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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Subfamily Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae), with description of one new species from Pakistan.
J. Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
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The Coleoscirinae (Acari: Trombidiformes: Cunaxidae) from Pakistan are summarized in this paper. Two species of Scutascirus Den Heyer (S. pirgus Chaudhri and Akbar and S. tactus Chaudhri and Akbar), ten species of Coleoscirus Berlese (C. baptos (Chaudhri and Akbar), C. carex (Inayatullah and Shahid), C. carnus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. comis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. disparis Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. irroratus Muhammad and Chaudhri, C. mardi (Inatullah and Shahid), C. raviensis Afzal, Ashfaq and Khan, C. tobaensis Bashir, Afzal, Ashfaq, and Khan, and C. trudus Bashir, Afzal and Akbar), and three species of Pseudobonzia Smiley (P. ashfaqi Bashir, Afzal and Akbar, P. numida Chaudhri and Akbar, and P. parilus Chaudhri) have been previously reported. One new species of Pseudobonzia, Pseudobonzia bakeri SP N: , is herein described and illustrated. A key to the genera of the subfamily and keys to the species in each genus are given to incorporate the new species from Pakistan. Distribution records of all known species in Pakistan are also given.
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UlaR activates the expression of the ula operon in Streptococcus pneumoniae in the presence of ascorbic acid.
Microbiology (Reading, Engl.)
PUBLISHED: 10-31-2014
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In this study, the regulatory mechanism of the ula (utilization of L-ascorbic acid) operon putatively responsible for transport and utilization of ascorbic acid in Streptococcus pneumoniae D39 strain is studied. ?-galactosidase assay data demonstrate that the expression of the ula operon is increased in the presence of ascorbic acid, as compared to the effects of other sugar sources, including glucose. The ula operon consists of nine genes, including a BglG-family transcriptional regulator UlaR, and is transcribed as a single transcriptional unit. We demonstrate the role of the BglG-family transcriptional regulator UlaR as a transcriptional activator of the ula operon in the presence of ascorbic acid and show that activation of the ula operon genes by UlaR is CcpA-independent. Furthermore, we predict a 16-bp regulatory site (5'-AACAGTCCGCTGTGTA-3') for UlaR in the promoter region of ulaA. Deletion of the half- or full UlaR regulatory site in the PulaA confirmed that the UlaR regulatory site present in PulaA is functional.
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Regulation of core expression during the hepatitis C virus life cycle.
J. Gen. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 10-30-2014
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Core plays a critical role during HCV assembly, not only as a structural component of the virion, but also as a regulator of the formation of assembly sites. In this study, we observed that core is expressed later than other HCV proteins in a single viral cycle assay, resulting in a relative increase of core expression during a late step of the viral life cycle. This delayed core expression results from an increase of core half-life, indicating that core is initially degraded and is stabilized at a late step of the HCV life cycle. A stabilization-mediated delayed kinetics of core expression was also observed using heterologous expression systems. Core stabilization did not depend on its interaction with non-structural proteins or lipid droplets but was correlated to its expression levels and its oligomerization status. Therefore in the course of a HCV infection, core stabilization likely occurs when the prior amplification of the viral genome during an initial replication step allows core to be synthesized at higher levels as a stable protein during the assembly step of the viral life cycle.
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A receptor binding protein of Campylobacter jejuni bacteriophage NCTC 12673 recognizes flagellin glycosylated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid.
Mol. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 10-28-2014
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Bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs) confer host specificity. We previously identified a putative RBP (Gp047) from the campylobacter lytic phage NCTC 12673 and demonstrated that Gp047 has a broader host range than its parent phage. While NCTC 12673 recognizes the capsular polysaccharide (CPS) of a limited number of Campylobacter jejuni isolates, Gp047 binds to a majority of C. jejuni and related Campylobacter coli strains. In this study, we demonstrate that Gp047 also binds to acapsular mutants, suggesting that unlike the parent phage, CPS is not the receptor for Gp047. Affinity chromatography and far-western analyses of C. jejuni lysates using Gp047 followed by mass spectrometry indicated that Gp047 binds to the major flagellin protein, FlaA. Since C. jejuni flagellin is extensively glycosylated, we investigated this binding specificity further and demonstrate that Gp047 only recognizes flagellin decorated with acetamidino-modified pseudaminic acid. This binding activity is localized to the C-terminal quarter of the protein and both wild type and coccoid forms of C. jejuni are recognized. In addition, Gp047 treatment agglutinates vegetative cells and reduces their motility. Since Gp047 is highly conserved among all campylobacter phages sequenced to date, it is likely that this protein plays an important role in the phage lifecycle.
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Our experience with unusual gastrointestinal tract duplications in infants.
Afr J Paediatr Surg
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Classical duplications may present along any part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) from mouth to anus. Atypical or unusual rare varieties of GIT duplications may also occur, but with different anatomical features.
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Botanicals, selective insecticides, and predators to control Diaphorina citri (Hemiptera: Liviidae) in citrus orchards.
Insect Sci.
PUBLISHED: 09-03-2014
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The Asian citrus psyllid (ACP) Diaphorina citri Kuwayama vectors pathogens that cause huanglongbing (HLB) or citrus greening devastating and economically important disease present in most citrus growing regions. Young citrus shoots are required for psyllid reproduction and development. During winter citrus trees produce little or no new growth. Overwintering adults reproduce in spring on newly emerging shoots also attractive to other pests and beneficial insects. Botanicals and relatively selective insecticides could help to conserve beneficial insects and reduce pest resistance to insecticides. Sprays of Azadirachtin (Neem), Tropane (Datura), Spirotetramat, Spinetoram, and broad-spectrum Imidacloprid were evaluated to control ACP in spring and summer on 10-year-old "Kinow" Citrus reticulata Blanco trees producing new growth. Psyllid populations were high averaging 5-9 nymphs or adults per sample before treatment application. Nymphs or adults were significantly reduced to 0.5-1.5 per sample in all treatments for 3 weeks, average 61%-83% reduction. No significant reduction in ladybeetles Adalia bipunctata, Aneglei scardoni, Cheilomenes sexmaculata, and Coccinella septempunctata was observed. Syrphids, spiders and green lacewings were reduced in treated trees except with Tropane. Studies are warranted to assess impact of these predators on ACP and interaction with insecticides. Observed reduction in ACP populations may not be enough considering its reproductive potential and role in the spread of HLB. Follow-up sprays may be required to achieve additional suppression using rotations of different insecticides.
