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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Avoiding radical surgery after pre-operative chemoradiotherapy: a possible therapeutic option in rectal cancer?
Acta Oncol
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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In this modern era of multi-modality treatment there is increasing interest in the possibility of avoiding radical surgery in complete responders after neo-adjuvant long-course chemoradiotherapy (LCPRT). In this article, we present a systematic review of such treatments and discuss their therapeutic applicability for the future.
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Temozolomide induced liver injury.
Acta Neurol Belg
PUBLISHED: 12-07-2011
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A 62-year female received radiotherapy over six weeks with daily 75 mg/m2 Temozolomide (TMZ) for Glioblastoma (GB). At the last week of radiotherapy, her liver enzymes and serum bilirubin started deteriorating. TMZ was discontinued. The histopathology demonstrated the features of acute cholestasis and focal parenchymal inflammation. A range of investigations failed to show any other contributory cause of hepatitis. She required in-hospital care for a prolonged period for a grade three hepatic failure. The liver functions very slowly recovered over 40 weeks, but her general condition continues to deteriorate. TMZ may cause a mild temporary rise in the liver enzymes and has been reported to reactivate hepatitis B. In few other cases concomitant medications were the possible causes of hepatitis. However, searching the Medline and other bibliographic database, we have not come across any case of TMZ-induced liver injury (TMZ-DILI). Histopathology and pattern of liver enzyme elevation suggest that unlike Dacarbazine, which causes veno-occlusive type liver damage, TMZ in this patient caused mainly cholestasis type liver injury. On Naranjo Adverse Drug Reaction (ADR) probability scale, this case falls in probable grade (Scale 7).
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The sequential use of carmustine wafers (Gliadel®) and post-operative radiotherapy with concomitant temozolomide followed by adjuvant temozolomide: a clinical review.
Br J Neurosurg
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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In patients with glioblastoma multiforme (GBM), there is no consensus on the sequential use of two existing regimens: post-operative Gliadel implantation into the surgical cavity and concomitant temozolomide with radiotherapy followed by adjuvant temozolomide (Stupp protocol). NICE in the guideline TA121 (July 2007) could not pass any judgement on the sequential use of both the regimens due to lack of evidence at the time of consultation. Since then, few prospective studies and retrospective series have been reported using these two regimens sequentially. Except in one study, results were indicative of an incremental gain of 2-3 months in median survival in comparison to the published results using Gliadel or Stupp Protocol alone. Post-surgical complications were manageable and within an acceptable range, when the sequential regimen was managed under defined guidelines and surgery was performed in a high volume centre. Moderate degree of increased myelosuppression has been reported in few series, however. In the absence of a phase III trial and the small number of patients in each series, the reported trend of toxicities and efficacy could only be substantiated by setting up a national database. Contributing to such a national database and toxicity recording could be made mandatory through peer review programme for the neurooncological services. Based on the preclinical and albeit lower level of clinical evidence, demonstrating temporal and spatial co-operation between two regimens (Gliadel and Stupp Protocol), resulting in incremental 2-3 months median survival gain, should enable NICE in its next review to issue a favourable guidance. Depending on the number of patients eligible for such a sequential regimen, which could be 15%-25% of Glioblastoma patients diagnosed in England per annum, the additional annual cost of concomitant temozolomide would be approximately £640,000 to £1 million.
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Phase I/II study of oncolytic HSV GM-CSF in combination with radiotherapy and cisplatin in untreated stage III/IV squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2010
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This study sought to define the recommended dose of JS1/34.5-/47-/GM-CSF, an oncolytic herpes simplex type-1 virus (HSV-1) encoding human granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor (GM-CSF), for future studies in combination with chemoradiotherapy in patients with squamous cell cancer of the head and neck (SCCHN).
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Therapeutic effect of sodium iodide symporter gene therapy combined with external beam radiotherapy and targeted drugs that inhibit DNA repair.
Mol. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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Adenoviral (AdV) transfer of sodium iodide symporter (NIS) gene has translational potential, but relatively low levels of transduction and subsequent radioisotope uptake limit the efficacy of the approach. In previous studies, we showed that combining NIS gene delivery with external beam radiotherapy (EBRT) and DNA damage repair inhibitors increased viral gene expression and radioiodide uptake. Here, we report the therapeutic efficacy of this strategy. An adenovirus expressing NIS from a telomerase promoter (Ad-hTR-NIS) was cytotoxic combined with relatively high-dose (50 microCi) (131)I therapy and enhanced the efficacy of EBRT combined with low-dose (10 and 25 microCi) (131)I therapy in colorectal and head and neck cancer cells. Combining this approach with ataxia-telangiectasia mutated (ATM) or DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK) inhibition caused maintenance of double-stranded DNA breaks (DSBs) at 24 hours and increased cytotoxicity on clonogenic assay. When the triplet of NIS-mediated (131)I therapy, EBRT, and DNA-PKi was used in vivo, 90% of mice were tumor-free at 5 weeks. Acute radiation toxicity in the EBRT field was not exacerbated. In contrast, DNA-PKi did not enhance the therapeutic efficacy of EBRT plus adenovirus-mediated HSVtk/ganciclovir (GCV). Therefore, combining NIS gene therapy and EBRT represents an ideal strategy to exploit the therapeutic benefits of novel radiosensitizers.
