissue sections. The technology has been applied to several fields, and many researchers have started to apply it to pathological samples. However, it is very difficult for inexperienced users to extract meaningful signals from enormous IMS datasets, and the procedure is time-consuming. We have developed software, called IMS Convolution with regions of interest (ROI), to automatically extract meaningful signals from IMS datasets. The processing is based on the detection of common peaks within the ordered area in the IMS dataset. In this study, the IMS dataset from a mouse eyeball section was acquired by a mass microscope that we recently developed, and the peaks extracted by manual and automatic procedures were compared. The manual procedure extracted 16 peaks with higher intensity in mass spectra averaged in whole measurement points. On the other hand, the automatic procedure using IMS Convolution easily and equally extracted peaks without any effort. Moreover, the use of ROIs with IMS Convolution enabled us to extract the peak on each ROI area, and all of the 16 ion images on mouse eyeball tissue were from phosphatidylcholine species. Therefore, we believe that IMS Convolution with ROIs could automatically extract the meaningful peaks from large-volume IMS datasets for inexperienced users as well as for researchers who have performed the analysis.
SCRAPPER, an F-box protein coded by FBXL20, is a subunit of SCF type E3 ubiquitin ligase. SCRAPPER localizes synapses and directly binds to Rab3-interacting molecule 1 (RIM1), an essential factor for synaptic vesicle release, thus it regulates neural transmission via RIM1 degradation. A defect in SCRAPPER leads to neurotransmission abnormalities, which could subsequently result in neurodegenerative phenotypes. Because it is likely that the alteration of neural transmission in Scrapper mutant mice affect their systemic condition, we have analyzed the behavioral phenotypes of mice with decreased or increased the amount of SCRAPPER. We carried out a series of behavioral test batteries for Scrapper mutant mice. Scrapper transgenic mice overexpressing SCRAPPER in the hippocampus did not show any significant difference in every test argued in this manuscript by comparison with wild-type mice. On the other hand, heterozygotes of Scrapper knockout [SCR (+/-)] mice showed significant difference in the contextual but not cued fear conditioning test. In addition, SCR (+/-) mice altered in some tests reflecting anxiety, which implies the loss of functions of SCRAPPER in the hippocampus. The behavioral phenotypes of Scrapper mutant mice suggest that molecular degradation conferred by SCRAPPER play important roles in hippocampal-dependent fear memory formation.
The functional maturation of spermatozoa during epididymal transit in mammals accompanies the changes in their plasma membrane due to the binding or removal of proteins or interactions with the proteases, glycosidases and glycosyltransferases present in the epididymis. In order to study the surface changes in spermatozoa during their maturation in the epididymis, we previously established several monoclonal antibodies against the 54kDa sialoglycoprotein of mouse cauda epididymal spermatozoa, which gradually increased the expression of antigenic determinants during epididymal transit. One of these monoclonal antibodies, MC121, reacted with mouse sperm glycoproteins on a polyvinylidene fluoride membrane after desialylation of the glycoproteins, and the treatment of the desialylated sperm glycoproteins with ?-N-acetylhexosaminidase greatly decreased the expression of the antigenic determinants. In addition to reacting with mouse cauda epididymal spermatozoa, MC121 reacted with human red blood cells (hRBCs). MC121 induced agglutination of sialidase-treated hRBCs and stained hRBCs fixed with formalin vapor much more heavily than it stained hRBCs fixed with methanol. The thin layer chromatography (TLC) immunostaining of the sialidase-treated lipids of hRBCs with MC121 suggested that the epitope-bearing molecule is a glycosphingolipids (GSL), and that MC121 reacts with a pentaose-GSL. Analysis of sialidase-treated GSLs by TLC-Blot-Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization Time-of-Flight mass spectrometry (MALDI TOF MS) revealed that the GSL bound by MC121 was [HexNAc][HexNAc+Hex][Hex][Hex]-Cer. The lipid band stained with mAb TH2, which is specific for a GSL, GalNAc?1-3Gal?1-4GlcNAc?1-3Gal?1-4Glc?1-ceramide. These results indicated that the epitope to which MC121 binds is present in a neolacto-series GSL, IV³GalNAc?-nLc?Cer² sequence.