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Potential role of phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses: consequences for changing environment.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 08-18-2014
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Plants are sessile beings, so the need of mechanisms to flee from unfavorable circumstances has provided the development of unique and sophisticated responses to environmental stresses. Depending on the degree of plasticity, many morphological, cellular, anatomical, and physiological changes occur in plants in response to abiotic stress. Phytohormones are small molecules that play critical roles in regulating plant growth and development, as well as stress tolerance to promote survival and acclimatize to varying environments. To congregate the challenges of salinity, temperature extremes, and osmotic stress, plants use their genetic mechanism and different adaptive and biological approaches for survival and high production. In the present attempt, we review the potential role of different phytohormones and plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria in abiotic stresses and summarize the research progress in plant responses to abiotic stresses at physiological and molecular levels. We emphasized the regulatory circuits of abscisic acid, indole acetic acid, cytokinins, gibberellic acid, salicylic acid, brassinosteroids, jasmonates, ethylene, and triazole on exposure to abiotic stresses. Current progress is exemplified by the identification and validation of several significant genes that enhanced crop tolerance to stress in the field. These findings will make the modification of hormone biosynthetic pathways for the transgenic plant generation with augmented abiotic stress tolerance and boosting crop productivity in the coming decades possible.
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Hepatitis C virus capsid protein and intracellular lipids interplay and its association with hepatic steatosis.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2014
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Hepatitis C Virus (HCV) is a major causative agent for chronic liver disease worldwide. Hepatic steatosis is a frequent histological feature in patients with chronic HCV. Both host and viral factors are involved in steatosis development. It results from uncontrolled growth of cytoplasmic lipid droplets (LDs) in hepatocytes. LDs are intracellular organelles playing key role in the HCV life cycle. HCV core protein localizes at the LD surface and this localization is crucial for virion production.
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Genetics and realized heritability of resistance to imidacloprid in a poultry population of house fly, Musca domestica L. (Diptera: Muscidae) from Pakistan.
Pestic Biochem Physiol
PUBLISHED: 07-22-2014
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Imidacloprid, a post-synaptic, nicotinic insecticide, has been commonly used for the management of different pests including Musca domestica worldwide. Many pests have developed resistance to this insecticide. A 16-fold imidacloprid-resistant population of M. domestica infesting poultry was selected using imidacloprid for 13 continuous generations to study the inheritance and realized heritability of resistance. Toxicological bioassay at G14 showed that the imidacloprid-selected population developed 106-fold resistance when compared to the susceptible population. Reciprocal crosses of susceptible and resistant populations showed an autosomal trait of resistance to imidacloprid in M. domestica. There was incompletely recessive resistance in F1 (Imida-SEL ? × Susceptible ?) and F1(†) (Imida-SEL ? × Susceptible ?) having dominance value 0.53 and 0.31, respectively. Monogenic model of inheritance showed that imidacloprid resistance was controlled by multiple factors. The realized heritability value was 0.09 in the imidacloprid-selected population of M. domestica. It was concluded that imidacloprid resistance in M. domestica was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings should be helpful for better and more successful management of M. domestica.
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Formulation and evaluation of sustained release matrix tablet of rabeprazole using wet granulation technique.
J Pharm Bioallied Sci
PUBLISHED: 07-19-2014
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Rabeprazole, a member of substituted benzimidazoles, inhibits the final step in gastric acid secretions. This drug claims to cause fastest acid separation (due to higher pKa), and more rapidly converts to the active species to aid gastric mucin synthesis. The most significant pharmacological action of Rabeprazole is dose dependent suppression of gastric acid secretion; without anticholinergic or H2-blocking action. It completely abolishes the hydrochloric acid secretion as it is powerful inhibitor of gastric acid. Rabeprazole is acid labile and hence commonly formulated as an enteric coated tablet. The absorption of rabeprazole occurs rapidly as soon as tablet leaves the stomach.
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LacR is a repressor of lacABCD and LacT is an activator of lacTFEG, constituting the lac gene cluster in Streptococcus pneumoniae.
Appl. Environ. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-20-2014
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Comparison of the transcriptome of Streptococcus pneumoniae strain D39 grown in the presence of either lactose or galactose with that of the strain grown in the presence of glucose revealed the elevated expression of various genes and operons, including the lac gene cluster, which is organized into two operons, i.e., lac operon I (lacABCD) and lac operon II (lacTFEG). Deletion of the DeoR family transcriptional regulator lacR that is present downstream of the lac gene cluster revealed elevated expression of lac operon I even in the absence of lactose. This suggests a function of LacR as a transcriptional repressor of lac operon I, which encodes enzymes involved in the phosphorylated tagatose pathway in the absence of lactose or galactose. Deletion of lacR did not affect the expression of lac operon II, which encodes a lactose-specific phosphotransferase. This finding was further confirmed by ?-galactosidase assays with PlacA-lacZ and PlacT-lacZ in the presence of either lactose or glucose as the sole carbon source in the medium. This suggests the involvement of another transcriptional regulator in the regulation of lac operon II, which is the BglG-family transcriptional antiterminator LacT. We demonstrate the role of LacT as a transcriptional activator of lac operon II in the presence of lactose and CcpA-independent regulation of the lac gene cluster in S. pneumoniae.
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Combined use of alkane-degrading and plant growth-promoting bacteria enhanced phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.
Int J Phytoremediation
PUBLISHED: 06-18-2014
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Inoculation of plants with pollutant-degrading and plant growth-promoting microorganisms is a simple strategy to enhance phytoremediation activity. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of inoculation of different bacterial strains, possessing alkane-degradation and 1-amino-cyclopropane-1 -carboxylic acid (ACC) deaminase activity, on plant growth and phytoremediation activity. Carpet grass (Axonopus affinis) was planted in soil spiked with diesel (1% w/w) for 90 days and inoculated with different bacterial strains, Pseudomonas sp. ITRH25, Pantoea sp. BTRH79 and Burkholderia sp. PsJN, individually and in combination. Generally, bacterial application increased total numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere ofcarpet grass, plant biomass production, hydrocarbon degradation and reduced genotoxicity. Bacterial strains possessing different beneficial traits affect plant growth and phytoremediation activity in different ways. Maximum bacterial population, plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were achieved when carpet grass was inoculated with a consortium of three strains. Enhanced plant biomass production and hydrocarbon degradation were associated with increased numbers of culturable hydrocarbon-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere of carpet grass. The present study revealed that the combined use of different bacterial strains, exhibiting different beneficial traits, is a highly effective strategy to improve plant growth and phytoremediation activity.
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Antenatal Bartter syndrome.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 06-08-2014
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Antenatal Bartter syndrome is characterized by severe polyhydramnios in mother leading to premature delivery. Antenatal treatment has proven effective to prevent these problems. Postnatally newborns suffer from recurrent episodes of severe dehydration and electrolyte imbalance which can lead to fatal outcome. These manifestations are likely to be overlooked and missed under the umbrella of diagnosis of prematurity. This premature newborn with antenatal polyhydramnios had severe manifestations of polyuria, recurrent dehydration, electrolyte derangements and metabolic alkalosis. She was managed accordingly but unfortunately could not survive beyond 4 weeks.
