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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Does genetic distance between parental species influence outcomes of hybridization among coral reef butterflyfishes?
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 04-15-2014
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Christmas Island is located at the overlap of the Indian and Pacific Ocean marine provinces and is a hot spot for marine hybridization. Here, we evaluate the ecological framework and genetic consequences of hybridization between butterflyfishes Chaetodon guttatissimus and Chaetodon punctatofasciatus. Further, we compare our current findings to those from a previous study of hybridization between Chaetodon trifasciatus and Chaetodon lunulatus. For both species groups, habitat and dietary overlap between parental species facilitate frequent heterospecific encounters. Low abundance of potential mates promotes heterospecific pair formation and the breakdown of assortative mating. Despite similarities in ecological frameworks, the population genetic signatures of hybridization differ between the species groups. Mitochondrial and nuclear data from C. guttatissimus × C. punctatofasciatus (1% divergence at cyt b) show bidirectional maternal contributions and relatively high levels of introgression, both inside and outside the Christmas Island hybrid zone. In contrast, C. trifasciatus × C. lunulatus (5% cyt b divergence) exhibit unidirectional mitochondrial inheritance and almost no introgression. Back-crossing of hybrid C. guttatissimus × C. punctatofasciatus and parental genotypes may eventually confound species-specific signals within the hybrid zone. In contrast, hybrids of C. trifasciatus and C. lunulatus may coexist with and remain genetically distinct from the parents. Our results, and comparisons with hybridization studies in other reef fish families, indicate that genetic distance between hybridizing species may be a factor influencing outcomes of hybridization in reef fish, which is consistent with predictions from terrestrially derived hybridization theory.
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Refuge-seeking impairments mirror metabolic recovery following fisheries-related stressors in the Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) on the Great Barrier Reef.
Physiol. Biochem. Zool.
PUBLISHED: 01-25-2014
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Fisheries and marine park management strategies for large predatory reef fish can mean that a large proportion of captured fish are released. Despite being released, these fish may experience high mortality while they traverse the water column to locate suitable refuge to avoid predators, all the while recovering from the stress of capture. The predatory reef fish Spanish flag snapper (Lutjanus carponotatus) is frequently released because of a minimum-size or bag limit or by fishers targeting more desirable species. Using L. carponotatus as a model, we tested whether simulated fishing stress (exercise and air exposure) resulted in impairments in reflexes (e.g., response to stimuli) and the ability to identify and use refuge in a laboratory arena and whether any impairments were associated with blood physiology or metabolic recovery. Control fish were consistently responsive to reflex tests and rapidly located and entered refugia in the arena within seconds. Conversely, treatment fish (exhausted and air exposed) were unresponsive to stimuli, took longer to search for refugia, and were more apprehensive to enter the refuge once it was located. Consequently, treatment fish took more than 70 times longer than control fish to enter the coral refuge (26.12 vs. 0.36 min, respectively). The finding that fish exposed to stress were hesitant to use refugia suggests that there was likely cognitive, visual, and/or physiological impairment. Blood lactate, glucose, and hematocrit measures were perturbed at 15 and 30 min after the stressor, relative to controls. However, measurements of oxygen consumption rate revealed that about 50% of metabolic recovery occurred within 30 min after the stressor, coinciding with apparent cognitive/visual/physiological recovery. Recovering the treatment fish in aerated, flow-through chambers for 30 min before introduction to the behavioral arena restored reflexes, and "recovered" fish behaved more similarly to controls. Therefore, we suggest that temporarily holding coral reef fish that have undergone an exhaustive fishing interaction and an air exposure episode should enable significant recovery of cognitive and metabolic attributes that would enable fish to more rapidly locate and utilize refugia to avoid postrelease predation. However, after nonexhaustive fishing interactions (i.e., minimal reflex impairment), it is likely that immediate release would be most beneficial.
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Spatial variation in background mortality among dominant coral taxa on Australia's Great Barrier Reef.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are consistently subject to high levels of background mortality, which undermines individual fitness and resilience of coral colonies. Partial mortality may impact coral response to climate change by reducing colony ability to recover between major acute stressors. This study quantified proportion of injured versus uninjured colonies (the prevalence of injuries) and instantaneous measures of areal extent of injuries across individual colonies (the severity of injuries), in four common coral species along the Great Barrier Reef in Australia: massive Porites, encrusting Montipora, Acropora hyacinthus and Pocillopora damicornis. A total of 2,276 adult colonies were surveyed three latitudinal sectors, nine reefs and 27 sites along 1000 km2 on the Great Barrier Reef. The prevalence of injuries was very high, especially for Porites spp (91%) and Montipora encrusting (85%) and varied significantly, but most lay at small spatial scales (e.g., among colonies positioned <10-m apart). Similarly, severity of background partial mortality was surprisingly high (between 5% and 21%) but varied greatly among colonies within the same site and habitat. This study suggests that intraspecific variation in partial mortality between adjacent colonies may be more important than variation between colonies in different latitudinal sectors or reefs. Differences in the prevalence and severity of background partial mortality have significant ramifications for coral capacity to cope with increasing acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching. These data are important for understanding coral responses to increasing stressors, and in particular for predicting their capacity to recover between subsequent disturbances.
