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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Structural analysis of the Rio Preto fold belt (northwestern Bahia / southern Piauí), a doubly-vergent asymmetric fan developed during the Brasiliano Orogeny.
An. Acad. Bras. Cienc.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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The Rio Preto fold belt borders the northwestern São Francisco craton and shows an exquisite kilometric doubly-vergent asymmetric fan structure, of polyphasic structural evolution attributed exclusively to the Brasiliano Orogeny (?600-540 Ma). The fold belt can be subdivided into three structural compartments: The Northern and Southern compartments showing a general NE-SW trend, separated by the Central Compartment which shows a roughly E-W trend. The change of dip of S2, a tight crenulation foliation which is the main structure of the fold belt, between the three compartments, characterizes the fan structure. The Central Compartment is characterized by sub-vertical mylonitic quartzites, which materialize a system of low-T strike slip shear zones (Malhadinha - Rio Preto Shear Zone) crosscutting the central portion of the fold belt. In comparison to published analog models, we consider that the unique structure of the Rio Preto fold belt was generated by the oblique, dextral-sense interaction between the Cristalândia do Piauí block to the north and the São Francisco craton to the south.
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Development of conventional and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays to detect Tembusu virus in Culex tarsalis mosquitoes.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-11-2014
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Tembusu virus (TMUV) is an important emerging arthropod-borne virus that may cause encephalitis in humans and has been isolated in regions of southeast Asia, including Malaysia, Thailand, and China. Currently, detection and identification of TMUV are limited to research laboratories, because quantitative rapid diagnostic assays for the virus do not exist. We describe the development of sensitive and specific conventional and real-time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays for detecting TMUV RNA in infected cell culture supernatant and Culex tarsalis mosquitoes. We used this assay to document the replication of TMUV in Cx. tarsalis, where titers increased 1,000-fold 5 days after inoculation. These assays resulted in the detection of virus-specific RNA in the presence of copurified mosquito nucleic acids. The use of these rapid diagnostic assays may have future applications for field pathogen surveillance and may assist in early detection, diagnosis, and control of the associated arthropod-borne pathogens.
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From application to implication in medical anthropology: political, historical and narrative interpretations of the world of sickness and health.
Hist Cienc Saude Manguinhos
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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This article reviews some of the current writing on medical anthropology, and is guided by political orientation/implication in the choice of its study targets, its analysis and its construction of solutions for the problems investigated. Starting from the narratives of anthropologists, it goes on to show the historical and socio-political bases characteristic of the subject in their countries of origin or migration. Within a general overview of the three principal contemporary trends - critical medical anthropology, the anthropology of suffering and the anthropology of biopower - the focus is on theoretical and thematic choices to meet the demand for "politicization" of the anthropological debate in the field of health, on the basis of which an "implied" medical anthropology is advocated.
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Experiences of HIV-related stigma among HIV-positive older persons in Uganda - a mixed methods analysis.
SAHARA J
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2014
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Abstract There is limited data on stigma among older HIV-infected adults in sub-Saharan Africa. We describe the experiences of stigma and disclosure in a cohort of HIV-positive older people in Uganda. Using data from the Wellbeing of Older Peoples' Study of Kalungu (rural site) and Wakiso district (peri-urban site) residents, we measured self-reported stigma levels for 183 respondents (94 on antiretroviral therapy (ART); 88, not on ART) using a stigma score generated using three questions on stigma perceptions where 0 meant no stigma at all and 100 was maximum stigma. Based on two questions on disclosure, an overall score was computed. High disclosure was assigned to those who often or very often disclosed to the family and were never or seldom afraid to disclose elsewhere. We examined the experiences of HIV stigma of 25 adults (52% females) using semi-structured, open-ended interviews and monthly oral diaries over one year. Mean age of the respondents was 70 years (range 60-80 years) and 80% of all respondents were enrolled in ART. Interview transcripts were analysed using thematic content analysis. Overall, 55% of respondents had a high disclosure score, meaning they disclosed easily, and 47% had a high stigma score. The stigma scores were similar among those with high and low disclosure scores. In multivariate analyses with disclosure and stigma scores as dependent variables none of the respondents' characteristics had a significant effect at the 5% level. Qualitative data revealed that stigma ranges from: (1) perceptions (relatively passive, but leading to behaviour such as gossip, especially if not intended maliciously); to (2) discriminatory behaviour (active or enacted stigma; from malicious gossip to outright discrimination). Despite the relatively high levels of disclosure, older people suffer from high levels of stigma of various forms apart from HIV-related stigma. Efforts to assess for different forms of stigma at an individual level deserve greater attention from service providers and researchers, and must be context specific.
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'It sounds like a great idea but…': a qualitative study of GPs' attitudes towards the development of a national diabetes register.
BMJ Qual Saf
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2014
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The aim of this study was to investigate the attitudes of general practitioners (GPs) to the development of a national diabetes register as a way of improving the quality of care.
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Implementing the legal provisions for HIA in Slovakia: an exploration of practitioner perspectives.
Health Policy
PUBLISHED: 03-05-2014
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Health Impact Assessment (HIA) is an instrument used in many countries across the world to assess and report on negative and positive health impacts of projects, programmes and policies. It was included in the Protection, Support and Development of Public Health Act (355/2007) of the Slovak Republic in 2007, thus legislating for HIA. Due to this novel move to legislate for HIA, exploratory research was conducted in order to inquire into the perceptions of key informants and practitioners of the upcoming enforcement of the HIA part of legislation (to take place from January 2011). This paper presents results from the survey of practitioners in the Slovak Regional Public Health Authorities.
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Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren.
Braz J Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren.
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Low back pain in adolescent and associated factors: A cross sectional study with schoolchildren.