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Congenital hypothyroidism in neonates.
Indian J Endocrinol Metab
PUBLISHED: 04-18-2014
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Congenital hypothyroidism (CH) is one of the most common preventable causes of mental retardation in children and it occurs in approximately 1:2,000-1:4,000 newborns.
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Potential risk of cross-infection by tourniquets: a need for effective control practices in pakistan.
Int J Prev Med
PUBLISHED: 03-28-2014
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Tourniquets used repeatedly on patients for blood sampling are a potential source of nosocomial infections. They harbor numerous microorganisms, including methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA). The aim of this study was to investigate tourniquets for the presence of microorganisms and to ascertain the infection control practices of health care workers.
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Enhanced degradation of textile effluent in constructed wetland system using Typha domingensis and textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria.
Water Res.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2014
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Textile effluent is one of the main contributors of water pollution and it adversely affects fauna and flora. Constructed wetland is a promising approach to remediate the industrial effluent. The detoxification of industrial effluent in a constructed wetland system may be enhanced by applying beneficial bacteria that are able to degrade contaminants present in industrial effluent. The aim of this study was to evaluate the influence of inoculation of textile effluent-degrading endophytic bacteria on the detoxification of textile effluent in a vertical flow constructed wetland reactor. A wetland plant, Typha domingensis, was vegetated in reactor and inoculated with two endophytic bacterial strains, Microbacterium arborescens TYSI04 and Bacillus pumilus PIRI30. These strains possessed textile effluent-degrading and plant growth-promoting activities. Results indicated that bacterial inoculation improved plant growth, textile effluent degradation and mutagenicity reduction and were correlated with the population of textile effluent-degrading bacteria in the rhizosphere and endosphere of T. domingensis. Bacterial inoculation enhanced textile effluent-degrading bacterial population in rhizosphere, root and shoot of T. domingensis. Significant reductions in COD (79%), BOD (77%) TDS (59%) and TSS (27%) were observed by the combined use of plants and bacteria within 72 h. The resultant effluent meets the wastewater discharge standards of Pakistan and can be discharged into the environment without any risks. This study revealed that the combined use of plant and endophytic bacteria is one of the approaches to enhance textile effluent degradation in a constructed wetland system.
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Cross-resistance, the stability of acetamiprid resistance and its effect on the biological parameters of cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae), in Pakistan.
Pest Manag. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2014
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Acetamiprid is a neonicotinoid insecticide that is effective against both soil and plant insects, including insects of the orders Lepidoptera, Coleoptera, Homoptera and Thysanoptera. In order to estimate the effects associated with insecticide exposure and devise better pest management tactics, a field population of Phenacoccus solenopsis was exposed to acetamiprid in the laboratory. Subsequently, cross-resistance and the effects of acetamiprid on the biological parameters of P. solenopsis were investigated.
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An adaptive semantic based mediation system for data interoperability among Health Information Systems.
J Med Syst
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2014
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Heterogeneity in the management of the complex medical data, obstructs the attainment of data level interoperability among Health Information Systems (HIS). This diversity is dependent on the compliance of HISs with different healthcare standards. Its solution demands a mediation system for the accurate interpretation of data in different heterogeneous formats for achieving data interoperability. We propose an adaptive AdapteR Interoperability ENgine mediation system called ARIEN, that arbitrates between HISs compliant to different healthcare standards for accurate and seamless information exchange to achieve data interoperability. ARIEN stores the semantic mapping information between different standards in the Mediation Bridge Ontology (MBO) using ontology matching techniques. These mappings are provided by our System for Parallel Heterogeneity (SPHeRe) matching system and Personalized-Detailed Clinical Model (P-DCM) approach to guarantee accuracy of mappings. The realization of the effectiveness of the mappings stored in the MBO is evaluation of the accuracy in transformation process among different standard formats. We evaluated our proposed system with the transformation process of medical records between Clinical Document Architecture (CDA) and Virtual Medical Record (vMR) standards. The transformation process achieved over 90 % of accuracy level in conversion process between CDA and vMR standards using pattern oriented approach from the MBO. The proposed mediation system improves the overall communication process between HISs. It provides an accurate and seamless medical information exchange to ensure data interoperability and timely healthcare services to patients.
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Endophytic bacteria: Prospects and applications for the phytoremediation of organic pollutants.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 02-23-2014
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Recently, there has been an increased effort to enhance the efficacy of phytoremediation of contaminated environments by exploiting plant-microbe interactions. The combined use of plants and endophytic bacteria is an emerging approach for the clean-up of soil and water polluted with organic compounds. In plant-endophyte partnerships, plants provide the habitat as well as nutrients to their associated endophytic bacteria. In response, endophytic bacteria with appropriate degradation pathways and metabolic activities enhance degradation of organic pollutants, and diminish phytotoxicity and evapotranspiration of organic pollutants. Moreover, endophytic bacteria possessing plant growth-promoting activities enhance the plant's adaptation and growth in soil and water contaminated with organic pollutants. Overall, the application of endophytic bacteria gives new insights into novel protocols to improve phytoremediation efficiency. However, successful application of plant-endophyte partnerships for the clean-up of an environment contaminated with organic compounds depends on the abundance and activity of the degrading endophyte in different plant compartments. Although many endophytic bacteria have the potential to degrade organic pollutants and improve plant growth, their contribution to enhance phytoremediation efficiency is still underestimated. A better knowledge of plant-endophyte interactions could be utilized to increase the remediation of polluted soil environments and to protect the foodstuff by decreasing agrochemical residues in food crops.
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Antifungal effect of Gatifloxacin and copper ions combination.
J. Antibiot.
PUBLISHED: 01-26-2014
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It is a well-known fact that to bring a new molecule it may take more than a decade. The existing drugs, which are known for their adverse reaction or toxicity, if utilized and allowed in different formulation, the new effective formulation may be discovered and developed. This may help in reducing various side effects, time and costs. In this study, fungal infection was inoculated superficially over the skin of guinea pigs and treated with the broad-spectrum antimicrobial (gatifloxacin) in combination with non-toxic and effective amount of copper ions. MIC of copper (0.20%) was also determined. Concentration of gatifloxacin (100 ?g ml(-1)) with the combination of copper ions (MIC) at which it inhibits the visible growth of fungal strains was also evaluated. Hematological parameters, such as total leukocyte count and differential leukocyte count, were evaluated. The results have shown increase in these parameters after fungal infection, which reaches its normal value after treatment with the combination of gatifloxacin and copper ions. Outcomes of the research concluded that gatifloxacin 100 ?g ml(-1) can be used by 0.20% of copper ions to prevent growth of some fungal strains (Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger), which causes skin infections with more potency.
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Characterization and potential applications of gamma irradiated chitosan and its blends with poly(vinyl alcohol).
Int. J. Biol. Macromol.