The distributions of neuropeptides in paraffin-embedded tissue sections (PETS) of the eyestalk, brain, and thoracic ganglia of the shrimp Penaeus monodon were visualized by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). Peptide signals were obtained from PETS without affecting morphological features. Twenty-nine neuropeptides comprising members of FMRFamide, SIFamides, crustacean hyperglycaemic hormone, orcokinin-related peptides, tachykinin-related peptides, and allatostatin A were detected and visualized. Among these findings we first identified tachykinin-related peptide as a novel neuropeptide in this shrimp species. We found that these neuropeptides were distributed at specific areas in the three neural organs. In addition, 28 peptide sequences derived from 4 types of constitutive proteins, including actin, histones, arginine kinase, and cyclophilin A were also detected. All peptide sequences were verified by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. The use of IMS on acetic acid-treated PETS enabled us to identify peptides and obtain their specific localizations in correlation with the undisturbed histological structure of the tissue samples.
Thin-layer chromatography (TLC) is an essential method for food composition analyses such as lipid nutrition analysis. TLC can be used to obtain information about the lipid composition of foods; however, it cannot be used for analyses at the molecular level. Recently we developed a new method that combines matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS) with TLC-blotting (TLC-Blot-MALDI-IMS). The combination of MALDI-IMS and TLC blotting enabled detailed and sensitive analyses of lipids. In this study, we applied TLC-Blot-MALDI-IMS for analysis of major phospholipids extracted from bluefin tuna. We showed that TLC-Blot-MALDI-IMS analysis could visualize and identify major phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine, phosphatidylinositol, phosphatidylserine, phosphatidylcholine, and sphingomyelin.
We have developed a TLC-Blot system that makes possible the direct analysis of blotted glycosphingolipids on a polyvinylidene difluoride membrane from a high-performance TLC plate by immunological staining, chemical staining, enzymatic treatment and mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. An ion trap type matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-quadrupole ion trap-time of flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF) MS apparatus improved not only the molecular identification but also the analysis of molecular species of lipids on the polyvinylidene difluoride membrane. A new approach for glyco- and lipidomics, molecular scanning technology by a combination of TLC-Blot and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS, was developed and applied to human brain gangliosides separated from the tissues of patients with neural diseases and control patients. The results clearly showed a change of ganglioside composition, in addition to identifying individual ganglioside molecular species, in the hippocampus gray matter of patients with Alzheimers disease. The results strongly suggested that metabolic changes of gangliosides played an important role in the progression of this disease. The present technology with molecular imaging should provide valuable information for elucidating the significance of molecular species in neuronal functions such as neural transmission, memory, and learning.
Using imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), we investigated the cerebral protective effect of an artificial cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), ARTCEREB (Artcereb, Otsuka Pharmaceutical Factory, Inc., Tokushima, Japan), as an irrigation and perfusion solution for neurosurgical procedures in a rat craniotomy model.
We have developed a thin layer chromatography (TLC)-Blot system that makes possible the direct analysis of blotted glycosphingolipids on a PVDF membrane from a high-performance TLC (HPTLC) plate by immunological staining, chemical staining, enzymatic treatment and mass spectrometric (MS) analysis. An ion trap type matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-time of flight (MALDI-QIT-TOF) MS apparatus improved not only the molecular identification but also the analysis of molecular species of lipids on the PVDF membrane. A new approach for glyco- and lipidomics, molecular scanning technology by a combination of TLC-Blot and MALDI-QIT-TOF MS, was developed and applied to human brain gangliosides separated from the tissues of patients with neural diseases and control patients. The results clearly showed a change of ganglioside composition, in addition to identifying individual ganglioside molecular species, in the hippocampus gray matter of patients with Alzheimers disease. The results strongly suggested that metabolic changes of gangliosides played an important role in the progression of this disease. The present technology with molecular imaging should provide valuable information for elucidating the significance of molecular species in neuronal functions such as neural transmission, memory, and learning.