Braz J Phys Ther
PUBLISHED: 02-10-2014
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Objective: To determine the prevalence of low back pain nonspecific and associated factors in schoolchildren. Method: This cross-sectional study investigated 343 adolescents, aged between 12 and 15 years, of both sexes of public schools. The questionnaire included questions regarding sociodemographic characteristics, type of school transportation, body mass index and low back pain. The outcome was defined as discomfort localized below the costal margin and above the inferior gluteal folds in the last 12 months. Results : The prevalence of low back pain in the last year was 57% (n=195) among participants, with no significant difference between the sexes (OR 1.13, 95% CI 0.93 to 1.37). Advancing age and body mass index were associated with the presence of low back pain in the bivariate analysis. The remaining seated at school in usual days was considered one of the main activities that trigger symptoms that lasted up to seven days for the majority (80%) of adolescents. Conclusions: The high prevalence of low back pain presented, indicating that it is a common condition among these adolescents. There was no difference between the sexes, but had influence of age and body mass index. Our results point to the need for the development epidemiological studies of low back pain among children and adolescents.
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Benznidazole-resistance in Trypanosoma cruzi: evidence that distinct mechanisms can act in concert.
Mol. Biochem. Parasitol.
PUBLISHED: 01-10-2014
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Benznidazole is the main drug used to treat Trypanosoma cruzi infections. However, frequent instances of treatment failure have been reported. To better understand potential resistance mechanisms, we analysed three clones isolated from a single parasite population that had undergone benznidazole-selection. These clones exhibited differing levels of benznidazole-resistance (varying between 9 and 26-fold), and displayed cross-resistance to nifurtimox (2 to 4-fold). Each clone had acquired a stop-codon-generating mutation in the gene which encodes the nitroreductase (TcNTR) that is responsible for activating nitroheterocyclic pro-drugs. In addition, one clone had lost a copy of the chromosome containing TcNTR. However, these processes alone are insufficient to account for the extent and diversity of benznidazole-resistance. It is implicit from our results that additional mechanisms must also operate and that T. cruzi has an intrinsic ability to develop drug-resistance by independent sequential steps, even within a single population. This has important implications for drug development strategies.
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Trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in Slovakia between 1993 and 2009.
Cent. Eur. J. Public Health
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Cardiovascular diseases (CVD) and especially coronary heart disease (CHD) are the main causes of death in the Slovak Republic (SR). The aim of this study is to explore trends in age-adjusted coronary heart disease mortality rates in the whole Slovak population and in the population of working age between the years 1993 and 2009. A related indicator - potential years of life lost (PYLL) due to CHD--was calculated in the same period for males and females. Crude CHD mortality rates were age-adjusted using European standard population. The joinpoint Poisson regression was performed in order to find out the annual percentage change in trends. The age-adjusted CHD mortality rates decreased in the Slovak population and also in the population of working age. The change was significant only within the working-age sub-group. We found that partial diagnoses (myocardial infarction and chronic ischaemic heart disease) developed in the mirror-like manner. PYLL per 100,000 decreased during the observed period and the decline was more prominent in males. For further research we recommend to focus on several other issues, namely, to examine the validity of cause of death codes, to examine the development of mortality rates in selected age groups, to find out the cause of differential development of mortality rates in the Slovak Republic in comparison with the Czech Republic and Poland, and to explain the causes of decrease of the age-adjusted CHD mortality rates in younger age groups in Slovakia.
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Field detection of Tembusu virus in western Thailand by rt-PCR and vector competence determination of select culex mosquitoes for transmission of the virus.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 09-16-2013
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Tembusu virus (TMUV; Ntaya serocomplex) was detected in two pools of mosquitoes captured near Sangkhlaburi, Thailand, as well as from sera from sentinel ducks from the same area. Although TMUV has been isolated from several mosquito species in Asia, no studies have ever shown competent vectors for this virus. Therefore, we allowed mosquitoes captured near Sangkhlaburi to feed on young chickens that had been infected with TMUV. These mosquitoes were tested approximately 2 weeks later to determine infection, dissemination, and transmission rates. Culex vishnui developed high viral titers after feeding on TMUV-infected chicks and readily transmitted virus to naïve chickens. In contrast, Cx. fuscocephala seemed less susceptible to infection, and more importantly, zero of five fuscocephala with a disseminated infection transmitted virus by bite, indicating a salivary gland barrier. These results provide evidence for the involvement of Culex mosquitoes in the transmission of TMUV in the environment.
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Barriers to, and facilitators in, introducing integrated diabetes care in Ireland: a qualitative study of views in general practice.
BMJ Open
PUBLISHED: 08-21-2013
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To examine the barriers to, and facilitators in, improving diabetes management from the general practice perspective, in advance of the implementation of an integrated model of care in Ireland.
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Effects of added elastic tubes on open-chain knee extensor strength training.
Sports Biomech
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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Attaching elastic tubes (ETs) to resistance training machines can affect the exercise load profile. The purpose of this study was to assess the training effects of added ETs, which were strategically attached to provide additional loads only during the deceleration phase of the knee extension exercise. Twenty-two healthy participants, assigned to either an experimental group (with ETs) or a control group (without ETs), participated in a 12-week strength-training program using a knee extension exercise machine. The acceleration effects were quantified and a method of attaching the ETs to the knee extension machine was developed. The effects of the added ETs were analysed by testing dynamic and isometric maximum contractions at four knee flexion angles (10 degrees, 30 degrees, 50 degrees, and 80 degrees). Analyses of covariance with the initial values as the covariate were used to examine the ETeffects. A greater increase in isometric maximum strength was found in the experimental group than in the control group at knee flexion angles of 10 degrees [effect size (ES) = 2.25] and 30 degrees (ES = 1.18). No significant difference in the dynamic maximum strength was found between the groups. The use of ETs increased strength at smaller knee flexion angles with quadriceps that were relatively short.
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Differences in the structure of outpatient diabetes care between endocrinologist-led and general physician-led services.