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Intraspecific variation in physiological condition of reef-building corals associated with differential levels of chronic disturbance.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Even in the absence of major disturbances (e.g., cyclones, bleaching), corals are subject to high levels of partial or whole-colony mortality, often caused by chronic and small-scale disturbances. Depending on levels of background mortality, these chronic disturbances may undermine individual fitness and have significant consequences on the ability of colonies to withstand subsequent acute disturbances or environmental change. This study quantified intraspecific variations in physiological condition (measured based on total lipid content and zooxanthellae density) through time in adult colonies of two common and widespread coral species (Acropora spathulata and Pocillopora damicornis), subject to different levels of biological and physical disturbances along the most disturbed reef habitat, the crest. Marked intraspecific variation in the physiological condition of A. spathulata was clearly linked to differences in local disturbance regimes and habitat. Specifically, zooxanthellae density decreased (r2?=?26, df?=?5,42, p<0.02, B?=? -121255, p?=?0.03) and total lipid content increased (r2?=?14, df?=?5,42, p?=?0.01, B?=?0.9, p?=?0.01) with increasing distance from exposed crests. Moreover, zooxanthellae density was strongly and negatively correlated with the individual level of partial mortality (r2?=?26, df?=?5,42, p<0.02, B?=? -7386077, p?=?0.01). Conversely, P. damicornis exhibited very limited intraspecific variation in physiological condition, despite marked differences in levels of partial mortality. This is the first study to relate intraspecific variation in the condition of corals to localized differences in chronic disturbance regimes. The next step is to ascertain whether these differences have further ramifications for susceptibility to periodic acute disturbances, such as climate-induced coral bleaching.
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Heterospecific aggression and dominance in a guild of coral-feeding fishes: the roles of dietary ecology and phylogeny.
Am. Nat.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2013
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Interspecific competition mediates biodiversity maintenance and is an important selective pressure for evolution. Competition is often conceptualized as being exploitative (indirect) or involving direct interference. However, most empirical studies are phenomenological, focusing on quantifying effects of density manipulations, and most competition theory has characterized exploitation competition systems. The effects on resource use of traits associated with direct, interference competition has received far less attention. Here we examine the relationships of dietary ecology and phylogeny to heterospecific aggression in a guild of corallivorous reef fishes. We find that, among chaetodontids (butterflyfishes), heterospecific aggression depends on a synergistic interaction of dietary overlap and specialization: aggression increases with dietary overlap for interactions between specialists but not for interactions involving generalists. Moreover, behavioral dominance is a monotonically increasing function of dietary specialization. The strong, positive relationship of dominance to specialization suggests that heterospecific aggression may contribute to the maintenance of biodiversity where it promotes resource partitioning. Additionally, we find strong phylogenetic signals in dietary overlap and specialization but not behavioral dominance. Our results support the use of phylogeny as a proxy for ecological similarity among butterflyfishes, but we find that direct measures of dietary overlap and specialization predict heterospecific agression much better than phylogeny.
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Recovery of an isolated coral reef system following severe disturbance.
Science
PUBLISHED: 04-06-2013
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Coral reef recovery from major disturbance is hypothesized to depend on the arrival of propagules from nearby undisturbed reefs. Therefore, reefs isolated by distance or current patterns are thought to be highly vulnerable to catastrophic disturbance. We found that on an isolated reef system in north Western Australia, coral cover increased from 9% to 44% within 12 years of a coral bleaching event, despite a 94% reduction in larval supply for 6 years after the bleaching. The initial increase in coral cover was the result of high rates of growth and survival of remnant colonies, followed by a rapid increase in juvenile recruitment as colonies matured. We show that isolated reefs can recover from major disturbance, and that the benefits of their isolation from chronic anthropogenic pressures can outweigh the costs of limited connectivity.
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Limited contemporary gene flow and high self-replenishment drives peripheral isolation in an endemic coral reef fish.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 03-26-2013
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Extensive ongoing degradation of coral reef habitats worldwide has lead to declines in abundance of coral reef fishes and local extinction of some species. Those most vulnerable are ecological specialists and endemic species. Determining connectivity between locations is vital to understanding recovery and long-term persistence of these species following local extinction. This study explored population connectivity in the ecologically-specialized endemic three-striped butterflyfish (Chaetodon tricinctus) using mt and msatDNA (nuclear microsatellites) to distinguish evolutionary versus contemporary gene flow, estimate self-replenishment and measure genetic diversity among locations at the remote Australian offshore coral reefs of Middleton Reef (MR), Elizabeth Reef (ER), Lord Howe Island (LHI), and Norfolk Island (NI). Mt and msatDNA suggested genetic differentiation of the most peripheral location (NI) from the remaining three locations (MR, ER, LHI). Despite high levels of mtDNA gene flow, there is limited msatDNA gene flow with evidence of high levels of self-replenishment (?76%) at all four locations. Taken together, this suggests prolonged population recovery times following population declines. The peripheral population (NI) is most vulnerable to local extinction due to its relative isolation, extreme levels of self-replenishment (95%), and low contemporary abundance.