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The biology of the sodium iodide symporter and its potential for targeted gene delivery.
Curr Cancer Drug Targets
PUBLISHED: 02-16-2010
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The sodium iodide symporter (NIS) is responsible for thyroidal, salivary, gastric, intestinal and mammary iodide uptake. It was first cloned from the rat in 1996 and shortly thereafter from human and mouse tissue. In the intervening years, we have learned a great deal about the biology of NIS. Detailed knowledge of its genomic structure, transcriptional and post-transcriptional regulation and pharmacological modulation has underpinned the selection of NIS as an exciting approach for targeted gene delivery. A number of in vitro and in vivo studies have demonstrated the potential of using NIS gene therapy as a means of delivering highly conformal radiation doses selectively to tumours. This strategy is particularly attractive because it can be used with both diagnostic (99mTc, 125I, 124I)) and therapeutic (131I, 186Re, 188Re, 211At) radioisotopes and it lends itself to incorporation with standard treatment modalities, such as radiotherapy or chemoradiotherapy. In this article, we review the biology of NIS and discuss its development for gene therapy.
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Targeted radionuclide therapy using a Wnt-targeted replicating adenovirus encoding the Na/I symporter.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 10-27-2009
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The Na/I symporter (hNIS) promotes concentration of iodine in cells. In cancer gene therapy, this transgene has potential as a reporter gene for molecular imaging of viral biodistribution and as a therapeutic protein promoting (131)I-mediated radiotherapy. Here, we combined the imaging and therapeutic potential of hNIS in an oncolytic adenoviruses targeting colorectal cancer cells.
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Short-course radiotherapy, with elective delay prior to surgery, in patients with unresectable rectal cancer who have poor performance status or significant co-morbidity.
Radiother Oncol
PUBLISHED: 03-31-2009
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Standard treatment for rectal cancer which threatens the expected plane of resection on MRI imaging is long-course, pre-operative chemoradiotherapy (1.8-2Gy, 25-28 fractions). Not all patients are suitable for this because of age, poor performance status or co-morbidities. We describe our experience of short-course (5x5Gy) pre-operative radiotherapy with planned, delayed surgery (SCPRT-delay) in this patient group.
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Temozolomide-related idiosyncratic and other uncommon toxicities: a systematic review.
Anticancer Drugs
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Temozolomide (TMZ)-related idiosyncratic and other uncommon toxicities have been reported. To better characterize these toxicities and to identify any associated risk factors, we performed a systematic review. We searched the PubMed database, limited to the English language, published between 1999 and December 2011. We selected only those articles in which TMZ was temporally related and was the sole or main contributing chemotherapeutic drug to idiosyncratic drug reactions (IDRs) and other uncommon toxicities. Hematological IDRs are biopsy-proven aplastic anemia or grade V toxicity or grade IV toxicity with slow and incomplete hematological recovery. Seventy-three cases were identified, including 21 hematological IDRs, 31 nonhematological IDRs and uncommon infections, and 21 second primary cancers. With a caveat of publication and reporting bias, the following observations could be made. The hematological IDRs predominantly occurred in female patients (exact binomial two-tailed, P=0.0041) and most patients were receiving TMZ concomitantly with radiotherapy for glioma. The median duration of exposure to TMZ was 30 days and the median cumulative TMZ exposure was 2250 mg/m (range, 500-6900 mg/m). The sex predilection was not evident in nonhematological IDRs and other uncommon toxicities. TMZ-induced pneumonitis and cholestatic hepatitis are emerging as a nonhematological hypersensitive reaction and IDR, respectively. For TMZ-related myelodysplasia or leukemia, the cumulative dose of TMZ ranged from 1400 to 30 000 mg/m. The cumulative dose of TMZ was lower and latency was shorter with a previous exposure to other leukemogenic drugs, suggesting that TMZ may have augmented the leukemogenic potential of other drugs. Early appearance of profound myelosuppression during the course of TMZ and concurrent radiotherapy could be a hematological IDR, which warrants prompt investigations to exclude aplastic anemia. Myelodysplasia or leukemia developed after a median TMZ exposure of 15 g/m.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.