BMC Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 05-16-2013
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Despite a shift in diabetes care internationally from secondary to primary care, diabetes care in the Republic of Ireland remains very hospital-based. Significant variation in the facilities and resources available to hospitals providing outpatient diabetes care have been reported in the UK. The aim of this study was to ascertain the structure of outpatient diabetes care in public hospitals in the Republic of Ireland and whether differences existed in services provided across hospitals.
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[Ethnographic approaches to research and intervention in mental health].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 03-29-2013
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The specifics of ethnographic approaches to mental health research are examined, highlighting the motives why the type of knowledge produced by ethnography is relevant to the context of Psychiatric Reform and the biomedicalization of existence. The discussion is focused on interpretation-based ethnography in the field of mental health, stressing the theoretical and methodological foundations of a comprehensive form of apprehending the scope of mental health as an object akin to a clinic of the individual. The centrality of social and cultural aspects in the ethnographic approach and the inflexions mediated by the type of ethnographic methodological undertaking is stressed. Lastly, the ethnography of madness is seen as a fitting example that substantiates some of these characteristics. The contention is that accessing psychotic persons (and others who may speak about these experiences) from varied areas of their daily life, situated in their various social inscriptions, while confronting these interpretations with other interpretative dimensions of their social reality and within the logic linked to local psychologies, is a pertinent procedure, from whence certain aspects of an understanding of madness (or causes of its incomprehension) can emerge.
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The spectrotemporal filter mechanism of auditory selective attention.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 02-27-2013
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Although we have convincing evidence that attention to auditory stimuli modulates neuronal responses at or before the level of primary auditory cortex (A1), the underlying physiological mechanisms are unknown. We found that attending to rhythmic auditory streams resulted in the entrainment of ongoing oscillatory activity reflecting rhythmic excitability fluctuations in A1. Strikingly, although the rhythm of the entrained oscillations in A1 neuronal ensembles reflected the temporal structure of the attended stream, the phase depended on the attended frequency content. Counter-phase entrainment across differently tuned A1 regions resulted in both the amplification and sharpening of responses at attended time points, in essence acting as a spectrotemporal filter mechanism. Our data suggest that selective attention generates a dynamically evolving model of attended auditory stimulus streams in the form of modulatory subthreshold oscillations across tonotopically organized neuronal ensembles in A1 that enhances the representation of attended stimuli.
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Sector analysis of 125I permanent prostate brachytherapy provides a rapid and effective method of evaluating and comparing pre- and post-implant dosimetry.
Brachytherapy
PUBLISHED: 02-11-2013
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To evaluate a sector analysis program in the assessment and comparison of pre- and post-implant dosimetric parameters during the development of an (125)I permanent prostate brachytherapy service.
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Hantaan virus surveillance targeting small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 12-02-2011
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In response to a hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome case in November 2000, a seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was initiated at Dagmar North Training Area (DNTA), Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea. From April 2001-December 2005, 1,848 small mammals were captured. Apodemus agrarius accounted for 92.5%, followed by Mus musculus (3.6%), Crocidura lasiura (2.1%), and Microtus fortis (1.1%). Three species of rodents were found to be antibody-positive (Ab+) for Hantaan virus (HTNV): A. agrarius (22.3%), M. musculus (9.1%), and M. fortis (5.0%). Ab+ rates for A. agrarius increased with increasing weight (age), except for those weighing <10 g. The peak HTNV transmission period in Korea coincided with the peak reproductive potential of A. agrarius during the fall (August/September) surveys. HTNV strains from DNTA were distinct from HTNV strains from the Peoples Republic of China. From these studies, more accurate risk assessments can be developed to better protect personnel from rodent-borne diseases.
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Ecological surveillance of small mammals at Dagmar North Training Area, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea, 2001-2005.
J. Vector Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2011
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A seasonal rodent-borne disease surveillance program was established at Dagmar North Training Area located near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea, from 2001 through 2005. Selected habitats surveyed included earthen banks separating rice paddies, fighting positions along a 5 m rock-faced earthen berm, and extensive tall grasses with various degrees of herbaceous and scrub vegetation associated with dirt roads, rice paddies, ditches, ponds, or the Imjin River. Of the nine species of small mammals captured, the striped field mouse (Apodemus agrarius), the primary reservoir for Hantaan virus, was the most frequently collected, representing 92.5% of the 1,848 small mammals captured. Males were captured similarly to females during the spring and summer seasons but were captured less frequently during the fall and winter seasons. Gravid rates were highest in the fall (25.5-57.3%) with the lowest rates during the summer (0.0-2.2%). Capture rates were the lowest along earthen banks separating rice paddies (5.5%) and highest in unmanaged tall grasses and crawling vegetation (15.3-43.5%). An increased knowledge of ecological factors that impact the abundance and distribution of small mammals and the associated ectoparasites and pathogens they harbor is critical for developing accurate disease risk assessments and mitigation strategies for preventing vector- and rodent-borne diseases among soldiers training in field environments.
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Assessing software upgrades, plan properties and patient geometry using intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) complexity metrics.
Med Phys
PUBLISHED: 06-02-2011
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The aim of this study is to compare the sensitivity of different metrics to detect differences in complexity of intensity modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans following upgrades, changes to planning parameters, and patient geometry. Correlations between complexity metrics are also assessed.
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Detection of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever, Hanta, and sandfly fever viruses by real-time RT-PCR.
Methods Mol. Biol.