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Lethal doses of oxbile, peptones and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) for Acanthaster planci; exploring alternative population control options.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
PUBLISHED: 03-22-2013
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Effective control of outbreaks of Acanthaster planci represents the most immediate and practical intervention to reverse sustained declines in coral cover on reefs in the Indo-Pacific. This study explored the minimum doses of oxbile, oxgall, and thiosulfate-citrate-bile-sucrose agar (TCBS) that result in reliable and comprehensive mortality when injected into adult A. planci. The minimum doses required to induce 100% mortality among starfish (n=10) were 4 g l(-1) of oxbile, 8 g l(-1) of oxgall and 22 g l(-1) of TCBS. Moreover, there was no evidence of unintended side effects for other coral reef organisms (e.g., scleractinian corals, echinoderms and fishes) when using oxbile, oxgall, or TCBS at minimum doses. The effectiveness of peptones in killing crown-of-thorns starfish was also tested, but inconsistency in the results revealed that these proteins are unreliable.
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Experimental evaluation of imprinting and the role innate preference plays in habitat selection in a coral reef fish.
Oecologia
PUBLISHED: 03-18-2013
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When facing decisions about where to live, juveniles have a strong tendency to choose habitats similar to where their parents successfully bred. Developing larval fishes can imprint on the chemical cues from their natal habitat. However, to demonstrate that imprinting is ecologically important, it must be shown that settlers respond and distinguish among different imprinted cues, and use imprinting for decisions in natural environments. In addition, the potential role innate preferences play compared to imprinted choices also needs to be examined. As environmental variability increases due to anthropogenic causes these two recognition mechanisms, innate and imprinting, could provide conflicting information. Here we used laboratory rearing and chemical choice experiments to test imprinting in larval anemonefish (Amphiprion percula). Individuals exposed to a variety of benthic habitat or novel olfactory cues as larvae either developed a preference for (spent >50 % of their time in the cue) or increased their attraction to (increased preference but did not spend >50 % of their time in the cue) the cue when re-exposed as settlers. Results indicate not only the capacity for imprinting but also the ability to adjust innate preferences after early exposure to a chemical cue. To test ecological relevance in the natural system, recruits were collected from anemones and related to their parents, using genetic parentage analysis, providing information on the natal anemone species and the species chosen at settlement. Results demonstrated that recruits did not preferentially return to their natal species, conflicting with laboratory results indicating the importance imprinting might have in habitat recognition.
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Spatial variation in abundance, size and orientation of juvenile corals related to the biomass of parrotfishes on the Great Barrier Reef, Australia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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For species with complex life histories such as scleractinian corals, processes occurring early in life can greatly influence the number of individuals entering the adult population. A plethora of studies have examined settlement patterns of coral larvae, mostly on artificial substrata, and the composition of adult corals across multiple spatial and temporal scales. However, relatively few studies have examined the spatial distribution of small (?50 mm diameter) sexually immature corals on natural reef substrata. We, therefore, quantified the variation in the abundance, composition and size of juvenile corals (?50 mm diameter) among 27 sites, nine reefs, and three latitudes spanning over 1000 km on Australias Great Barrier Reef. Overall, 2801 juveniles were recorded with a mean density of 6.9 (±0.3 SE) ind.m(-2), with Acropora, Pocillopora, and Porites accounting for 84.1% of all juvenile corals surveyed. Size-class structure, orientation on the substrate and taxonomic composition of juvenile corals varied significantly among latitudinal sectors. The abundance of juvenile corals varied both within (6-13 ind.m(-2)) and among reefs (2.8-11.1 ind.m(-2)) but was fairly similar among latitudes (6.1-8.2 ind.m(-2)), despite marked latitudinal variation in larval supply and settlement rates previously found at this scale. Furthermore, the density of juvenile corals was negatively correlated with the biomass of scraping and excavating parrotfishes across all sites, revealing a potentially important role of parrotfishes in determining distribution patterns of juvenile corals on the Great Barrier Reef. While numerous studies have advocated the importance of parrotfishes for clearing space on the substrate to facilitate coral settlement, our results suggest that at high biomass they may have a detrimental effect on juvenile coral assemblages. There is, however, a clear need to directly quantify rates of mortality and growth of juvenile corals to understand the relative importance of these mechanisms in shaping juvenile, and consequently adult, coral assemblages.
