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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Increase of TRPV1-Immunoreactivity in Dorsal Root Ganglia Neurons Innervating the Femur in a Rat Model of Osteoporosis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, which can be activated by capsaicin and other noxious stimuli. Recently, an association between bone pain and TRPV1 has been reported. However, the influence of osteoporosis on TRPV1 in the sensory system innervating the femur has not been reported.
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Miniopen oblique lateral L5-s1 interbody fusion: a report of 2 cases.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 08-26-2014
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Extreme lateral interbody fusion (XLIF) has been widely used for minimally invasive anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF), but an approach to L5-S1 is difficult because of the iliac crest. In the current study, we present 2 cases using minimally invasive oblique lateral interbody fusion (OLIF) of L5-S1. The patients showed foraminal stenosis between L5 and S1 and severe low back and leg pain. The patients were placed in a lateral decubitus position and underwent OLIF surgery (using a cage and bone graft from the iliac crest) without posterior decompression. Posterior screws were used in the patients. Pain scores significantly improved after surgery. There was no spinal nerve, major vessel, peritoneal, or urinary injury. OLIF surgery was minimally invasive and produced good surgical results without complications.
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Progressive change in joint degeneration in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis treated with fentanyl in a randomized trial.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 07-23-2014
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Opioids improve pain from knee and hip osteoarthritis (OA) and decrease the functional impairment of patients. However, there is a possibility that opioids induce analgesia and suppress the physiological pain of OA in patients, thereby inducing the progression of OA changes in these patients. The purpose of the current study was to investigate the possibility of progressive changes in OA among patients using opioids.
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Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1-immunoreactive innervation increases in fractured rat femur.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 06-28-2014
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Pain from vertebral or femoral neck fractures is a particularly important problem in clinical orthopaedics. Transient receptor potential vanilloid 1 (TRPV1) is a ligand-gated nonselective cation channel, and there are recent reports on an association between bone pain and TRPV1. However, an increase in TRPV1 activity has not been reported following femoral fracture.
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Incidence of nocturnal leg cramps in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis before and after conservative and surgical treatment.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-01-2014
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To examine the effects of conservative and surgical treatments for nocturnal leg cramps in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). Nocturnal leg cramps is frequently observed in patients with peripheral neuropathy. However, there have been few reports on the relationship between nocturnal leg cramps and LSS, and it remains unknown whether conservative or surgical intervention has an impact on leg cramps in patients with LSS.
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Injection of bupivacaine into disc space to detect painful nonunion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery in patients with discogenic low back pain.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2014
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Bupivacaine is commonly used for the treatment of back pain and the diagnosis of its origin. Nonunion is sometimes observed after spinal fusion surgery; however, whether the nonunion causes pain is controversial. In the current study, we aimed to detect painful nonunion by injecting bupivacaine into the disc space of patients with nonunion after anterior lumbar interbody fusion (ALIF) surgery for discogenic low back pain.
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Differences between tumor necrosis factor-? receptors types 1 and 2 in the modulation of spinal glial cell activation and mechanical allodynia in a rat sciatic nerve injury model.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2013
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Immunohistological analysis of spinal glial cells and analysis of pain behavior in the rat neuropathic pain model were investigated to clarify the function of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? receptors p55 type 1 and p75 type 2.
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Vertebral Compression Exacerbates Osteoporotic Pain in an Ovariectomy-Induced Osteoporosis Rat Model.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 09-13-2013
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Study Design. Basic pain study using osteoporotic rodent models.Objective. To examine alterations in distribution of pain-related neuropeptides following compressive force on osteoporotic vertebrae and their chronic pain-related properties.Summary of Background Data. We previously reported significantly increased production of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), a marker of inflammatory pain, in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) of vertebrae in osteoporosis-model ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Here, we hypothesized that longitudinal compressive force on vertebrae can affect osteoporotic pain properties, which has not been examined yet.Methods. OVX rats were used as the osteoporosis model. Female Sprague Dawley rats were prepared and Fluoro-Gold (FG) neurotracer was applied to the periosteal surface of the Co5 vertebra. After FG-labeling, the animals were divided into 4 groups: Control, Control + compression, OVX, and OVX + compression. The Control groups were not ovariectomized. In the compression groups, K-wires were stabbed transversely through Co4 and Co6 with Co5 compressed longitudinally by rubber bands bridged between the two. One, 2, 4, and 8 weeks after surgery, bilateral S1 to S3 DRGs were excised for immunofluorescence assays. Expression of CGRP and activating transcription factor 3 (ATF-3), a marker of neuronal injury, were compared among the 4 groups.Results. Sustained upregulation of CGRP in DRG neurons was observed following compression of the Co5 vertebra, and Co5 compression caused significant increase in CGRP production in DRG neurons, while a greater level of ATF-3 upregulation was observed in DRGs in OVX rats following dynamic vertebral compression 8 weeks after surgery, implying potential neuropathic pain.Conclusion: There was sustained upregulation of CGRP and ATF3 in DRGs in osteoporotic model rats compared with controls, and levels were further enhanced by dynamic vertebral compression. These findings imply that dynamic compression stress on vertebrae can exacerbate osteoporotic pain by inducing both inflammatory and neuropathic pain mediators.