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2011
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The development of sensitive and specific nucleic acid diagnostic assays for viral pathogens is essential for proper medical intervention. This chapter describes four fluorescence-based PCR assays to detect the Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever (CCHFV), Andes (ANDV), Hantaan (HANV), and Sandfly Fever Sicilian (SFSV) Viruses. These assays are based on species-specific hydrolysis probes targeting the nucleocapsid protein gene for CCHFV and SFSV and the glycoprotein gene for ANDV and HANV. All four assays were optimized for LightCycler 2.0 (Roche Diagnostics, Indianapolis, IN) or Ruggedized Advanced Pathogen Identification Device (R.A.P.I.D.; Idaho Technology Inc., Salt Lake City, UT). The assays were evaluated using the protocols described in the Subheading 3. The limits of detection were approximately 5, 2, 2, and 5 plaque-forming units (PFUs) for CCHFV, ANDV, HTNV, and SFSV assays, respectively. The sensitivity and specificity of the assays were evaluated with test panels that consisted of 20-60 known positive and 30-135 known negative samples, representing 7-34 genetically diverse bacterial and viral species. The CCHFV assay detected 59 out of the 60 positive samples and no false positives, resulting in 98.3% sensitivity at LOD of 5 PFU and 100% specificity. The ANDV and HTNV assays correctly identified all the positive samples with no false positive reactions; therefore, the sensitivity and specificity of these assays were determined to be 100% at LOD of 2 PFU. The SFSV assay missed three positive samples and cross-reacted with one of 48 negative samples, resulting in 95% sensitivity at LOD of 5 PFU and 98% specificity.
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Dual mechanism of neuronal ensemble inhibition in primary auditory cortex.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2011
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Inhibition plays an essential role in shaping and refining the brains representation of sensory stimulus attributes. In primary auditory cortex (A1), so-called "sideband" inhibition helps to sharpen the tuning of local neuronal responses. Several distinct types of anatomical circuitry could underlie sideband inhibition, including direct thalamocortical (TC) afferents, as well as indirect intracortical mechanisms. The goal of the present study was to characterize sideband inhibition in A1 and to determine its mechanism by analyzing laminar profiles of neuronal ensemble activity. Our results indicate that both lemniscal and nonlemniscal TC afferents play a role in inhibitory responses via feedforward inhibition and oscillatory phase reset, respectively. We propose that the dynamic modulation of excitability in A1 due to the phase reset of ongoing oscillations may alter the tuning of local neuronal ensembles and can be regarded as a flexible overlay on the more obligatory system of lemniscal feedforward type responses.
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Outcomes after endovascular intervention for chronic critical limb ischemia.
J. Vasc. Surg.
PUBLISHED: 01-21-2011
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This study evaluated outcomes after endovascular intervention (EVI) for chronic critical limb ischemia (CLI) by Rutherford category (RC) 4, rest pain; and 5, tissue loss.
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[Granular cell tumor of the esophagus: description of an infrequent benign tumor].
Gastroenterol Hepatol
PUBLISHED: 01-03-2011
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Granular cell tumors (GCT) are infrequent tumors first described by Abrikossoff in 1926. Gastrointestinal involvement occurs in about 6% of GCT, the esophagus being the most frequent location. These tumors are usually benign and asymptomatic and are usually found incidentally when an upper gastrointestinal endoscopy is carried out for another reason, showing an isolated polyp or sessile submucosal nodule, covered by intact yellowish mucosa and with firm consistency. Endoscopic ultrasonography has significantly improved the diagnosis of these lesions. Nowadays endoscopic mucosectomy is the treatment of choice of esophageal GCT with a low frequency of complications. Histologic analysis of the surgical specimen shows specific characteristics such as positivity for S-100 protein. We present two new cases of esophageal GCT that were diagnosed recently and discuss the most relevant features of this infrequent disease.
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Sequential Rift Valley fever outbreaks in eastern Africa caused by multiple lineages of the virus.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 12-14-2010
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During the Rift Valley fever (RVF) epidemic of 2006-2007 in eastern Africa, spatial mapping of the outbreaks across Kenya, Somalia, and Tanzania was performed and the RVF viruses were isolated and genetically characterized.
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Vaccinia virus is not inactivated after thermal treatment and cheese production using experimentally contaminated milk.
Foodborne Pathog. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2010
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Bovine vaccinia is an emergent zoonosis caused by the Vaccinia virus (VACV). The disease is characterized by the appearance of exanthematic lesions that occur in humans and dairy cows. Previous studies have revealed the presence of infectious viral particles in milk samples during an outbreak of bovine vaccinia in Brazil, indicating the possibility of disease transmission through raw milk. To assess the viability of the virus in milk after thermal treatment and processing procedures, milk samples were experimentally contaminated with 10(3) plaque forming units (PFU)/mL (group I) and 10(5) PFU/mL (group II) VACV Guarani P2 virus, and the third group was not contaminated and served as a control. The samples were submitted to storage temperatures in a cold chamber, freezer for 48 hours, and to low temperature long-time treatment. Moreover, the viral viability was evaluated in cheese produced with contaminated milk using 10(4) PFU/mL VACV Guarani P2. Notably, the virus remained viable in milk after storage for 48 hours in both the cold chamber and the freezer, with a reduction in viral titer of 14.49% and 25.86%, respectively. Group II showed a viral reduction in titer of 61.88% and 75.98%, respectively. Thermal treatment 65°C for 30 minutes showed a reduction of viral titer of 94.83% and 99.99%, respectively, in group I and group II, but still showed remaining viable virus particles. In addition, it was possible to recover infectious viral particles from both the solid curds and the whey of the cheese produced with experimentally contaminated milk. The cheese shows a reduction in viral titer of 84.87% after storage at 4°C for 24 hours. The presence of viable viral particles in milk after both thermal treatment and cheese production indicates a potential public health risk.