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Changes in bleaching susceptibility among corals subject to ocean warming and recurrent bleaching in Moorea, French Polynesia.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Climate-induced coral bleaching poses a major threat to coral reef ecosystems, mostly because of the sensitivities of key habitat-forming corals to increasing temperature. However, susceptibility to bleaching varies greatly among coral genera and there are likely to be major changes in the relative abundance of different corals, even if the wholesale loss of corals does not occur for several decades. Here we document variation in bleaching susceptibility among key genera of reef-building corals in Moorea, French Polynesia, and compare bleaching incidence during mass-bleaching events documented in 1991, 1994, 2002 and 2007.
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Terrestrial chemical cues help coral reef fish larvae locate settlement habitat surrounding islands.
Ecol Evol
PUBLISHED: 09-20-2011
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Understanding the degree of connectivity between coastal and island landscapes and nearby coral reefs is vital to the integrated management of terrestrial and marine environments in the tropics. Coral reef fish are capable of navigating appropriate settlement habitats following their pelagic larval phase, but the mechanisms by which they do this are unclear. The importance of olfactory cues in settlement site selection has been demonstrated, and there is increasing evidence that chemical cues from terrestrial sources may be important for some species. Here, we test the olfactory preferences of eight island-associated coral reef fish recruits and one generalist species to discern the capacity for terrestrial cue recognition that may aid in settlement site selection. A series of pairwise choice experiments were used to evaluate the potential role that terrestrial, water-borne olfactory cues play in island-reef recognition. Olfactory stimuli tested included near-shore water, terrestrial rainforest leaf litter, and olfactory cues collected from different reef types (reefs surrounding vegetated islands, and reefs with no islands present). All eight island-associated species demonstrated high levels of olfactory discrimination and responded positively toward olfactory cues indicating the presence of a vegetated island. We hypothesize that although these fish use a suite of cues for settlement site recognition, one mechanism in locating their island/reef habitat is through the olfactory cues produced by vegetated islands. This research highlights the role terrestrial olfactory cues play in large-scale settlement site selection and suggests a high degree of ecosystem connectivity.
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High gene flow across large geographic scales reduces extinction risk for a highly specialised coral feeding butterflyfish.
Mol. Ecol.
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2011
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The vulnerability of ecologically specialised species to environmental fluctuations has been well documented. However, population genetic structure can influence vulnerability to environmental change and recent studies have indicated that specialised species may have lower genetic diversity and greater population structuring compared to their generalist counterparts. To examine whether there were differences in population genetic structure between a dietary specialist (Chaetodon trifascialis) and a dietary generalist (Chaetodon lunulatus) we compared the demographic history and levels of gene flow of two related coral-feeding butterflyfishes. Using allele frequencies of ?11 microsatellite loci and >350 bases of mitochondrial control region sequence our analyses of C. trifascialis and C. lunulatus from five locations across the Pacific Ocean revealed contrasting demographic histories and levels of genetic structure. Heterozygosity excess tests, neutrality tests and mismatch distributions were all highly significant in the dietary specialist C. trifascialis (all P < 0.01), suggesting genetic bottlenecks have occurred in all locations. In contrast, we found little evidence of genetic bottlenecks for the dietary generalist C. lunulatus. High gene flow and low genetic structuring was detected among locations for C. trifascialis (amova: R(ST) = 0.0027, P = 0.371; ?(ST) = 0.068, P < 0.0001). Contrary to our expectations, a greater level of genetic structuring between locations was detected for C. lunulatus (amova: R(ST) = 0.0277, ?(ST) = 0.166, both P < 0.0001). These results suggest that dietary specialisation may affect demographic history through reductions in population size following resource declines, without affecting population structure through reductions in gene flow in the same way that habitat specialisation appears to. Although C. trifascialis is highly vulnerable to coral loss, the high gene flow detected here suggests populations will be able to recover from local declines through the migration of individuals.
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High macroalgal cover and low coral recruitment undermines the potential resilience of the worlds southernmost coral reef assemblages.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 07-04-2011
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Coral reefs are under increasing pressure from anthropogenic and climate-induced stressors. The ability of reefs to reassemble and regenerate after disturbances (i.e., resilience) is largely dependent on the capacity of herbivores to prevent macroalgal expansion, and the replenishment of coral populations through larval recruitment. Currently there is a paucity of this information for higher latitude, subtropical reefs. To assess the potential resilience of the benthic reef assemblages of Lord Howe Island (31°32S, 159°04E), the worlds southernmost coral reef, we quantified the benthic composition, densities of juvenile corals (as a proxy for coral recruitment), and herbivorous fish communities. Despite some variation among habitats and sites, benthic communities were dominated by live scleractinian corals (mean cover 37.4%) and fleshy macroalgae (20.9%). Live coral cover was higher than in most other subtropical reefs and directly comparable to lower latitude tropical reefs. Juvenile coral densities (0.8 ind.m(-2)), however, were 5-200 times lower than those reported for tropical reefs. Overall, macroalgal cover was negatively related to the cover of live coral and the density of juvenile corals, but displayed no relationship with herbivorous fish biomass. The biomass of herbivorous fishes was relatively low (204 kg.ha(-1)), and in marked contrast to tropical reefs was dominated by macroalgal browsing species (84.1%) with relatively few grazing species. Despite their extremely low biomass, grazing fishes were positively related to both the density of juvenile corals and the cover of bare substrata, suggesting that they may enhance the recruitment of corals through the provision of suitable settlement sites. Although Lord Howe Islands reefs are currently coral-dominated, the high macroalgal cover, coupled with limited coral recruitment and low coral growth rates suggest these reefs may be extremely susceptible to future disturbances.