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Evaluation of behavior and expression of NaV1.7 in dorsal root ganglia after sciatic nerve compression and application of nucleus pulposus in rats.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 07-30-2013
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The pathomechanisms of pain resulting from lumbar disc herniation have not been fully elucidated. Prostaglandins and cytokines generated at the inflammatory site produce associated pain; however, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs and steroids are sometimes ineffective in patients. Tetrodotoxin-sensitive voltage-gated sodium (NaV) channels are related to sensory transmission in primary sensory nerves. The sodium channel NaV1.7 has emerged as an attractive analgesic target. The purpose of this study was to evaluate pain-related behavior and expression of NaV1.7 in dorsal root ganglia (DRG) after combined sciatic nerve compression and nucleus pulposus (NP) application in rats.
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Delayed postoperative epidural hematoma presenting only with vesicorectal disturbance.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 07-01-2013
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We present a rare case of delayed onset of epidural hematoma after lumbar surgery whose only presenting symptom was vesicorectal disturbance. A 68-year-old man with degenerative spinal stenosis underwent lumbar decompression and instrumented posterolateral spine fusion. The day after his discharge following an unremarkable postoperative course, he presented to the emergency room complaining of difficulty in urination. An MRI revealed an epidural fluid collection causing compression of the thecal sac. The fluid was evacuated, revealing a postoperative hematoma. After removal of the hematoma, his symptoms disappeared immediately, and his urinary function completely recovered. Most reports have characterized postoperative epidural hematoma as occurring early after operation and accompanied with neurological deficits. But it can happen even two weeks after spinal surgery with no pain. Surgeons thus may need to follow up patients for at least a few weeks because some complications, such as epidural hematomas, could take that long to manifest themselves.
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The effect of platelet-rich plasma on posterolateral lumbar fusion in a rat model.
J Bone Joint Surg Am
PUBLISHED: 06-21-2013
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Our purpose was to examine platelet-rich plasma (PRP) for its effect on bone formation and to follow the immunohistochemical changes in calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) in dorsal root ganglion neurons innervating the discs as a possible index of nociceptive nerve transmission in a rat model.
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Posterior and anterior spinal fusion for the management of deformities in patients with Parkinsons disease.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 06-11-2013
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Introduction. Spinal scoliosis and kyphosis in elderly people sometimes cause severe low back pain. Surgical methods such as osteotomy are useful for correcting the deformity. However, complications during and after surgery are associated with the osteotomy procedure. In particular, it is difficult to manage deformity correction surgery for patients with Parkinsons disease. Here, we present two cases of combined anterior and posterior surgery for deformity in patients with adult scoliosis and kyphosis due to Parkinsons disease. Case Presentation. Two 70-year-old women had spinal scoliosis and kyphosis due to Parkinsons disease. They had severe low back pain, and conservative treatment was not effective for the pain. Surgery was planned to correct the deformity in both patients. We performed combined posterior and anterior correction surgery. At first, posterior fusions were performed from T4 to the ilium using pedicle screws. Next, cages and autograft from the iliac crest were used in anterior lumbar surgery. The patients became symptom free after surgery. Bony fusion was observed 12 months after surgery. Conclusions. Combined posterior and anterior fusion surgery is effective for patients who show scoliosis and kyphosis deformity, and symptomatic low back pain due to Parkinsons disease.
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Anterolateral Corrective Lumbar Corpectomy and Interbody Fusion by Using Extended Screw Fixation without Posterior Instrumentation for Posttraumatic Kyphosis.