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Rift Valley fever virus epidemic in Kenya, 2006/2007: the entomologic investigations.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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In December 2006, Rift Valley fever (RVF) was diagnosed in humans in Garissa Hospital, Kenya and an outbreak reported affecting 11 districts. Entomologic surveillance was performed in four districts to determine the epidemic/epizootic vectors of RVF virus (RVFV). Approximately 297,000 mosquitoes were collected, 164,626 identified to species, 72,058 sorted into 3,003 pools and tested for RVFV by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction. Seventy-seven pools representing 10 species tested positive for RVFV, including Aedes mcintoshi/circumluteolus (26 pools), Aedes ochraceus (23 pools), Mansonia uniformis (15 pools); Culex poicilipes, Culex bitaeniorhynchus (3 pools each); Anopheles squamosus, Mansonia africana (2 pools each); Culex quinquefasciatus, Culex univittatus, Aedes pembaensis (1 pool each). Positive Ae. pembaensis, Cx. univittatus, and Cx. bitaeniorhynchus was a first time observation. Species composition, densities, and infection varied among districts supporting hypothesis that different mosquito species serve as epizootic/epidemic vectors of RVFV in diverse ecologies, creating a complex epidemiologic pattern in East Africa.
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Responses of human skin in organ culture and human skin fibroblasts to a gadolinium-based MRI contrast agent: comparison of skin from patients with end-stage renal disease and skin from healthy subjects.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2010
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis is a clinical syndrome occurring in a small subset of patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD). Exposure to certain of the gadolinium-based contrast agents during magnetic resonance imaging appears to be a trigger. The pathogenesis of the disease is largely unknown. The present study addresses potential pathophysiologic mechanisms.
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Endovascular intervention for treatment of claudication: is it cost-effective?
Ann Vasc Surg
PUBLISHED: 03-03-2010
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Treatment of claudication with endovascular intervention (EVI), a procedure designed to enhance quality of life, is on the rise despite being expensive. We examined clinical outcomes and costs for treatment of claudication with EVI.
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Croton cajucara crude extract and isolated terpenes: activity on Trypanosoma cruzi.
Parasitol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2010
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Croton cajucara is a plant found in the Amazon region and is known for its medicinal properties. The effects of the methanolic extract of the stem bark of C. cajucara (MCC) and of the isolated terpenes, trans-dehydrocrotonin (t-DCTN) and acetyl aleuritolic acid (AAA), were investigated using four isolates of Trypanosoma cruzi. In assays with trypomastigotes, the extract was more active than the isolated compounds, presenting IC(50) in the range of 10 to 50 ?g/mL. The trypanocidal effect of MCC, AAA and benznidazole was significantly higher in the GLT291 and C45 strains, which were recently isolated from wild animals. MCC and AAA caused a dose-dependent inhibition of epimastigote proliferation. In assays using intracellular amastigotes, AAA and MCC reduced the percent of infection and the endocytic index after 96 h of treatment, at concentrations that were non-toxic to the host cells. MCC inhibited the trypanothione reductase pathway in both epimastigotes and trypomastigotes of all the subpopulations. The absence of AAA activity on the trypanothione reductase pathway in epimastigotes of Dm28c suggests heterogeneity of the biochemical profile between this clone and the three strains. Epimastigotes and trypomastigotes (GLT291) were treated for 24 h with MCC or AAA, and both induced alterations of the plasma membrane, while AAA-treated epimastigotes also displayed mitochondrial damage.
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[From legitimation to (re-)signification: the therapeutic itinerary of workers with RSIs/WMSDs].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 02-20-2010
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Repetitive Strain Injuries (RSIs)/Work-Related Musculoskeletal Disorders (WMSDs) are a major issue in Brazilian public health. The way such sickness is produced, its multidetermined origin and the troubled care provided to sufferers point to the very contradictions of the capitalist production system. This work aims at understanding the macrosocial processes surfaced in the workers search for cure of RSIs/WMSDs, paying close attention to the negotiation and (re-)signification processes present in those trajectories. By drawing on explanatory models and the concept of therapeutic itinerary, thematic analysis of in-depth interviews with Brazilian workers receiving Social Security compensation was used to approach the socioeconomic and political realms. Culpability and excess were reported in connection with etiology whereas pain, tiredness and stress were shown to be related to symptom initiation. Legal medical assessment, rehabilitation programs and prognosis were all along (re-) signified by the interviewees in an attempt to create an ideal type of productive worker despite the injury. It is then urged that public health policies responsive to the wider organization and processes of power and class related to the care of RSIs/WMSDs are devised.
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Psychometric assessment of the Brazilian version of the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale.
Public Health Nurs
PUBLISHED: 11-12-2009
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The purpose of this study was to translate and psychometrically assess the Breastfeeding Self-Efficacy Scale (BSES) among women living in Fortaleza, CE, Brazil, and examine the relationship between breastfeeding self-efficacy (BSE) and maternal demographic variables.
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Careful counsel: Management of unintended pregnancy.
J Am Acad Nurse Pract
PUBLISHED: 11-11-2009
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To provide a guideline for the care of women with unintended pregnancies, highlight the magnitude of unintended pregnancy, identify the demographic population at highest risk, offer assessment and diagnostic information, and describe the importance and practice of comprehensive, nondirective pregnancy options counseling, including information on abortion, adoption, and parenthood.
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Periapical cemental dysplasia in twin sisters: a case report.
Quintessence Int
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2009
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The aim of this study was to report a case of periapical cemental dysplasia affecting the mandibular incisors in 38-year-old twin sisters. The major concern is failure to recognize the nature of the lesion, which may result in unnecessary root canal treatment or extractions on the assumption that the lesion represents inflammatory periapical pathosis.
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Hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome in 4 US soldiers, South Korea, 2005.
Emerging Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2009
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Four US soldiers acquired hemorrhagic fever with renal syndrome while training near the Demilitarized Zone, South Korea, in 2005. Hantaan virus sequences were amplified by reverse transcription-PCR from patient serum samples and from lung tissues of striped field mice (Apodemus agrarius) captured at training sites. Epidemiologic investigations specified the ecology of possible sites of patient infection.
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The leading sense: supramodal control of neurophysiological context by attention.