PUBLISHED: 01-05-2014
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Naturally available chitosan (CHI), of high molecular weight, results in reduced efficiency of these polymers for antibacterial activity. In this regard, irradiation is a widely used method for achieving reduction in molecular weight of polymers, which may improve some of its characteristics. Chitosan was extracted from crab shells and degraded by gamma radiations. Effect of radiation dose on chitosan was analyzed by Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy. Furthermore, the irradiated chitosan was blended with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) and crosslinked with tetraethylorthosilicate (TEOS) into membranes. The membranes were found to be smooth, transparent and macroporous in structure, exhibiting high tensile strength (TS: 27-47 MPa) and elongation at break (EB: 292.6-407.3%). The effect of molecular weight of chitosan and chitosan blends on antibacterial activity was determined. Irradiated low molecular weight chitosan and membranes showed strong antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli and Bacillus subtilis.
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Optimization of water absorbing exopolysaccharide production on local cheap substrates by Bacillus strain CMG1403 using one variable at a time approach.
J. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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Optimum culture conditions, and carbon and nitrogen sources for production of water absorbing exopolysaccharide by Bacillus strain CMG1403 on local cheap substrates were determined using one variable at a time approach. Carbon source was found to be sole substrate for EPS biosynthesis in the presence of yeast extract that supported the growth only and hence, indirectly enhanced the EPS yield. Whereas, urea only coupled with carbon source could enhance the EPS production but no effect on growth. The maximum yield of EPS was obtained when Bacillus strain CMG1403 was grown statically in neutral minimal medium with 25% volumetric aeration at 30°C for 10 days. Under these optimum conditions, a maximum yield of 2.71±0.024, 3.82±0.005, 4.33±0.021, 4.73±0.021, 4.85±0.024, and 5.52±0.016 g/L culture medium was obtained with 20 g (sugar) of sweet whey, glucose, fructose, sucrose, cane molasses and sugar beet the most efficient one respectively as carbon sources. Thus, the present study showed that under optimum culture conditions, the local cheap substrates could be superior and efficient alternatives to synthetic carbon sources providing way for an economical production of water absorbing EPS by indigenous soil bacterium Bacillus strain CMG1403.
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Nutrients Can Enhance the Abundance and Expression of Alkane Hydroxylase CYP153 Gene in the Rhizosphere of Ryegrass Planted in Hydrocarbon-Polluted Soil.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising strategy for the remediation of soil and water polluted with hydrocarbons. However, the limitation of major nutrients (N, P and K) in soil affects the survival and metabolic activity of plant associated bacteria. The objective of this study was to explore the effects of nutrients on survival and metabolic activity of an alkane degrading rhizo-bacterium. Annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) was grown in diesel-contaminated soil and inoculated with an alkane degrading bacterium, Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79, in greenhouse experiments. Two levels of nutrients were applied and plant growth, hydrocarbon removal, and gene abundance and expression were determined after 100 days of sowing of ryegrass. Results obtained from these experiments showed that the bacterial inoculation improved plant growth and hydrocarbon degradation and these were further enhanced by nutrients application. Maximum plant biomass production and hydrocarbon mineralization was observed by the combined use of inoculum and higher level of nutrients. The presence of nutrients in soil enhanced the colonization and metabolic activity of the inoculated bacterium in the rhizosphere. The abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass was found to be directly associated with the level of applied nutrients. Enhanced hydrocarbon degradation was associated with the population of the inoculum bacterium, the abundance and expression of CYP153 gene in the rhizosphere of ryegrass. It is thus concluded that the combination between vegetation, inoculation with pollutant-degrading bacteria and nutrients amendment was an efficient approach to reduce hydrocarbon contamination.
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Acoustic scattering in flexible waveguide involving step discontinuity.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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In this paper, the propagation and scattering of acoustic waves in a flexible wave-guide involving step discontinuity at an interface is considered. The emerging boundary value problem is non-Sturm-Liouville and is solved by employing a hybrid mode-matching technique. The physical scattering process and attenuation of duct modes versus frequency regime and change of height is studied. Moreover, the mode-matching solution is validated through a series of numerical experiments by testifying the power conservation identity and matching interface conditions.
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Diagnostic value of apparent diffusion coefficient for the accurate assessment and differentiation of intracranial meningiomas.
Acta Radiol Short Rep
PUBLISHED: 11-01-2013
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Diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) along with the calculation of apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC), is a novel, non-invasive, and reliable technique of choice for accurate assessment and for the treatment planning of different types of brain tumors. It is more advantageous in the distinction and differentiation of benign from malignant meningiomas on the basis of ADC values.
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Authoring tool: Acquiring sharable knowledge for Smart CDSS.
Conf Proc IEEE Eng Med Biol Soc
PUBLISHED: 10-11-2013
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Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) assist clinicians in making clinical decisions by using experts knowledge stored in the knowledge base. However, sharing and reusing the knowledge is a challenging task. Many systems are developed to facilitate sharing of medical knowledge and allow its reusability. These systems are compliant to standard approaches such as HL7 Arden Syntax and HL7 CDA (Clinical Document Architecture) to incorporate medical logic in standard format. The main drawback with these systems is the complicated procedure in the development of clinical knowledge by ordinary clinicians. The proposed research work is focusing on developing authoring tool that creates sharable clinical knowledge base using standards such as HL7 Arden Syntax, HL7 vMR and HL7 CDA. Moreover, the authoring tool provides user friendly GUI to facilitate clinicians in creating standard based executable clinical knowledge base. We are closely working with oncologists and clinicians of a prominent cancer hospital to deploy the tool for Head and Neck Cancer diagnosis and treatment recommendations.
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Antineoplastic potential of Bryophyllum pinnatum lam. on chemically induced hepatocarcinogenesis in rats.
Pharmacognosy Res
PUBLISHED: 09-24-2013
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Bryophyllum pinnatum Lam. used in folk medicine in tropical Africa, tropical America, India, China and Australia contains a wide range of active compounds, well known for their haemostatic and wound-healing properties.
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Etiology and genetic factors in clefts of lip and/or palate reported at childrens hospital, Lahore, Pakistan.
Indian J Hum Genet
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2013
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The etiology of cleft lip (CL) and/or cleft palate (CP) has been extensively studied in industrialized countries and is suggested to be heterogeneous with increasing evidence that both genetic and environmental factors are operating. To evaluate this assertion in a developing country like Pakistan, a case finding cross-sectional study was completed from 1(st) July 2010 to 31(st) May 2011 for 100 cases of CL and/or CP referred to the Genetic Clinic of the Childrens Hospital, Lahore, Pakistan. A clinical examination followed by necessary diagnostic work-up was completed for each case. The cause of CL and/or CP was clear in 18% of the children (n = 18). Environmental causes were found in 6 children (four mothers developed hyperthermia during the 2(nd) month of gestation, one mother was diabetic, and one mother was a known case of epilepsy and took sodium valproate throughout her pregnancy). Six children were suffering from known genetic malformation syndromes (each with Jarcho-Levin syndrome, Oral-Facial-Digital syndrome type XI, Oral-Duplication syndrome, Kabuki syndrome, Fronto-nasal dysplasia and Nager syndrome). Novel chromosomal aberrations were identified in 2 children. In 82% of the children (n = 82) the cause of oro-facial clefts remained unknown. Impact of gender and consanguinity on the development of CL and/or CP was also studied. Prevalence of CP was significantly more among female children as compared to that in males (P < 0.05). Associated anomalies were present in 18% of the cases, anomalies of the craniofacial region being the most common. These findings were compared with regional and international studies.