Salamander large cells facilitated identification and localization of lipids by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry. Salamander retina lipid extract showed similarity with rodent retina lipid extract in phospholipid content and composition. Like rodent retina section, distinct layer distributions of phospholipids were observed in the salamander retina section. Phosphatidylcholines (PCs) composing saturated and monounsaturated fatty acids (PC 32:0, PC 32:1, and PC 34:1) were detected mainly in the outer and inner plexiform layers (OPL and IPL), whereas PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids (PC 36:4, PC 38:6, and PC 40:6) composed the inner segment (IS) and outer segment (OS). The presence of PCs containing polyunsaturated fatty acids in the OS layer implied that these phospholipids form flexible lipid bilayers, which facilitate phototransduction process occurring in the rhodopsin rich OS layer. Distinct distributions and relative signal intensities of phospholipids also indicated their relative abundance in a particular cell or a cell part. Using salamander large cells, a single cell level localization and identification of biomolecules could be achieved by MALDI imaging mass spectrometry.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) is a technique that localizes the spatial distribution of molecules and identifies structures by their molecular mass signatures. Recently, the resolution of MALDI-IMS has been up to microscopic level. MALDI-IMS does not need either separation or purification procedures of target molecules and enables us to observe the localization of numerous molecules simultaneously. In particular, MALDI-MS time-of-flight/time-of-flight (TOF/TOF) is one of the instruments widely adopted for IMS, which allows the analysis of numerous biomolecules ranging over wide molecular weights. Even in a single data point, hundreds and thousands of mass peaks can be detected, and this makes the resulting mass spectrum extremely complex. This enormous volume of IMS data has driven the development of statistical approaches, especially multivariate analyses. By employing these approaches, researchers can figure out the important characteristics of their IMS data sets. The establishment of automatic molecular identification procedures involving MS(2) analysis, also known as MS/MS, performed by tandem mass spectrometry to obtain the information about molecular structure and composition, and database search available on the web is an important task for the near future. In this review, we introduce IMS-especially MALDI-IMS-with reference to its applications in biomolecular analyses, the workflow of IMS, the principle of IMS and other related technologies.
Clathrin adaptor (AP) complexes facilitate membrane trafficking between subcellular compartments. One such compartment is the cilium, whose dysfunction underlies disorders classified as ciliopathies. Although AP-1mu subunit (UNC-101) is linked to cilium formation and targeting of transmembrane proteins (ODR-10) to nematode sensory cilia at distal dendrite tips, these functions remain poorly understood. Here, using Caenorhabditis elegans sensory neurons and mammalian cell culture models, we find conservation of AP-1 function in facilitating cilium morphology, positioning and orientation, and microtubule stability and acetylation. These defects appear to be independent of IFT, because AP-1-depleted cells possess normal IFT protein localisation and motility. By contrast, disruption of chc-1 (clathrin) or rab-8 phenocopies unc-101 worms, preventing ODR-10 vesicle formation and causing misrouting of ODR-10 to all plasma membrane destinations. Finally, ODR-10 colocalises with RAB-8 in cell soma and they cotranslocate along dendrites, whereas ODR-10 and UNC-101 signals do not overlap. Together, these data implicate conserved roles for metazoan AP-1 in facilitating cilium structure and function, and suggest cooperation with RAB-8 to coordinate distinct early steps in neuronal ciliary membrane sorting and trafficking.
The ionic matrix (IM) is considered to be versatile for matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization mass spectrometry (MALDI-MS) for the identification of a wide range of biomolecules due to its good solubility for a variety of analytes, formation of homogeneous crystals with analytes, and high vacuum stability. When these advantages are exploited, the performance of IM of ?-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamic acid butylamine (CHCAB) and 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid butylamine (DHBB) was compared with other matrixes for the identification of phospholipids in standard mixtures and mouse liver tissue sections. The results showed that the IM of CHCAB caused higher signal intensity and allowed the detection of a number phospholipids such as phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylserine (PS) in addition to detection of phosphatidylcholine (PC) on the surface of the liver tissue sample. The IM of CHCAB was also used to identify the species of lipids present in different layers of cerebellum where the greater numbers of biomolecules were detected as compared to DHB matrix. Further, the feasibility of the proposed method was extended for the analysis of tryptic digested cytochrome c for increased signal intensity and number of peptide sequences in MALDI-MS. Thus, the application of IM to MALDI-MS could be a promising tool for imaging biomolecules in tissue sections in high throughput analyses with high sensitivity.