Neuron
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2009
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Attending to a stimulus enhances its neuronal representation, even at the level of primary sensory cortex. Cross-modal modulation can similarly enhance a neuronal representation, and this process can also operate at the primary cortical level. Phase reset of ongoing neuronal oscillatory activity has been shown to be an important element of the underlying modulation of local cortical excitability in both cases. We investigated the influence of attention on oscillatory phase reset in primary auditory and visual cortices of macaques performing an intermodal selective attention task. In addition to responses "driven" by preferred modality stimuli, we noted that both preferred and nonpreferred modality stimuli could "modulate" local cortical excitability by phase reset of ongoing oscillatory activity, and that this effect was linked to their being attended. These findings outline a supramodal mechanism by which attention can control neurophysiological context, thus determining the representation of specific sensory content in primary sensory cortex.
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Development of field-based real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assays for detection of Chikungunya and Onyong-nyong viruses in mosquitoes.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
PUBLISHED: 10-10-2009
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Chikungunya (CHIK) and Onyong-nyong (ONN) are important emerging arthropod-borne diseases. Molecular diagnosis of these two viruses in mosquitoes has not been evaluated, and the effects of extraneous mosquito tissue on assay performance have not been tested. Additionally, no real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay exists for detecting ONN virus (ONNV) RNA. We describe the development of sensitive and specific real-time RT-PCR assays for detecting CHIK and ONN viral RNA in mosquitoes, which have application for field use. In addition, we compared three methods for primer/probe design for assay development by evaluating their sensitivity and specificity. This comparison resulted in development of virus-specific assays that could detect less than one plaque-forming unit equivalent of each of the viruses in mosquitoes. The use of these assays will aid in arthropod-borne disease surveillance and in the control of the associated diseases.
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Outcomes of antiproteinuric RAAS blockade: high-dose compared with dual therapy.
Curr. Hypertens. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 09-10-2009
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Proteinuria is both a marker and a mediator of progressive renal damage; higher levels are associated with greater cardiovascular and renal risk. At normal and low levels of proteinuria (in the microalbuminuria range), the rate of hard renal events (dialysis and doubling of creatinine) is much lower than the mortality rate. At higher levels of proteinuria, the renal event rate surpasses the mortality rate. In the overt nephropathy range (proteinuria > 0.5 g/L), patients who achieve lower proteinuria with therapy have improved hard renal outcomes, but this result has not been demonstrated in the micro-albuminuria range. For patients with more severe overt nephropathy, there is a basic rationale for additional blockade of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system (RAAS). Dual blockade of this system and supramaximal dosing with an angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor or an angiotensin receptor blocker (ARB) have been demonstrated to reduce proteinuria in these patients more than therapy using the maximum recommended doses of these agents. However, evidence that dual blockade provides additional benefits for hard renal and cardiovascular outcomes is lacking, and only one study shows a benefit for supramaximal dosing. Both treatment strategies increase the risk for complications such as hyperkalemia. Therapy for patients with nephropathy should include treatment with the maximum recommended doses of an ACE inhibitor or ARB in addition to lowering blood pressure to target. For patients with overt nephropathy, more research is required on the role of dual therapy or supramaximal dosing to reduce hard renal and cardiovascular outcomes. Practitioners using either of these strategies to manage proteinuria should monitor their patients carefully.
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Impact of phlebotomine sand flies on U.S. military operations at Tallil Air Base, Iraq: 4. Detection and identification of leishmania parasites in sand flies.
J. Med. Entomol.
PUBLISHED: 06-06-2009
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Sand flies collected between April 2003 and November 2004 at Tallil Air Base, Iraq, were evaluated for the presence of Leishmania parasites using a combination of a real-time Leishmania-generic polymerase chain reaction (PCR) assay and sequencing of a 360-bp fragment of the glucose-6-phosphate-isomerase (GPI) gene. A total of 2,505 pools containing 26,574 sand flies were tested using the real-time PCR assay. Leishmania DNA was initially detected in 536 pools; however, after extensive retesting with the real-time PCR assay, a total of 456 pools were considered positive and 80 were considered indeterminate. A total of 532 samples were evaluated for Leishmania GPI by sequencing, to include 439 PCR-positive samples, 80 PCR-indeterminate samples, and 13 PCR-negative samples. Leishmania GPI was detected in 284 samples that were sequenced, to include 281 (64%) of the PCR-positive samples and 3 (4%) of the PCR-indeterminate samples. Of the 284 sequences identified as Leishmania, 261 (91.9%) were L. tarentolae, 18 (6.3%) were L. donovani-complex parasites, 3 (1.1%) were L. tropica, and 2 were similar to both L. major and L. tropica. Minimum field infection rates were 0.09% for L. donovani-complex parasites, 0.02% for L. tropica, and 0.01% for the L. major/tropica-like parasite. Subsequent sequencing of a 600-bp region of the "Hyper" gene of 12 of the L. donovani-complex parasites showed that all 12 parasites were L. infantum. These data suggest that L. infantum was the primary leishmanial threat to U.S. military personnel deployed to Tallil Air Base. The implications of these findings are discussed.
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Effects of gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents on human skin in organ culture and human skin fibroblasts.
Invest Radiol
PUBLISHED: 05-30-2009
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Nephrogenic systemic fibrosis (NSF) is a clinical syndrome linked with exposure in renal failure patients to gadolinium-based magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents (GBCAs). The pathogenesis of the disease is largely unknown. The present study addresses potential pathophysiological mechanisms.
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[Bioethics and nutrition in adult patients with cancer in palliative care].
Cad Saude Publica
PUBLISHED: 05-15-2009
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Cancer constitutes a major group of chronic diseases and is the second leading cause of death in the developed countries. Palliative care proposes to offer comprehensive support to control symptoms and improve quality of life for patients and their families. Nutrition is an important tool in palliative care, helping patients with their physical, psychological, and social issues and promoting comfort and quality of life. However, in the context of palliative care, nutritional support rarely achieves its role of fully recovering and assuring nutritional status. At this point, the nutritionist must consider the individual patients needs, preferences, and eating habits, which are essential both for controlling symptoms and assuring satisfaction and comfort. The impossibility of conventionally applying established management and the development of a new perception of the patient often raise dilemmas for professional nutritionists.