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Effectiveness of teaching methods in a medical institute: perceptions of medical students to teaching aids.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 08-02-2013
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To discover the most effective mode of teaching from the perspective of medical students and to analyse their preferences for various pedagogical aids.
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Additional glycosylation within a specific hypervariable region of subtype 3a of hepatitis C virus protects against virus neutralization.
J. Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 08-01-2013
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The envelope glycoprotein E2 of hepatitis C virus (HCV) contains several hypervariable regions. Interestingly, 2 regions of intragenotypic hypervariability within E2 have been described as being specific to HCV subtype 3a. Based on their amino acid position in E2, they were named HVR495 and HVR575. Here, we further investigated these regions in order to better understand their role in HCV infection.
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Phage receptor binding protein-based magnetic enrichment method as an aid for real time PCR detection of foodborne bacteria.
Analyst
PUBLISHED: 07-31-2013
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We present a novel phage receptor binding protein-based magnetic separation and pre-enrichment method as an alternative to the immunomagnetic separation methods by replacing antibodies with bacteriophage receptor binding proteins (RBPs). We couple the proposed RBP-based magnetic separation with real time PCR for rapid, sensitive and specific detection of Campylobacter jejuni cells in artificially contaminated skim milk, milk with 2% fat and chicken broth. Recovery rates, assessed by real time PCR, were greater than 80% for the samples spiked with as low as 100 cfu mL(-1) of C. jejuni cells. The specificity of capture was confirmed using Salmonella Typhimurium as a negative control where no bacteria were captured on the RBP-derivatized magnetic beads. The combination of RBP-based magnetic separation and real time PCR improved PCR sensitivity and allowed the detection of C. jejuni cells in milk and chicken broth samples without a time consuming pre-enrichment step through culturing. The total sample preparation and analysis time in the proposed RBP-based enrichment method coupled with real time PCR was less than 3 h.
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Personalized-detailed clinical model for data interoperability among clinical standards.
Telemed J E Health
PUBLISHED: 07-24-2013
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Data interoperability among health information exchange (HIE) systems is a major concern for healthcare practitioners to enable provisioning of telemedicine-related services. Heterogeneity exists in these systems not only at the data level but also among different heterogeneous healthcare standards with which these are compliant. The relationship between healthcare organization data and different heterogeneous standards is necessary to achieve the goal of data level interoperability. We propose a personalized-detailed clinical model (P-DCM) approach for the generation of customized mappings that creates the necessary linkage between organization-conformed healthcare standards concepts and clinical model concepts to ensure data interoperability among HIE systems.
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Anticonvulsant activity of ethanol extracts of Vetiveria zizanioides roots in experimental mice.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 07-18-2013
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Vetiveria zizanioides Linn. (Gramineae), an aromatic plant commonly known as vetiver, is traditionally used for various ailments. Ethanol and aqueous extract of this plant found extensive use in Indian folklore medicine and used in treatment of a wide range of disorders including seizure. However, the anticonvulsant activity of this plant has not been studied.
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Ectopic pregnancy: a review.
Arch. Gynecol. Obstet.
PUBLISHED: 05-22-2013
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Ectopic pregnancy (EP) presents a major health problem for women of child-bearing age. EP refers to the pregnancy occurring outside the uterine cavity that constitutes 1.2-1.4 % of all reported pregnancies. All identified risk factors are maternal: pelvic inflammatory disease, Chlamydia trachomatis infection, smoking, tubal surgery, induced conception cycle, and endometriosis. These developments have provided the atmosphere for trials using methotrexate as a non-surgical treatment for EP. The diagnosis measure of EP is serum human chorionic gonadotropin, urinary hCGRP/i-hCG, progesterone measurement, transvaginal ultrasound scan, computed tomography, vascular endothelial growth factor, CK, disintegrin and metalloprotease-12 and hysterosalpingography. The treatment option of EP involves surgical treatment by laparotomy or laparoscopy, medical treatment is usually systemic or through local route, or by expectant treatment.
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Therapeutic exploration of betulinic acid in chemically induced hypothyroidism.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 05-17-2013
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Hypothyroidism is a chronic condition characterized by abnormally low thyroid hormone production. The decreased serum level (>5.1 mIU/l) of thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) in blood indicates hypothyroidism. The study was an attempt to access the effect of betulinic acid on chemically induced hypothyroidism in female albino rats. Betulinic acid is a naturally occurring pentacyclic triterpenoid, which has antiretroviral, antimalarial, and anti-inflammatory properties, as well as anticancer potential, by inhibiting topoisomerase. Hypothyroidism was induced in female albino rats using propylthiouracil (PTU) at a dose of 60 ?g/kg body weight orally for 1 month. Induction of hypothyroidism was confirmed by increased TSH level. At the end of second month, blood was collected, centrifuged and serum was analyzed for TSH, T3, and T4 level and protocol was terminated by killing of animals. The animals exposed to PTU were treated with pure standard drug thyroxine at a dose of 10 ?g/kg of body weight by oral route and the test drug betulinic acid 20 mg/kg by oral route through force feeding in their respective groups. Treatment was carried out for a period of 2 months. Group with PTU-induced hypothyroidism showed an elevation in serum TSH and reduction level, which was restored by the betulinic acid in treated female albino rats. Betulinic acid also reduced the damage caused in the thyroid tissues by PTU, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism. Histopathological examinations of the thyroid tissue showed changes in the thyrocytes of PTU-treated group while thyroxine group showed normal thyroid follicles cell architecture and the group treated with betulinic acid also showed marked improvement in the follicles integrity which shows that betulinic acid has some protective activity. This study shows that the betulinic acid has thyroid-enhancing potential by lowering down the TSH levels and reducing the damage caused in the thyroid tissues, thus minimizing the symptoms of hypothyroidism when used anaphylactically in rats.
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Characterization of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA 28 for its positive technological role in soft cheese making.