Case Rep Orthop
PUBLISHED: 05-31-2013
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A 26-year-old paraplegic schizophrenic Japanese woman suffered from severe kyphosis and back pain derived from lumbar burst fractures caused by jumping. She had already undergone resection of the L1 and L2 spinous processes for sharp angular kyphosis, but she still had severe kyphosis and back pain at the L1 and L2. Radiographical examination revealed fused anterior columns at L1 and L2 with severe local kyphosis and a significantly decreased percutaneous distance in the back. The patient underwent anterior instrumented bony resection including an L2 vertebral osteotomy: bilateral L2-L3 facetectomy and partial posterior osteotomy of the L2 vertebrae via a posterior approach followed by an anterior corpectomy of the L2 vertebrae and insertion of a cylindrical cage. No posterior instrumentation was used owing to the presence of atrophied paraspinal soft tissues. Lumbar interbody fusion was performed with vertebral body screws extending from T12 to L4 and corresponding anterior distension and posterior compression. The procedure corrected the kyphosis by 15° and enhanced local stability. Postsurgical visual analogue scale improved from 9.0 to 2.0 and Oswestry Disability Index from 40 to 17.8, respectively. In conclusion, we have demonstrated that anterolateral interbody fusion using extended fixation can compensate for posterior corrective surgery.
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Conservative and surgical treatment improves pain and ankle-brachial index in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.
Yonsei Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 05-28-2013
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The pathological mechanism of lumbar spinal stenosis is reduced blood flow in nerve roots and degeneration of nerve roots. Exercise and prostaglandin E1 is used for patients with peripheral arterial disease to increase capillary flow around the main artery and improve symptoms; however, the ankle-brachial index (ABI), an estimation of blood flow in the main artery in the leg, does not change after treatment. Lumbar spinal nerve roots contain somatosensory, somatomotor, and unmyelinated autonomic nerves. Improved blood flow by medication with prostaglandin E1 and decompression surgery in these spinal nerve roots may improve the function of nerve fibers innervating muscle, capillary, and main vessels in the lower leg, resulting in an increased ABI. The purpose of the study was to examine whether these treatments can improve ABI.
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English publication rate of 3,205 abstracts presented at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association and the Annual Research Meeting of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Previous studies reported that the publication rate of abstracts presented at overseas meetings was around 50 %. The study objectives were to determine the rate of publication in English-language journals and the impact factor (IF) for all papers presented at the Annual Meeting of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) and Annual Research Meeting of the Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOAR), and to compare the publication rates and IFs from abstracts accepted for oral versus poster presentations.
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In-vivo transfection of the proopiomelanocortin gene, precursor of endogenous endorphin, by use of radial shock waves alleviates neuropathic pain.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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Neuropathic pain is difficult to control and patient response to current treatment is often inadequate. Opioids have been widely used to treat a variety of pain states, but have several side effects. Endogenous opioids are clinically safe, but are not used for treatment because of rapid metabolism. However, in-vivo transfection of endogenous opioid genes could have a powerful and safe analgesic effect. The purpose of this study was to investigate the efficacy of proopiomelanocortin (POMC, a precursor of the endogenous opioid peptide ?-endorphin) gene transfer by use of radial shock waves (RSWs) in a rat neuropathic pain model.
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Percutaneously absorbed NSAIDs attenuate local production of proinflammatory cytokines and suppress the expression of c-Fos in the spinal cord of a rodent model of knee osteoarthritis.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 09-30-2011
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Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly used in clinical situations to reduce inflammation and pain. Percutaneous administration is one of the routes mainly used in Japan to deal with the pain from acute injuries, to chronic pain such as chronic low back pain and osteoarthritis (OA). There have been no studies that report the effect of percutaneous administration of NSAIDs on chronic pain in animal models. This study aimed to investigate the effect of percutaneously absorbed NSAIDs on a rodent model of OA.
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Direct application of the tumor necrosis factor-? inhibitor, etanercept, into a punctured intervertebral disc decreases calcitonin gene-related peptide expression in rat dorsal root ganglion neurons.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-07-2011
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retrograde neurotracing and immunohistochemistry were used to investigate the effect of the tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-? inhibitor, etanercept, on calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) expression in dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons innervating intervertebral discs in rats.
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Brain-derived neurotrophic factor inhibition at the punctured intervertebral disc downregulates the production of calcitonin gene-related peptide in dorsal root ganglia in rats.