Neurons have a large surface because of their long and thin neurites. This surface is composed of a lipid bilayer. Lipids have not been actively investigated so far because of some technical difficulties, although evidence from cell biology is emerging that lipids contain valuable information about their roles in the central nervous system. Recent progress in techniques, e.g., mass spectrometry, opens a new epoch of lipid research. We show herein the characteristic localization of phospholipid components in neurites by means of time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry. We used explant cultures of mouse superior cervical ganglia, which are widely used by neurite investigation research. In a positive-ion detection mode, phospholipid head group molecules were predominantly detected. The ions of m/z 206.1 [phosphocholine, a common component of phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM)] were evenly distributed throughout the neurites, whereas the ions of m/z 224.1, 246.1 (glycerophosphocholine, a part of PC, but not SM) showed relatively strong intensity on neurites adjacent to soma. In a negative-ion detection mode, fatty acids such as oleic and palmitic acids were mainly detected, showing high intensity on neurites adjacent to soma. Our results suggest that lipid components on the neuritic surface show characteristic distributions depending on neurite region.
Mass spectrometry (MS) is an analytical technique that separates ionized molecules using differences in their mass, and can be used to determine the structure of the molecules. Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI) is one of the most commonly used ionization methods for this procedure. A new technical method, imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), which is a two-dimensional MS, enables molecular imaging of tissue sections by the use of the MALDI-MS method. In this chapter, we briefly discuss available methods for analyzing glycolipids by IMS. We describe sample detection strategies, and also introduce a representative example of its research application.
Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world and new varieties have been bred for specific purposes, such as the development of drought-resistance, or the enrichment of functional food factors. The localization and composition of metabolites in such new varieties must be investigated because all artificial interventions are expected to change the metabolites of rice. Imaging mass spectrometry using matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI-IMS) is a suitable tool for investigating the localization and composition of metabolites; however, suitable methodologies for the MALDI-IMS analysis of rice have not yet been established. In this study, we optimized the methods for analyzing rice grains by MALDI-IMS using adhesive film and found the characteristic distribution of metabolites in rice. Lysophosphatidylcholine (LPC) was localized in the endosperm. Phosphatidylcholine (PC), gamma-oryzanol and phytic acid were localized in the bran (germ and seed coat), and alpha-tocopherol was distributed in the germ (especially in the scutellum). In addition, MALDI-IMS revealed the LPC and PC composition of the rice samples. The LPC composition, LPC (1-acyl 16:0), LPC (1-acyl 18:2), LPC (1-acyl 18:1) and LPC (1-acyl 18:0), was 59.4 +/- 4.5%, 19.6 +/- 2.5%, 14.2 +/- 4.5% and 6.8 +/- 1.4%. The PC composition, PC (diacyl 16:0/18:2), PC (diacyl 16:0/18:1), PC (diacyl 18:1/18:3), PC (diacyl 18:1/18:2) and PC (diacyl 18:1/18:2), was 19.6 +/- 1.0%, 21.0 +/- 1.0%, 15.0 +/- 1.4%, 26.7 +/- 0.7% and 17.8 +/- 1.9%. This approach can be applied to the assessment of metabolites not only in rice, but also in other foods for which the preparation of sections is a challenging task.
Statins (3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-coenzyme A reductase inhibitors) have pleiotropic vascular protective effects besides cholesterol lowering. Recently, experimental and clinical studies have indicated that senescence of endothelial cells is involved in endothelial dysfunction and atherogenesis. Therefore, the present study was performed to determine whether statins would reduce endothelial senescence and to clarify the molecular mechanisms underlying the antisenescent property of statins.
Matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization (MALDI)-imaging mass spectrometry (IMS, also referred to as mass spectrometry imaging [MSI]) enables visualization of the distribution of biomolecules with varied and vast structures in tissue sections. This emerging imaging technique was initially developed as a tool for protein imaging; however, the number of studies reporting imaging of small organic molecules has recently increased. IMS is an effective technique for the visualization of endogenous small metabolites, especially lipids, facilitated by the unique advantages of mass spectrometry-based molecular detection. Despite the promising capability of MALDI-IMS for imaging small metabolites, this technique still has several issues, especially in spatial resolution. One of the critical limitations of the spatial resolution of MALDI-IMS is the size of the organic matrix crystal and the analyte migration during the matrix application process. To overcome these problems, we reported a nanoparticle (NP)-assisted laser desorption/ionization (nano-PALDI)-based IMS, in which the matrix crystallization process is eliminated. In this chapter, a practical protocol for MALDI-IMS of lipids is outlined. In addition, as an attractive alternative to MALDI-based IMS, we also present nanoparticle-based IMS that improves spatial resolution.