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Global human footprint on the linkage between biodiversity and ecosystem functioning in reef fishes.
PLoS Biol.
PUBLISHED: 02-18-2011
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Difficulties in scaling up theoretical and experimental results have raised controversy over the consequences of biodiversity loss for the functioning of natural ecosystems. Using a global survey of reef fish assemblages, we show that in contrast to previous theoretical and experimental studies, ecosystem functioning (as measured by standing biomass) scales in a non-saturating manner with biodiversity (as measured by species and functional richness) in this ecosystem. Our field study also shows a significant and negative interaction between human population density and biodiversity on ecosystem functioning (i.e., for the same human density there were larger reductions in standing biomass at more diverse reefs). Human effects were found to be related to fishing, coastal development, and land use stressors, and currently affect over 75% of the worlds coral reefs. Our results indicate that the consequences of biodiversity loss in coral reefs have been considerably underestimated based on existing knowledge and that reef fish assemblages, particularly the most diverse, are greatly vulnerable to the expansion and intensity of anthropogenic stressors in coastal areas.
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Cross-species amplification of 44 microsatellite loci developed for Chaetodon trifascialis, C. lunulatus and C. vagabundus in 22 related butterflyfish species.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 09-26-2010
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Forty-four microsatellite primers developed for three species of butterflyfish were cross-tested against 22 related confamilial species. Amplification success and cross-species transferability of these markers were moderately high. Between 24 and 37 loci were amplified successfully in each species, with a mean success rate per species of 71.7% (± 1.8 SE). Rates of amplification success were comparable among primers designed for the three source species, ranging from a mean success rate per species of 16.9 loci (± 0.8 SE) for Chaetodon trifascialis source loci to 13.7 loci (± 1.5 SE) for C. vagabundus source loci. Polymorphism rates were high (76.1%± 3.1 SE of all successfully amplified loci), and 10 loci were polymorphic in all successfully amplified species (Tri14, B11, C5, D3, D113, D6, D117, D120, D111, D118). The number of alleles per polymorphic locus ranged from 2 to 8, and the average number of alleles across all polymorphic loci and all species was 3.6 (± 0.07 SE). Polymorphism rates were higher overall in primers designed for C. vagabundus (89.9%± 3.9 SE). Overall cross-testing success was lowest for Heniochus chrysostomus, the most phylogenetically divergent species. The significant cross-testing reported here provides a valuable resource that will enable population genetics studies to be undertaken on a range of butterflyfishes without the need for expensive and time-consuming de novo microsatellite development.
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Permanent Genetic Resources added to Molecular Ecology Resources Database 1 May 2009-31 July 2009.
, Glenn R Almany, Maurício P DE Arruda, Wolfgang Arthofer, Z K Atallah, Steven R Beissinger, Michael L Berumen, S M Bogdanowicz, S D Brown, Michael W Bruford, C Burdine, Jeremiah W Busch, Nathan R Campbell, D Carey, Bryan C Carstens, K H Chu, Marc A Cubeta, J P Cuda, Zhaoxia Cui, L E Datnoff, J A Dávila, Emily S Davis, R M Davis, Onno E Diekmann, Eduardo Eizirik, J A Fargallo, Fabiano Fernandes, Hideo Fukuda, L R Gale, Elizabeth Gallagher, Yongqiang Gao, Philippe Girard, Anna Godhe, Evonnildo C Gonçalves, Licinia Gouveia, Amber M Grajczyk, M J Grose, Zhifeng Gu, Christer Hallden, Karolina Härnström, Amanda H Hemmingsen, Gerald Holmes, C H Huang, Chuan-Chin Huang, S P Hudman, Geoffrey P Jones, Loukas Kanetis, Iddya Karunasagar, Indrani Karunasagar, Nusha Keyghobadi, S J Klosterman, Page E Klug, J Koch, Margaret M Koopman, Kirsten Köppler, Eriko Koshimizu, Susanne Krumböck, T Kubisiak, J B Landis, Mario L Lasta, Chow-Yang Lee, Qianqian Li, Shou-Hsien Li, Rong-Chien Lin, M Liu, Na Liu, W C Liu, Yuan Liu, A Loiseau, Weisha Luan, K K Maruthachalam, Helen M McCormick, Rohan Mellick, P J Monnahan, Eliana Morielle-Versute, Tomás E Murray, Shawn R Narum, Katie Neufeld, P J G De Nova, Peter S Ojiambo, Nobuaki Okamoto, Ahmad Sofiman Othman, W A Overholt, Renata