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Diabetes care in Ireland: a survey of general practitioners.
Prim Care Diabetes
PUBLISHED: 04-30-2009
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To investigate the organisation of diabetes care in general practice in Ireland and identify areas for future development.
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Characterization of Imjin virus, a newly isolated hantavirus from the Ussuri white-toothed shrew (Crocidura lasiura).
J. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2009
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Until recently, the single known exception to the rodent-hantavirus association was Thottapalayam virus (TPMV), a long-unclassified virus isolated from the Asian house shrew (Suncus murinus). Robust gene amplification techniques have now uncovered several genetically distinct hantaviruses from shrews in widely separated geographic regions. Here, we report the characterization of a newly identified hantavirus, designated Imjin virus (MJNV), isolated from the lung tissues of Ussuri white-toothed shrews of the species Crocidura lasiura (order Soricomorpha, family Soricidae, subfamily Crocidurinae) captured near the demilitarized zone in the Republic of Korea during 2004 and 2005. Seasonal trapping revealed the highest prevalence of MJNV infection during the autumn, with evidence of infected shrews clustering in distinct foci. Also, marked male predominance among anti-MJNV immunoglobulin G antibody-positive Ussuri shrews was found, whereas the male-to-female ratio among seronegative Ussuri shrews was near 1. Plaque reduction neutralization tests showed no cross neutralization for MJNV and rodent-borne hantaviruses but one-way cross neutralization for MJNV and TPMV. The nucleotide and deduced amino acid sequences for the different MJNV genomic segments revealed nearly the same calculated distances from hantaviruses harbored by rodents in the subfamilies Murinae, Arvicolinae, Neotominae, and Sigmodontinae. Phylogenetic analyses of full-length S, M, and L segment sequences demonstrated that MJNV shared a common ancestry with TPMV and remained in a distinct out-group, suggesting early evolutionary divergence. Studies are in progress to determine if MJNV is pathogenic for humans.
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Impaired keratinocyte function on matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1) damaged collagen.
Arch. Dermatol. Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2009
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Healing of superficial skin wounds depends on the proliferation and migration of keratinocytes at the wound margin. When human epidermal keratinocytes were incubated on polymerized type I collagen, they rapidly attached and spread. The cells underwent a proliferative response and, over the subsequent 6-day period, covered the collagen surface with a monolayer of cells. When keratinocytes were plated on collagen that had been fragmented by exposure to matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1, collagenase-1), the cells attached as readily as to intact collagen but spread more slowly and less completely. Growth was reduced by approximately 50%. Instead of covering the collagen surface, the keratinocytes remained localized to the site of attachment. Keratinocytes on fragmented collagen expressed a more differentiated phenotype as indicated by a higher level of surface E-cadherin. Based on these findings, we suggest that damage to the underlying collagenous matrix may impede efficient keratinocyte function and retard wound closure.
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Clinical and quality-of-life outcomes after autologous fascial sling and tension-free vaginal tape: a prospective randomized trial.
Int Braz J Urol
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2009
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Evaluate the impact autologous fascial sling (AFS) and tension-free vaginal tape (TVT) procedures on quality-of-life in incontinent women.
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Poor radiotherapy compliance predicts persistent regional disease in advanced head/neck cancer.
Laryngoscope
PUBLISHED: 01-23-2009
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To determine if poor compliance to chemoradiation results in an increased rate of persistent neck disease.
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[The Family Health Program and Mental Health: difficulties and challenges for building a network].
Cien Saude Colet
PUBLISHED: 01-15-2009
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This paper is fruit of an investigation called The dynamics of mental care: signs, meanings and practices of professionals working in the Family Health Program (FHP) and in the Psychosocial Care Centers (PCCs) . The main objective of this study was to understand how health professionals working in these two services interpret mental suffering and how they plan and develop their interventions for reducing it. To this purpose, we selected qualitative fieldwork methods that included interviews with the professionals and observation of the practices they develop in the context of the mentioned services. In this work, we present the data produced with regard to the FHP, where we also established focal groups with professionals. The data obtained were later analyzed on the basis of previously defined categories. As a result, we have been able to pin down a number of difficulties the professionals were facing, ranging from the identification of mental suffering to the challenge of dealing with specific situations and to the questions involved with the referral to specialized services. On the other hand, the degree of sensibility to social suffering demonstrated by these professionals and their ability to articulate it with psychological suffering deserve to be emphasized.
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The maternal self-efficacy scale for preventing early childhood diarrhea: validity and reliability.
Public Health Nurs
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This study aimed to develop and validate a psychometric scale for preventing early childhood diarrhea in endemic areas.
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Evaluation of a field-portable DNA microarray platform and nucleic acid amplification strategies for the detection of arboviruses, arthropods, and bloodmeals.
Am. J. Trop. Med. Hyg.
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Highly multiplexed assays, such as microarrays, can benefit arbovirus surveillance by allowing researchers to screen for hundreds of targets at once. We evaluated amplification strategies and the practicality of a portable DNA microarray platform to analyze virus-infected mosquitoes. The prototype microarray design used here targeted the non-structural protein 5, ribosomal RNA, and cytochrome b genes for the detection of flaviviruses, mosquitoes, and bloodmeals, respectively. We identified 13 of 14 flaviviruses from virus inoculated mosquitoes and cultured cells. Additionally, we differentiated between four mosquito genera and eight whole blood samples. The microarray platform was field evaluated in Thailand and successfully identified flaviviruses (Culex flavivirus, dengue-3, and Japanese encephalitis viruses), differentiated between mosquito genera (Aedes, Armigeres, Culex, and Mansonia), and detected mammalian bloodmeals (human and dog). We showed that the microarray platform and amplification strategies described here can be used to discern specific information on a wide variety of viruses and their vectors.