Food Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-03-2013
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Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is a lactic acid bacterium isolated from soft cheese. The objective of this work was to study its potential positive impact when used in cheese technology. Phenotypic and genotypic characterization of six strains of C. maltaromaticum showed that they belong to different phylogenetic groups. Although these strains lacked the ability to coagulate milk quickly, they were acidotolerant. They did not affect the coagulation capacity of starter lactic acid bacteria, Lactococcus lactis and Streptococcus thermophilus, used in dairy industry. The impact of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 on bacterial flora of cheese revealed a significant decrease of Psychrobacter sp. concentration, which might be responsible for cheese aging phenomena. An experimental plan was carried out to unravel the mechanism of inhibition of Psychrobacter sp. and Listeria monocytogenes and possible interaction between various factors (cell concentration, NaCl, pH and incubation time). Cellular concentration of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28 was found to be the main factor involved in the inhibition of Psychrobacter sp. and L. monocytogenes.
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Sequence and structural analysis of 3 untranslated region of hepatitis C virus, genotype 3a, from pakistani isolates.
Hepat Mon
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) is the cause of high morbidity and mortality worldwide, inflicting around one million people in Pakistan alone. The HCV genomic RNA harbors conserved structural elements that are indispensable for its replication. The 3 untranslated region (UTR) contains several of these elements essentially involved in regulating the major steps of the viral life cycle.
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Comparison of protective and curative potential of Daucus carota root extract on renal ischemia reperfusion injury in rats.
Pharm Biol
PUBLISHED: 04-29-2013
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Daucus carota Linn (Apiaceae), a useful vegetable, is traditionally used in treating kidney and hepatic dysfunctions.
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A suggested classification for two groups of Campylobacter myoviruses.
Arch. Virol.
PUBLISHED: 04-23-2013
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Most Campylobacter bacteriophages isolated to date have long contractile tails and belong to the family Myoviridae. Based on their morphology, genome size and endonuclease restriction profile, Campylobacter phages were originally divided into three groups. The recent genome sequencing of seven virulent campylophages reveal further details of the relationships between these phages at the genome organization level. This article details the morphological and genomic features among the campylophages, investigates their taxonomic position, and proposes the creation of two new genera, the "Cp220likevirus" and "Cp8unalikevirus" within a proposed subfamily, the "Eucampyvirinae"
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Accuracy requirements in radiotherapy treatment planning.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2013
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Radiation therapy attempts to deliver ionizing radiation to the tumour and can improve the survival chances and/or quality of life of patients. There are chances of errors and uncertainties in the entire process of radiotherapy that may affect the accuracy and precision of treatment management and decrease degree of conformation. All expected inaccuracies, like radiation dose determination, volume calculation, complete evaluation of the full extent of the tumour, biological behaviour of specific tumour types, organ motion during radiotherapy, imaging, biological/molecular uncertainties, sub-clinical diseases, microscopic spread of the disease, uncertainty in normal tissue responses and radiation morbidity need sound appreciation. Conformity can be increased by reduction of such inaccuracies. With the yearly increase in computing speed and advancement in other technologies the future will provide the opportunity to optimize a greater number of variables and reduce the errors in the treatment planning process. In multi-disciplined task of radiotherapy, efforts are needed to overcome the errors and uncertainty, not only by the physicists but also by radiologists, pathologists and oncologists to reduce molecular and biological uncertainties. The radiation therapy physics is advancing towards an optimal goal that is definitely to improve accuracy where necessary and to reduce uncertainty where possible.
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Anxiolytic potential of ursolic acid derivative--a stearoyl glucoside isolated from Lantana camara L. (Verbanaceae).
Asian Pac J Trop Med
PUBLISHED: 03-19-2013
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To investigate the anxiolytic activity of newly isolated compound by our lab called ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) from the leaves of Lantana camara (L. camara).
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Strengthening human resources for health through information, coordination and accountability mechanisms: the case of the Sudan.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 03-17-2013
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Human resources for health (HRH) in the Sudan were limited by shortages and the maldistribution of health workers, poor management, service fragmentation, poor retention of health workers in rural areas, and a weak health information system.
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Community health workers for universal health-care coverage: from fragmentation to synergy.
Bull. World Health Organ.
PUBLISHED: 03-10-2013
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To achieve universal health coverage, health systems will have to reach into every community, including the poorest and hardest to access. Since Alma-Ata, inconsistent support of community health workers (CHWs) and failure to integrate them into the health system have impeded full realization of their potential contribution in the context of primary health care. Scaling up and maintaining CHW programmes is fraught with a host of challenges: poor planning; multiple competing actors with little coordination; fragmented, disease-specific training; donor-driven management and funding; tenuous linkage with the health system; poor coordination, supervision and support, and under-recognition of CHWs contribution. The current drive towards universal health coverage (UHC) presents an opportunity to enhance peoples access to health services and their trust, demand and use of such services through CHWs. For their potential to be fully realized, however, CHWs will need to be better integrated into national health-care systems in terms of employment, supervision, support and career development. Partners at the global, national and district levels will have to harmonize and synchronize their engagement in CHW support while maintaining enough flexibility for programmes to innovate and respond to local needs. Strong leadership from the public sector will be needed to facilitate alignment with national policy frameworks and country-led coordination and to achieve synergies and accountability, universal coverage and sustainability. In moving towards UHC, much can be gained by investing in building CHWs skills and supporting them as valued members of the health team. Stand-alone investments in CHWs are no shortcut to progress.
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Congenital terminal transverse deformity of upper limb: clinical and radiological findings in a sporadic care.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 03-06-2013
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Congenital transverse limb anomalies are rare, which affect upper and/or lower limbs and may accompany several syndromic malformations. We present a sporadic male subject with congenital, unilateral transverse arrest of the left hand. The affected arm was observed to be short with reduced zeugopod and truncated palm. Fingers were represented by five bead-like nubbins. Roentgenographic examination revealed short radius and ulna with hypoplastic distal heads, absent carpals/metacarpals, and a hypoplastic bony island in each nubbin. Consanguinity was denied, and the subject had no symptoms in the orofacial, neurological and skeletal systems. Detailed clinical data with literature survey is presented.
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Combination of sulfamethoxazole and selenium in anticancer therapy: a novel approach.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 03-02-2013
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Sulfonamides have been reported to possess substantial antitumor activity as they act as carbonic anhydrase inhibitors. In addition, selenium appears to have a protective effect at various stages of cancer due to its antioxidant property, enhanced carcinogen detoxification, inhibition of cell invasion, and by inhibiting angiogenesis. Here, in the present study we aimed to evaluate and synergize the cytotoxic activity of sulfonamide and selenium (SM+SE) as effective therapy in the treatment of DENA-induced HCC. Hepatocarcinogeneis was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of diethylnitrosamine (DENA) (200 mg/kg) in phosphate buffer. 30 Male Wistar rats used in this study were divided randomly into five equal groups (n = 6). DENA-administered animals showed significant alteration (p < 0.001) in liver-specific enzymes-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT), serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (SGPT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), and Alpha fetoproteins (AFP), and also induced severe histopathological changes in the hepatic tissues. Interestingly, treatment with (SE+SE) (SM 30 mg/kg + SE 3 mg/kg) significantly reduced (P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001, P < 0.001) the elevated AFP, SGOT, SGPT, and ALP levels, respectively, suggesting that combination therapy of SM+SE has a potential to treat DENA-induced liver damage.