Spine
PUBLISHED: 05-05-2011
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Retrograde neurotracing and immunohistochemical investigation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF)-related sensory innervation of punctured lumbar intervertebral discs (IVDs) in rat dorsal root ganglia (DRG).
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Single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion versus non-instrumented anterior interbody fusion for lumbar spondylolisthesis: a prospective study with a 2-year follow-up.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2011
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Surgery for lumbar spondylolisthesis is widely performed. However, there have been no reports comparing posterolateral and anterior interbody fusion prospectively. We compared instrumented posterolateral fusion with anterior interbody fusion for L4 spondylolisthesis in a prospective study.
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Single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion of the lumbar spine with a local bone graft versus an iliac crest bone graft: a prospective, randomized study with a 2-year follow-up.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 06-22-2010
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The iliac crest bone grafting (ICBG) technique for lumbar posterolateral fusion surgery is widely used; however, donor site problems such as pain and sensory disturbance have been reported. Local bone is available for fusion surgery, but its reliability as a graft has not been fully reported. In the current study, we examined single-level instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft versus an ICBG in a prospective randomized study. Eighty-two patients diagnosed with L4 degenerated spondylolisthesis were divided into two groups at random. Forty-two patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with a local bone graft (L4-L5 level), and 40 patients underwent instrumented posterolateral fusion with an ICBG (L4-L5 level). Rate and duration of bone union, visual analog scale (VAS) score, Japanese orthopedic association score (JOAS), Oswestry Disability Index (ODI), and complications were evaluated before and 2 years after therapy. VAS score, JOAS, and ODI were not significantly different between the two groups before and after surgery (P > 0.05). Rate and average duration of bone union were 90% and 8.5 months in the local bone graft group, and 85% and 7.7 months in the ICBG group, but without significant difference (P > 0.05). Prolonged surgical time and complications such as donor site pain (8 patients) and sensory disturbance (6 patients) were observed in the ICBG group. If single-level posterolateral fusion was performed, local bone graft technique has the same bone union rate compared with ICBG, requires less surgical time, and has fewer complications.
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Proinflammatory cytokines in the cerebrospinal fluid of patients with lumbar radiculopathy.
Eur Spine J
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2010
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In pathologic radicular pain of lumbar spinal stenosis, cytokines such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) and interleukins (ILs) play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of nerve degeneration and pain. We investigated TNF-? and IL-6 levels in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) of patients with radicular pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis (LSS). A total of 30 LSS patients and 10 age-matched controls were examined. CSF samples were obtained adjacent to the level of stenosis in 30 LSS patients, and at the L4-L5 level in the 10 control patients. TNF-? and IL-6 levels in the samples were analyzed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISA). We compared the amounts of TNF-? and IL-6 with severity of pain (low back and leg pain), walking ability, and severity of stenosis (cross-sectional area of dural space). The concentration of IL-6 was significantly higher in LSS patients than in controls, but TNF-? levels were beneath the limit of detection. There was no correlation between IL-6 levels and severity of pain or walking ability (p > 0.05). However, there was a significant correlation between IL-6 levels and severity of stenosis (p < 0.05). The current study showed that the increased CSF IL-6 levels in LSS patients with radicular pain were not correlated with pain severity; although not proven in this study, the increase in CSF IL-6 concentration could indicate pathological nerve damage or degeneration of lumbar radiculopathy represented by the severity of stenosis.
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Effectiveness of L2 spinal nerve infiltration for selective discogenic low back pain patients.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 03-01-2010
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It has been reported that rat L5/6 lumbar discs are innervated mainly by L2 dorsal root ganglion neurons. We previously reported that L2 spinal nerve infiltration was effective for discogenic low back pain (DLBP) patients, although the diagnosis was based only on the results of physical examination, plain films, and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). The purpose of the current study was to evaluate L2 spinal nerve block for DLBP patients retrospectively based on MRI findings and surgical results.
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Evaluation of low back pain using the Japanese Orthopaedic Association Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire for lumbar spinal disease in a multicenter study: differences in scores based on age, sex, and type of disease.
J Orthop Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-12-2010
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The Japanese Orthopaedic Association (JOA) has investigated the JOA Back Pain Evaluation Questionnaire (JOABPEQ) to evaluate several aspects of low back pain in patients. The score includes five categories (25 items) selected from the Roland Morris Disability Questionnaire and Short Form 36, and a visual analogue scale. Japanese physicians have recently used these scores to evaluate back pain; however, the efficacy has not been fully explored in large-scale studies. In the current study, we used the JOABPEQ to evaluate lumbar spinal disease in 555 patients (with lumbar disc herniation, lumbar spinal stenosis, and lumbar disc degeneration/spondylosis) in multiple spine centers and compared the results based on age, sex, and type of disease.