Pardini, Ian G Paterson, Olivia A Patty, Robert J Paxton, Serge Planes, Carolyn Porter, Morgan S Pratchett, Thomas Püttker, Gordana Rasić, Bilal Rasool, O Rey, Markus Riegler, C Riehl, John M K Roberts, P D Roberts, Elisabeth Rochel, Kevin J Roe, Maurizio Rossetto, Daniel E Ruzzante, Takashi Sakamoto, V Saravanan, Cladinara Roberts Sarturi, Anke Schmidt, Maria Paula Cruz Schneider, Hannes Schuler, Jeanne M Serb, Ester T A Serrão, Yaohua Shi, Artur Silva, Y W Sin, Simone Sommer, Christian Stauffer, Carlos Augusto Strüssmann, K V Subbarao, Craig Syms, Feng Tan, Eugenio Daniel Tejedor, Simon R Thorrold, Robert N Trigiano, María I Trucco, Mirian Tieko Nunes Tsuchiya-Jerep, P Vergara, Mirjam S Van De Vliet, Phillip A Wadl, Aimin Wang, Hongxia Wang, R X Wang, Xinwang Wang, Yan Wang, Andrew R Weeks, Fuwen Wei, William J Werner, E O Wiley, D A Williams, Richard J Wilkins, Samantha M Wisely, Kimberly A With, Danhua Wu, Cheng-Te Yao, Cynthia Yau, Beng-Keok Yeap, Bao-Ping Zhai, Xiangjiang Zhan, Guo-Yan Zhang, S Y Zhang, Ru Zhao, Lifeng Zhu.
Mol Ecol Resour
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2009
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This article documents the addition of 512 microsatellite marker loci and nine pairs of Single Nucleotide Polymorphism (SNP) sequencing primers to the Molecular Ecology Resources Database. Loci were developed for the following species: Alcippe morrisonia morrisonia, Bashania fangiana, Bashania fargesii, Chaetodon vagabundus, Colletes floralis, Coluber constrictor flaviventris, Coptotermes gestroi, Crotophaga major, Cyprinella lutrensis, Danaus plexippus, Fagus grandifolia, Falco tinnunculus, Fletcherimyia fletcheri, Hydrilla verticillata, Laterallus jamaicensis coturniculus, Leavenworthia alabamica, Marmosops incanus, Miichthys miiuy, Nasua nasua, Noturus exilis, Odontesthes bonariensis, Quadrula fragosa, Pinctada maxima, Pseudaletia separata, Pseudoperonospora cubensis, Podocarpus elatus, Portunus trituberculatus, Rhagoletis cerasi, Rhinella schneideri, Sarracenia alata, Skeletonema marinoi, Sminthurus viridis, Syngnathus abaster, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) chinensis, Verticillium dahliae, Wasmannia auropunctata, and Zygochlamys patagonica. These loci were cross-tested on the following species: Chaetodon baronessa, Falco columbarius, Falco eleonorae, Falco naumanni, Falco peregrinus, Falco subbuteo, Didelphis aurita, Gracilinanus microtarsus, Marmosops paulensis, Monodelphis Americana, Odontesthes hatcheri, Podocarpus grayi, Podocarpus lawrencei, Podocarpus smithii, Portunus pelagicus, Syngnathus acus, Syngnathus typhle,Uroteuthis (Photololigo) edulis, Uroteuthis (Photololigo) duvauceli and Verticillium albo-atrum. This article also documents the addition of nine sequencing primer pairs and sixteen allele specific primers or probes for Oncorhynchus mykiss and Oncorhynchus tshawytscha; these primers and assays were cross-tested in both species.
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Ocean acidification impairs olfactory discrimination and homing ability of a marine fish.
Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A.
PUBLISHED: 02-02-2009
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The persistence of most coastal marine species depends on larvae finding suitable adult habitat at the end of an offshore dispersive stage that can last weeks or months. We tested the effects that ocean acidification from elevated levels of atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO(2)) could have on the ability of larvae to detect olfactory cues from adult habitats. Larval clownfish reared in control seawater (pH 8.15) discriminated between a range of cues that could help them locate reef habitat and suitable settlement sites. This discriminatory ability was disrupted when larvae were reared in conditions simulating CO(2)-induced ocean acidification. Larvae became strongly attracted to olfactory stimuli they normally avoided when reared at levels of ocean pH that could occur ca. 2100 (pH 7.8) and they no longer responded to any olfactory cues when reared at pH levels (pH 7.6) that might be attained later next century on a business-as-usual carbon-dioxide emissions trajectory. If acidification continues unabated, the impairment of sensory ability will reduce population sustainability of many marine species, with potentially profound consequences for marine diversity.
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Variation in the size structure of corals is related to environmental extremes in the Persian Gulf.
Mar. Environ. Res.