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Ulnar aplasia, dysplastic radius and preaxial oligodactyly: Rare longitudinal limb defect in a sporadic male child.
J Res Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 02-24-2013
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Ulnar hypoplasia is a rare longitudinal limb deficiency in which the ulna shows various degrees of deficiency. The condition is normally associated with radial defects, and in severe cases there is a reduction of postaxial/ulnar digits. Ulnar deficiency is an integral part of several syndromic malformations like Weyers oligodactyly syndrome, limb/pelvis hypoplasia/aplasia syndrome, and ulnar-mammary syndrome. Here, we report an isolated unilateral ulnar deficiency in a boy who was a product of a consanguineous marriage. The subject demonstrated mesomelic shortening of the left arm with reduced zeugopod and autopod, and preaxial absence of two fingers. Additional findings in the affected limb were severe flexion contracture at the elbow joint, reduced and narrow palm, hypoplastic digits, and clinodactyly. Roentgenographic study revealed rudimentary ulna, dysplastic and posteriorly dislocated radius, crowding of carpals, and complete absence of digit rays of the thumb and index finger. Despite this anomaly, the subject could manage his daily life activities well. We present detailed clinical features and differential diagnosis of this rare limb malformation.
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Anticancer effect of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside in chemically induced hepatocellular carcinoma.
J. Physiol. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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Hepatocellular carcinoma is one of the leading causes of death in cancer and yet no drug has proven to be a successful candidate for its treatment in advanced stages. Ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) is a newly discovered triterpene in Lantana camara and there lies a possibility that it possess anti-hepatocellular carcinoma property. In the present study, we induced hepatocellular carcinoma in Wistar rats by diethylnitrosamine (DENA) and treated it with ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside. The ability to treat hepatocellular carcinoma was measured by comparing biochemical serum markers such as serum alanine aminotransferase, serum aspartate aminotransferase, serum alkaline phosphatase, and the specific marker for hepatocellular carcinoma, alpha fetoprotein. The histological studies of the livers were also performed. The results have shown significant elevated levels of these parameters as compared to normal control and the drug receiving groups have shown significant reduction in these marker levels. Histopathological studies also indicated the reduced liver damage in drug-treated groups. It was noted that a significant and dose-dependent reversal of DENA-diminished activity of antioxidant enzymes like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione transferase, and the reduced DENA-elevated level of lipid peroxidation (LPO) with a marked change. UASG significantly suppressed free radical formation by scavenging the hydroxyl radicals. It also modulates the levels of LPO and markedly increases the endogenous antioxidant enzymes level in DENA-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis.
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Antiobesity potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside by inhibiting pancreatic lipase.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-19-2013
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The present study was designed to evaluate the hypolipidemic effect of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside (UASG) in high-fat diet-induced obesity. Two in vivo experiments such as high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model and lipid emulsion tolerance test in normal rats were performed. In vitro inhibition of pancreatic lipase activity was further measured to substantiate the results. In high-fat diet-induced obesity mice model, female Swiss mice were fed a high fat diet (HFD; 40% fat) with or without 1 or 2% of UASG or 0.012% orlistat for nine weeks. In lipid emulsion tolerance test male Wister rats were orally administered, lipid emulsion with or without 500 or 1000 mg/kg of UASG and the plasma triglycerides were measured from 0.5 to 5 h. Consumption of HFD containing UASG to mice for nine weeks exhibited significant reduction in lipid parameters, body weight, parametrial adipose tissue weight, liver triglyceride (TG) and different organ weight compared to HFD fed control. Further it was noted the improvement in insulin resistance induced by the HFD alone group. Furthermore, consumption of an HFD containing 1 or 2% of UASG significantly increased the fecal content and fecal triglyceride compared with the HFD group. Pre-treatment with UASG inhibited the elevated plasma triglyceride level after the oral administration of the lipid emulsion to rats. Further, UASG significantly inhibits activity of pancreatic lipase at a concentration of 2.5 mg/ml. Data obtained from the results indicated that UASG prevent high-fat diet-induced obesity in mice possibly by inhibiting pancreatic lipase activity.
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Mutations in the STAT1?interacting domain of the hepatitis C virus core protein modulate the response to antiviral therapy.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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RNA viruses, such as hepatitis C virus (HCV), have markedly error-prone replication, resulting in high rates of mutagenesis. In addition, the standard treatment includes ribavirin, a base analog that is likely to cause mutations in different regions of the HCV genome, resulting in deleterious effects on HCV itself. The N-terminal region of the core protein is reported to block interferon (IFN) signaling by interaction with the STAT1?SH2 domain, resulting in HCV resistance to IFN therapy. In this study, mutations in the HCV core protein from IFN/ribavirin?treated patients were analyzed, with particular focus on the N?terminal domain of the HCV core which is reported to interact with STAT1. HCV PCR positive patients enrolled in this study were either undergoing pegylated IFN/ribavirin bitherapy and had completed 12 weeks of initial treatment or were treatment?naïve patients. The HCV core protein was cloned and sequenced from these patients and mutations observed in the STAT1?interacting domain of the core protein from treated patients were characterized using in silico interaction to depict the role of these mutations in disease outcomes. Our results suggest that the amino acids at positions 2, 3, 8, 16 and 23 of the HCV core protein are critical for core-STAT1 interaction and ribavirin-induced mutations at these positions interfere with the interaction, resulting in a better response of the treated patients. In conclusion, this study anticipates that HCV core residues 2, 3, 8, 16 and 23 directly interact with STAT1. We propose that IFN/ribavirin bitherapy?induced mutations in the STAT1?interacting domain of the HCV core protein may be responsible for the improved therapeutic response and viral clearance, thus amino acids 1-23 of the N-terminus of the core protein are an ideal antiviral target. However, this treatment may give rise to resistant variants that are able to escape the current therapy. We propose similar studies in responsive and non-responsive genotypes in order to gain a broader picture of this proposed mechanism of viral clearance.
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Complete Chromosome Sequence of Carnobacterium maltaromaticum LMA 28.
Genome Announc
PUBLISHED: 01-31-2013
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Within the lactic acid bacterium genus Carnobacterium, Carnobacterium maltaromaticum is one of the most frequently isolated species from natural environments and food. It potentially plays a major role in food product biopreservation. We report here on the 3.649-Mb chromosome sequence of C. maltaromaticum LMA 28, which was isolated from ripened soft cheese.
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Hepatoprotective potential of new steroid against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury.
Mol. Cell. Biochem.