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L5 spinal nerve injury caused by misplacement of outwardly-inserted S1 pedicle screws.
Eur Spine J
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To evaluate L5 nerve root injuries caused by outwardly misplaced S1 pedicle screws. Pedicle screws remain the criterion standard for fixation of L5-S1 to correct lumbosacral instability. When inserting S1 pedicle screws, it is possible to injure the L5 nerve root if screws are inserted outwardly and the tip of the screw perforates the anterior cortex of the sacrum. Despite this risk, to our knowledge this type of injury has never been reported as a case series.
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Transdermal fentanyl for chronic low back pain.
Yonsei Med. J.
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Chronic low back pain is a common clinical problem. As medication, non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs are generally used; however, they are sometimes non-effective. Recently, opioids have been used for the treatment of chronic low back pain, and since 2010, transdermal fentanyl has been used to treat chronic non-cancer pain in Japan. The purpose of the current study was to examine the efficacy of transdermal fentanyl in the treatment of chronic low back pain.
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Efficacy of epidural administration of anti-interleukin-6 receptor antibody onto spinal nerve for treatment of sciatica.
Eur Spine J
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Interleukin-6 (IL-6) is thought to play a crucial role in the radicular pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. However, efficacy of inhibition of IL-6 for sciatica in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis has not been clarified. The purpose of the current study was to examine the effect of the anti-IL-6 receptor monoclonal antibody, tocilizumab, on radicular pain by its epidural administration onto spinal nerves in patients with lumbar spinal stenosis.
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Clinical incidence of sacroiliac joint arthritis and pain after sacropelvic fixation for spinal deformity.
Yonsei Med. J.
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Sacroiliac fixation using iliac screws for highly unstable lumbar spine has been reported with an improved fusion rate and clinical results. On the other hand, there is a potential for clinical problems related to iliac fixation, including late sacroiliac joint arthritis and pain.
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Evaluation of Pain Behavior and CGRP Immunoreactive Sensory Nerve Fibers in the Spinal Dorsal Horn After Sciatic Nerve Compression and Application of Nucleus Pulposus in Rats.
Spine
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Study Design. Animal studyObjective. To evaluate pain behavior and neuropeptide changes in the spinal dorsal horn after sciatic nerve compression and application of nucleus pulposus (NP) in rats.Summary of Background Data. The pathomechanisms of lumbar-disc herniation pain have not been fully elucidated. Pain-associated neuropeptides, including Substance P and calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), are produced in DRG neurons and transported to spinal dorsal horn nerve terminals where they function in pain transmission. However, changes in CGRP-immunoreactive (IR) sensory nerve terminals have not been reported in models of disc herniation. This study evaluated pain-related behavior and changes in CGRP-IR terminals in the spinal dorsal horn after combined sciatic nerve compression and nucleus pulposus (NP) application.Methods. Five groups of rats underwent either sciatic nerve compression with NP (n = 20), application of NP only (n = 20), nerve compression only (n = 20), sham operation with neither compression nor NP (n = 20), or no operation (controls, n = 20). Mechanical hyperalgesia was measured every second day for three weeks. CGRP-IR terminals in each spinal dorsal horn lamina were examined 7 and 14 days post-surgery. Pain behavior and CGRP immunoreactivity were compared among the five groups.Results. Mechanical hyperalgesia was found in the NP only, nerve compression only, and the NP ± nerve compression groups (P ? 0.05). CGRP-IR nerve terminals in the superficial laminae (I and II) and the deep laminae (III-VI) significantly increased in the NP only, nerve compression only, and NP ± nerve compression groups compared to control and sham groups (P ? 0.05). Significant mechanical hyperalgesia and increased CGRP-IR nerve terminals were found in the NP ± nerve compression group compared with the NP only and nerve compression only groups (P ? 0.05).Conclusion. Our results indicate that nerve compression plus NP application produces the most pain-related behavior. CGRP-IR nerve terminals increased in laminae I and II which transmit pain and in laminae III-VI which transmit proprioception. Findings suggest that nerve compression plus NP application induce changes in CGRP expression in the superficial and deep laminae, and these changes are partly responsible for disc herniation pain.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.