We applied imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) to determine the spatial distribution of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA). We found that GABA had a specific localization in seeds. We also visualized various biomolecules as well as GABA with higher spatial resolution than in the previous report. Our work suggests that IMS might be a powerful tool for exploring functional food factors, investigating the specific distribution of nutrients in unused natural resources, and evaluating the quality of functional foods.
Tubulin polyglutamylation is a reversible post-translational modification, serving important roles in microtubule (MT)-related processes. Polyglutamylases of the tubulin tyrosine ligase-like (TTLL) family add glutamate moieties to specific tubulin glutamate residues, whereas as yet unknown deglutamylases shorten polyglutamate chains. First we investigated regulatory machinery of tubulin glutamylation in MT-based sensory cilia of the roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans. We found that ciliary MTs were polyglutamylated by a process requiring ttll-4. Conversely, loss of ccpp-6 gene function, which encodes one of two cytosolic carboxypeptidases (CCPs), resulted in elevated levels of ciliary MT polyglutamylation. Consistent with a deglutamylase function for ccpp-6, overexpression of this gene in ciliated cells decreased polyglutamylation signals. Similarly, we confirmed that overexpression of murine CCP5, one of two sequence orthologs of nematode ccpp-6, caused a dramatic loss of MT polyglutamylation in cultured mammalian cells. Finally, using an in vitro assay for tubulin glutamylation, we found that recombinantly expressed Myc-tagged CCP5 exhibited deglutamylase biochemical activities. Together, these data from two evolutionarily divergent systems identify C. elegans CCPP-6 and its mammalian ortholog CCP5 as a tubulin deglutamylase.
Airway epithelial cilia protect the mammalian respiratory system from harmful inhaled materials by providing the force necessary for effective mucociliary clearance. Ciliary beating is asymmetric, composed of clearly distinguished effective and recovery strokes. Neither the importance of nor the essential components responsible for the beating asymmetry has been directly elucidated. We report here that the beating asymmetry is crucial for ciliary function and requires tubulin glutamylation, a unique posttranslational modification that is highly abundant in cilia. WT murine tracheal cilia have an axoneme-intrinsic structural curvature that points in the direction of effective strokes. The axonemal curvature was lost in tracheal cilia from mice with knockout of a tubulin glutamylation-performing enzyme, tubulin tyrosine ligase-like protein 1. Along with the loss of axonemal curvature, the axonemes and tracheal epithelial cilia from these knockout (KO) mice lost beating asymmetry. The loss of beating asymmetry resulted in a reduction of cilia-generated fluid flow in trachea from the KO mice. The KO mice displayed a significant accumulation of mucus in the nasal cavity, and also emitted frequent coughing- or sneezing-like noises. Thus, the beating asymmetry is important for airway ciliary function. Our findings provide evidence that tubulin glutamylation is essential for ciliary function through the regulation of beating asymmetry, and provides insight into the molecular basis underlying the beating asymmetry.
Local responses of energy metabolism during brain ischemia are too heterogeneous to decipher redox distribution between anoxic core and adjacent salvageable regions such as penumbra. Imaging mass spectrometry combined by capillary electrophoresis/mass spectrometry providing quantitative metabolomics revealed spatio-temporal changes in adenylates and NADH in a mouse middle-cerebral artery occlusion model. Unlike the core where ATP decreased, the penumbra displayed paradoxical elevation of ATP despite the constrained blood supply. It is noteworthy that the NADH elevation in the ischemic region is clearly demarcated by the ATP-depleting core. Results suggest that metabolism in ischemic penumbra does not respond passively to compromised circulation, but actively compensates energy charges.
Glycosphingolipids (GSLs) are amphiphilic molecules consisting of a hydrophilic carbohydrate chain and a hydrophobic ceramide moiety. They appear to be involved primarily in biological processes such as cell proliferation, differentiation, and signaling. To investigate the mechanism of brain function in more detail, a more highly sensitive method that would reveal the GSL distribution in the brain is required. In this report, we describe a simple and efficient method for mapping the distribution and localization of GSLs present in mouse brain sections using nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (IMS). We have developed and tested gold nanoparticles (AuNPs) as a new matrix to maximize the detection of GSLs. A matrix of AuNPs modified with alkylamine was used to detect various GSLs, such as minor molecular species of sulfatides and gangliosides, in mouse brain sections; these GSLs were hardly detected using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB), which is the conventional matrix for GSLs. We achieved approximately 20 times more sensitive detection of GSLs using AuNPs compared to a DHB matrix. We believe that our new approach using AuNPs in IMS could lead to a new strategy for analyzing basic biological mechanisms and several diseases through the distribution of minor GSLs.