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The size structure of coral populations is the culmination of key demographic events, including recruitment, mortality and growth, thereby providing important insights to recent ecological dynamics. Importantly, the size structure of corals reflects both intrinsic (inherent life-history characteristics) and extrinsic (enhanced mortality due to chronic or acute disturbances) forcing on local populations, enabling post-hoc assessment of spatial and taxonomic differences in susceptibility to disturbance. This study examined the size structure of four locally abundant corals (Acropora downingi, Favia pallida, Platygyra daedalea, and massive Porites spp.) in two regions of the Persian Gulf: the southern Gulf (Dubai and Abu Dhabi) and eastern Gulf (western Musandam). Significant and consistent differences were apparent in mean colony sizes and size-distributions between regions. All corals in the southern Gulf were significantly smaller, and their size structure positively skewed and relatively more leptokurtic (i.e., peaky) compared to corals in the eastern Gulf. Sea surface temperatures, salinity, and the recent frequency of mass bleaching are all higher, in the southern Gulf, suggesting higher mortality rates and/or slower growth in these populations. Differences in size structure between locations were more pronounced than differences between species at each location, suggesting that extreme differences in environmental conditions and disturbance events have a greater influence on population dynamics in the Gulf than inherent differences in their life-history characteristics.
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Functional composition of Chaetodon butterflyfishes at a peripheral and extreme coral reef location, the Persian Gulf.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
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The functional composition of reef fish assemblages is highly conserved across large biogeographic areas, but it is unknown whether assembly rules hold at biogeographical and environmental extremes for coral reefs. This study examined the functional composition of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf, Musandam Peninsula, and Gulf of Oman. Only five species of butterflyfishes were recorded during this study, and mostly just in the Gulf of Oman. Unlike most locations in the Indo-Pacific where butterflyfish assemblages are dominated by obligate corallivores, the only obligate corallivore recorded, Chaetodon melapterus, was rare or absent at all locations. The most common and widespread species was Chaetodon nigropunctatus, which is shown to be a facultative corallivore. The diversity of butterflyfishes in the Persian Gulf is likely to have been constrained by its biogeographical history and isolation, but functional composition appears to be further affected by limited abundance of prey corals and harsh environmental conditions.
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Specialization in habitat use by coral reef damselfishes and their susceptibility to habitat loss.
Ecol Evol
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While it is generally assumed that specialist species are more vulnerable to disturbance compared with generalist counterparts, this has rarely been tested in coastal marine ecosystems, which are increasingly subject to a wide range of natural and anthropogenic disturbances. Habitat specialists are expected to be more vulnerable to habitat loss because habitat availability exerts a greater limitation on population size, but it is also possible that specialist species may escape effects of disturbance if they use habitats that are generally resilient to disturbance. This study quantified specificity in use of different coral species by six coral-dwelling damselfishes (Chromis viridis, C. atripectoralis, Dascyllus aruanus, D. reticulatus, Pomacentrus moluccensis, and P. amboinensis) and related habitat specialization to proportional declines in their abundance following habitat degradation caused by outbreaks of the coral eating starfish, Acanthaster planci. The coral species preferred by most coral-dwelling damselfishes (e.g., Pocillopora damicornis) were frequently consumed by coral eating crown-of-thorns starfish, such that highly specialized damselfishes were disproportionately affected by coral depletion, despite using a narrower range of different coral species. Vulnerability of damselfishes to this disturbance was strongly correlated with both their reliance on corals and their degree of habitat specialization. Ongoing disturbances to coral reef ecosystems are expected, therefore, to lead to fundamental shifts in the community structure of fish communities where generalists are favored over highly specialist species.
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Multiple environmental factors influence the spatial distribution and structure of reef communities in the northeastern Arabian Peninsula.
Mar. Pollut. Bull.
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Multivariate analysis revealed distinct sub-regional coral communities among the southern Persian Gulf, Strait of Hormuz, and Gulf of Oman. Differences in community structure among locations were associated with considerable spatial heterogeneity in oceanic conditions, and strong directional environmental gradients. Despite clear community differences, considerable changes to coral community structure have occurred throughout the northeastern Arabian Peninsula as compared with previous studies. The most dramatic of these are the apparent changes from Acropora dominated to poritid and faviid dominated communities, particularly in the southern Persian Gulf and Strait of Hormuz. Although temperature and salinity have previously been cited as the major environmental factors structuring coral communities around the region, additional environmental parameters, including chlorophyll-a, surface currents and winds are shown to be important in structuring reef communities throughout the northeastern Arabian Peninsula.
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Influence of dietary specialization and resource availability on geographical variation in abundance of butterflyfish.