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Development of three quantitative real-time PCR assays for the detection of Rickettsia raoultii, Rickettsia slovaca, and Rickettsia aeschlimannii and their validation with ticks from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan.
Ticks Tick Borne Dis
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A previous surveillance study of human pathogens within ticks collected in the country of Georgia showed a relatively high infection rate for Rickettsia raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii. These 3 spotted fever group rickettsiae are human pathogens: R. raoultii and R. slovaca cause tick-borne lymphadenopathy (TIBOLA), and R. aeschlimannii causes an infection characterized by fever and maculopapular rash. Three quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assays, Rraoul, Rslov, and Raesch were developed and optimized to detect R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii, respectively, by targeting fragments of the outer membrane protein B gene (ompB) using species-specific molecular beacon or TaqMan probes. The 3 qPCR assays showed 100% specificity when tested against a rickettsiae DNA panel (n=20) and a bacteria DNA panel (n=12). The limit of detection was found to be at least 3 copies per reaction for all assays. Validation of the assays using previously investigated tick nucleic acid preparations, which included Rickettsia-free tick samples, tick samples that contain R. raoultii, R. slovaca, R. aeschlimannii, and other Rickettsia spp., gave 100% sensitivity for all 3 qPCR assays. In addition, a total of 65 tick nucleic acid preparations (representing 259 individual ticks) collected from the country of Georgia and the Republic of Azerbaijan in 2009 was tested using the 3 qPCR assays. R. raoultii, R. slovaca, and R. aeschlimannii were not detected in any ticks (n=31) from the Republic of Azerbaijan, but in the ticks from the country of Georgia (n=228) the minimal infection rate for R. raoultii and R. slovaca in Dermacentor marginatus was 10% and 4%, respectively, and for R. aeschlimannii in Haemaphysalis sulcata and Hyalomma spp. it was 1.9% and 20%, respectively.
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Isolation and genomic characterization of Chaoyang virus strain ROK144 from Aedes vexans nipponii from the Republic of Korea.
Virology
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During June 2003, mosquito surveillance was conducted at a US Army installation and a US Military training site 2 km south of the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea. Mosquitoes were collected using Mosquito Magnets™, sorted to species, and assayed for the presence of arboviruses. From the 3,149 mosquitoes that were sorted into 126 pools, one Aedes vexans nipponii pool (out of 73 pools) tested positive for flavivirus RNA by reverse transcription-PCR. After isolation from C6/36 cell culture supernatant, the viral genome was sequenced and found to be 98.9% related to Chaoyang virus, a potential arthropod-specific flavivirus. This report details the first identification of Chaoyang virus in the Republic of Korea and highlights its relationship to other flaviviruses.
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[Knowledge production about nurse education: a bibliometric study].
Rev Bras Enferm
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This study aims to identify the nursing theses and dissertation production catalogued in the Center for Study in Nursing Research - CEPEN, which treats nurse formation according to the National Curricular Directives on the SUS formation approach. This is a bibliometric and descriptive study performed on the theses and dissertations catalog of CEPEN, between 2003 and 2007. Twenty seven papers were selected, and quantitatively analyzed according to institution, year of publication, degree of research (dissertations or theses), type of research, and qualitatively analyzed according to themes, philosophical theory, and methodological reference. The results show 100% of the work performed in public institutions, with increased production in theses, there are few studies that deal with the profile of graduates, as well as training for SUS.
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Procedural trends in the treatment of peripheral arterial disease by insurer status in New York State.
J. Am. Coll. Surg.
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Type or lack of insurance may affect access to care, treatment, and outcomes. We evaluated trends for surgical management of all peripheral arterial disease (PAD) in-hospital admissions by insurer status in New York State.
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Hantaan virus surveillance in small mammals at firing points 10 and 60, Yeoncheon, Gyeonggi Province, Republic of Korea.
Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis.
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We used epidemiological data and indirect fluorescent antibody tests to determine the Hantaan virus (HTNV) antibody-positive (Ab+) prevalence in small mammals captured at firing point 10 (FP-10) and firing point 60 (FP-60), Gyeonggi Province, near the demilitarized zone, Republic of Korea (ROK), from 2001 to 2005. We used these data, combined with the partial M segment amplified from HTNV recovered from lung tissues of Apodemus agrarius, to clarify the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships among HTNV strains in the ROK. Of the eight species of rodents and one insectivore species captured, A. agrarius accounted for 93.4% and 88.5% at FP-10 and FP-60, respectively. Only two species of rodents, A. agrarius and Micromys minutus, were HTNV Ab+. The overall HTNV Ab+ prevalence for A. agrarius captured at FP-10 and FP-60 was 23.3% (121/520) and 14.5% (94/647), respectively. The hantaviral reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction-positive rate of Ab+ A. agrarius was 74.2% (167/215), and the phylogenetic trees, based on the 269-nucleotide G2-encoding M segment, demonstrated that HTNV strains from FP-10 and FP-60 were distantly segregated from HTNV of other geographic regions in Korea and China. These data are useful in the development of risk reduction strategies for the prevention of hantavirus infections among military personnel, especially during training or the event of hostilities, and civilian populations.
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Effects of Russian current and low-frequency pulsed current on discomfort level and current amplitude at 10% maximal knee extensor torque.
Physiother Theory Pract
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Low-frequency pulsed current (LFPC) and Russian current (RC), a type of kilohertz-frequency alternating current, have been frequently used for muscle strengthening in rehabilitation programs. Despite the popularity of these current types, it is unclear which is most effectively able to generate a similar submaximal torque with minimal discomfort and current amplitude.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.