Phosphatidylcholine (PC), a phospholipid, is a basic structural component of cell membranes. PC species exhibit various binding patterns with fatty acids; however, the distributions of PC species have not been studied in the cochlea. In recent years, imaging mass spectrometry has been used as a biomolecular visualization technique in medical and biological sciences. We recently developed a mass microscope consisting of a mass spectrometry imager with high spatial resolution equipped with an atmospheric-pressure matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization and quadrupole ion trap time-of-flight analyzer. In this study, we applied the mass microscope to analyze cochlear tissue sections. The imager allowed visualization of the localization of PC species in each region of the cochlea. The structures of the PC species were determined using tandem mass spectrometry. PC(16:0/18:1) was highly localized in the organ of Corti and the stria vascularis. PC(16:0/18:2) was mainly observed in the spiral ligament. PC(16:0/16:1) was found primarily in the organ of Corti. These distributional differences may be associated with the cellular architecture of these cochlear regions.
SIRT1, a NAD-dependent deacetylase, has diverse roles in a variety of organs such as regulation of endocrine function and metabolism. However, it remains to be addressed how it regulates hormone release there.
We have developed a mass microscopy technique, i.e., a microscope combined with high-resolution matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization-imaging mass spectrometry (MALDI-IMS), which is a powerful tool for investigating the spatial distribution of biomolecules without any time-consuming extraction, purification, and separation procedures for biological tissue sections. Mass microscopy provides clear images about the distribution of hundreds of biomolecules in a single measurement and also helps in understanding the cellular profile of the biological system. The sample preparation and the spatial resolution and speed of the technique are all important steps that affect the identification of biomolecules in mass microscopy. In this Award Lecture Review, we focus on some of the recent developments in clinical applications to show how mass microscopy can be employed to assess medical molecular morphology.
Microtubules (MTs) play specialized roles in a wide variety of cellular events, e.g. molecular transport, cell motility, and cell division. Specialized MT architectures, such as bundles, axonemes, and centrioles, underlie the function. The specialized function and highly organized structure depend on interactions with MT-binding proteins. MT-associated proteins (e.g. MAP1, MAP2, and tau), molecular motors (kinesin and dynein), plus-end tracking proteins (e.g. CLIP-170), and MT-severing proteins (e.g. katanin) interact with MTs. How can the MT-binding proteins know temporospatial information to associate with MTs and to properly play their roles? Post-translational modifications (PTMs) including detyrosination, polyglutamylation, and polyglycylation can provide molecular landmarks for the proteins. Recent efforts to identify modification-regulating enzymes (TTL, carboxypeptidase, polyglutamylase, polyglycylase) and to generate genetically manipulated animals enable us to understand the roles of the modifications. In this review, we present recent advances in understanding regulation of MT function, structure, and stability by PTMs.
A new approach to the visualization of fatty acids in mouse liver and retinal samples has been developed using silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) in nanoparticle-assisted laser desorption/ionization imaging mass spectrometry (nano-PALDI-IMS) in negative ion mode. So far, IMS analysis has concentrated on main cell components, such as cell membrane phospholipids and cytoskeletal peptides. AgNPs modified with alkylcarboxylate and alkylamine were used for nano-PALDI-IMS to identify fatty acids, such as stearic, oleic, linoleic, arachidonic, and eicosapentaenoic acids, as well as palmitic acid, in mouse liver sections; these fatty acids are not detected using 2,5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (DHB) as a matrix. The limit of detection for the determination of palmitic acid was 50 pmol using nano-PALDI-IMS. The nano-PALDI-IMS method is successfully applied to the reconstruction of the ion images of fatty acids in mouse liver sections. We verified the detection of fatty acids in liver tissue sections of mice by analyzing standard lipid samples, which showed that fatty acids were from free fatty acids and dissociated fatty acids from lipids when irradiated with a laser. Additionally, we applied the proposed method to the identification of fatty acids in mouse retinal tissue sections, which enabled us to learn the six-zonal distribution of fatty acids in different layers of the retina. We believe that the current approach using AgNPs in nano-PALDI-IMS could lead to a new strategy to analyze basic biological mechanisms and several diseases through the distribution of fatty acids.
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