Ecol Evol
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Empirical evidence indicates that both niche breadth and resource availability are key drivers of a species local abundance patterns. However, most studies have considered the influence of either niche breath or resource availability in isolation, while it is the interactive effects that are likely to influence local abundance. We examined geographic variation in the feeding ecology and distribution of coral-feeding butterflyfish to determine the influence of dietary specialization and dietary resource availability on their local abundance. Dietary composition and abundance of five butterflyfish and coral dietary resource availability were determined at 45 sites across five locations (Lizard Island and Heron Island, Great Barrier Reef; Kimbe Bay, Papua New Guinea; Noumea, New Caledonia; and Moorea, French Polynesia). Multiple regression models using variables representative of total dietary resource availability, availability of specific dietary resources, and interspecific competition were used to determine the best predictors of local abundance across all sites and locations for each species. Factors influencing local abundance varied between butterflyfish with specialized and generalized diets. Dietary resource availability had the strongest influence on the abundance of Chaetodon trifascialis-the most specialized species. Local abundance of C. trifascialis was best predicted by availability of the Acropora corals that it preferentially feeds on. In contrast, abundance of generalist butterflyfish was poorly described by variation in availability of specific resources. Rather, indices of total dietary resource availability best predicted their abundance. Overall, multiple regression models only explained a small proportion of the variation in local abundance for all five species. Despite their relatively specialized diets, dietary resource availability has limited influence on the local abundance of butterflyfish. Only the most specialized species appear to be consistently limited by prey availability. Local and total abundance of species are influenced by a wide range of different factors and there is definite need to conduct independent species assessments.
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The influence of coral reef benthic condition on associated fish assemblages.
PLoS ONE
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Accumulative disturbances can erode a coral reefs resilience, often leading to replacement of scleractinian corals by macroalgae or other non-coral organisms. These degraded reef systems have been mostly described based on changes in the composition of the reef benthos, and there is little understanding of how such changes are influenced by, and in turn influence, other components of the reef ecosystem. This study investigated the spatial variation in benthic communities on fringing reefs around the inner Seychelles islands. Specifically, relationships between benthic composition and the underlying substrata, as well as the associated fish assemblages were assessed. High variability in benthic composition was found among reefs, with a gradient from high coral cover (up to 58%) and high structural complexity to high macroalgae cover (up to 95%) and low structural complexity at the extremes. This gradient was associated with declining species richness of fishes, reduced diversity of fish functional groups, and lower abundance of corallivorous fishes. There were no reciprocal increases in herbivorous fish abundances, and relationships with other fish functional groups and total fish abundance were weak. Reefs grouping at the extremes of complex coral habitats or low-complexity macroalgal habitats displayed markedly different fish communities, with only two species of benthic invertebrate feeding fishes in greater abundance in the macroalgal habitat. These results have negative implications for the continuation of many coral reef ecosystem processes and services if more reefs shift to extreme degraded conditions dominated by macroalgae.
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Assembly rules of reef corals are flexible along a steep climatic gradient.
Curr. Biol.
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Coral reefs, one of the worlds most complex and vulnerable ecosystems, face an uncertain future in coming decades as they continue to respond to anthropogenic climate change, overfishing, pollution, and other human impacts [1, 2]. Traditionally, marine macroecology is based on presence/absence data from taxonomic checklists or geographic ranges, providing a qualitative overview of spatial shifts in species richness that treats rare and common species equally [3, 4]. As a consequence, regional and long-term shifts in relative abundances of individual taxa are poorly understood. Here we apply a more rigorous quantitative approach to examine large-scale spatial variation in the species composition and abundance of corals on midshelf reefs along the length of Australias Great Barrier Reef, a biogeographic region where species richness is high and relatively homogeneous [5]. We demonstrate that important functional components of coral assemblages "sample" space differently at 132 sites separated by up to 1740 km, leading to complex latitudinal shifts in patterns of absolute and relative abundance. The flexibility in community composition that we document along latitudinal environmental gradients indicates that climate change is likely to result in a reassortment of coral reef taxa rather than wholesale loss of entire reef ecosystems.
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Reef fish hybridization: lessons learnt from butterflyfishes (genus Chaetodon).
Ecol Evol
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Natural hybridization is widespread among coral reef fishes. However, the ecological promoters and evolutionary consequences of reef fish hybridization have not been thoroughly evaluated. Butterflyfishes form a high number of hybrids and represent an appropriate group to investigate hybridization in reef fishes. This study provides a rare test of terrestrially derived hybridization theory in the marine environment by examining hybridization between Chaetodon trifasciatus and C. lunulatus at Christmas Island. Overlapping spatial and dietary ecologies enable heterospecific encounters. Nonassortative mating and local rarity of both parent species appear to permit heterospecific breeding pair formation. Microsatellite loci and mtDNA confirmed the status of hybrids, which displayed the lowest genetic diversity in the sample and used a reduced suite of resources, suggesting decreased adaptability. Maternal contribution to hybridization was unidirectional, and no introgression was detected, suggesting limited, localized evolutionary consequences of hybridization.Comparisons to other reef fish hybridization studies revealed that different evolutionary consequences emerge, despite being promoted by similar factors, possibly due to the magnitude of genetic distance between hybridizing species. This study highlights the need for further enquiry aimed at evaluating the importance and long-term consequences of reef fish hybridization.
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JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.