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2013
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The present study was designed to evaluate the hepatoprotective effects of newly isolated stigmast-4, 20 (21), 23-trien-3-one (STO) against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic injury in Wistar albino rats. Hepatotoxicity was induced by the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CCl4 (0.5 mL/kg CCl4 in olive oil) in experimental rats. Three different doses (2.5, 5.0, and 10 mg/kg, p.o) of STO was administered to the test groups during whole experimental protocol. Changes in the activity of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP, anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and LPO were studied in CCl4-induced hepatocellular carcinogenesis. The altered levels of serum ALT, AST, ALP, TB, and TP restored toward normalization significantly by STO in a dose dependant manner. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. Meanwhile, it also produced a significant and dose-dependent reversal of CCl4-diminished activity of anti-oxidant enzymes like SOD, CAT, GPx, GST, and the reduced CCl4-elevated level of LPO. STO significantly prevented the increased levels of serum markers, also suppressed the free radical processes by scavenging hydroxyl radicals. It also modulates the levels of LPO and markedly increases the endogenous anti-oxidant enzymes level in CCl4-induced hepatic injury.
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Inoculum pretreatment affects bacterial survival, activity and catabolic gene expression during phytoremediation of diesel contaminated soil.
Chemosphere
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2013
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Plant-bacteria partnership is a promising approach for remediating soil contaminated with organic pollutants. The colonization and metabolic activity of an inoculated microorganism depend not only on environmental conditions but also on the physiological condition of the applied microorganisms. This study assessed the influence of different inoculum pretreatments on survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of an applied strain (Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere of ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soil. Maximum bacterium survival, gene abundance and expression were observed in the soil inoculated with bacterial cells that had been pregrown on complex medium, and hydrocarbon degradation and genotoxicity reduction were also high in this soil. These findings propose that use of complex media for growing plant inocula may enhance bacterial survival and colonization and subsequently the efficiency of pollutant degradation.
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RNA-SSPT: RNA Secondary Structure Prediction Tools.
Bioinformation
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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The prediction of RNA structure is useful for understanding evolution for both in silico and in vitro studies. Physical methods like NMR studies to predict RNA secondary structure are expensive and difficult. Computational RNA secondary structure prediction is easier. Comparative sequence analysis provides the best solution. But secondary structure prediction of a single RNA sequence is challenging. RNA-SSPT is a tool that computationally predicts secondary structure of a single RNA sequence. Most of the RNA secondary structure prediction tools do not allow pseudoknots in the structure or are unable to locate them. Nussinov dynamic programming algorithm has been implemented in RNA-SSPT. The current studies shows only energetically most favorable secondary structure is required and the algorithm modification is also available that produces base pairs to lower the total free energy of the secondary structure. For visualization of RNA secondary structure, NAVIEW in C language is used and modified in C# for tool requirement. RNA-SSPT is built in C# using Dot Net 2.0 in Microsoft Visual Studio 2005 Professional edition. The accuracy of RNA-SSPT is tested in terms of Sensitivity and Positive Predicted Value. It is a tool which serves both secondary structure prediction and secondary structure visualization purposes.
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Use of Earths magnetic field for mitigating gyroscope errors regardless of magnetic perturbation.
Sensors (Basel)
PUBLISHED: 10-15-2011
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Most portable systems like smart-phones are equipped with low cost consumer grade sensors, making them useful as Pedestrian Navigation Systems (PNS). Measurements of these sensors are severely contaminated by errors caused due to instrumentation and environmental issues rendering the unaided navigation solution with these sensors of limited use. The overall navigation error budget associated with pedestrian navigation can be categorized into position/displacement errors and attitude/orientation errors. Most of the research is conducted for tackling and reducing the displacement errors, which either utilize Pedestrian Dead Reckoning (PDR) or special constraints like Zero velocity UPdaTes (ZUPT) and Zero Angular Rate Updates (ZARU). This article targets the orientation/attitude errors encountered in pedestrian navigation and develops a novel sensor fusion technique to utilize the Earths magnetic field, even perturbed, for attitude and rate gyroscope error estimation in pedestrian navigation environments where it is assumed that Global Navigation Satellite System (GNSS) navigation is denied. As the Earths magnetic field undergoes severe degradations in pedestrian navigation environments, a novel Quasi-Static magnetic Field (QSF) based attitude and angular rate error estimation technique is developed to effectively use magnetic measurements in highly perturbed environments. The QSF scheme is then used for generating the desired measurements for the proposed Extended Kalman Filter (EKF) based attitude estimator. Results indicate that the QSF measurements are capable of effectively estimating attitude and gyroscope errors, reducing the overall navigation error budget by over 80% in urban canyon environment.
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Global Health Workforce Alliance: increasing the momentum for health workforce development.
Rev Peru Med Exp Salud Publica
PUBLISHED: 08-17-2011
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The Global Health Workforce Alliance was launched in 2006 to provide a joint platform for governments, development partners, international agencies, civil society organizations, academia, private sector, professional associations, and other stakeholders to work together to address a global crisis in human resources for health. Five years later the vision and mandate of the Alliance still remain valid. Despite advances in bringing the health workforce to the fore in international health policy arenas, more available knowledge and tools, and encouraging signs of commitments from many countries, health workforce bottlenecks continue to prevent many health systems from delivering essential and quality health services. Latin America is not spared from the challenges. The 2010 Second Global Forum on Human Resources for Health provided an opportunity to review progress, identify persisting gaps, reach consensus on solutions, and renew the momentum for and commitment to acutely needed investment and actions.
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Can the risk of secondary cancer induction after breast conserving therapy be reduced using intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) with low-energy x-rays?
Radiat Oncol
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2011
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Radiation induced secondary cancers are a rare but severe late effect after breast conserving therapy. Intraoperative radiotherapy (IORT) is increasingly used during breast conserving surgery. The purpose of this analysis was to estimate secondary cancer risks after IORT compared to other modalities of breast radiotherapy (APBI - accelerated partial breast irradiation, EBRT - external beam radiotherapy).
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Antioxidant and antimicrobial attributes and phenolics of different solvent extracts from leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf].
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2011
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This paper describes the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities and phenolic components of different solvent (absolute methanol, absolute ethanol, absolute acetone, 80% methanol, 80% ethanol, 80% acetone and deionized water) extracts of leaves, flowers and bark of Gold Mohar [Delonix regia (Bojer ex Hook.) Raf.]. The extract yields from leaves, flowers and bark ranged from 10.19 to 36.24, 12.97 to 48.47 and 4.22 to 8.48 g/100 g dry weight (DW), respectively. Overall, 80% methanol extract produced from the leaves exhibited significantly (P < 0.05) higher antioxidant activity, with high phenolic contents (3.63 g GAE/100 g DW), total flavonoid contents (1.19 g CE/100 g DW), inhibition of peroxidation (85.54%), DPPH scavenging capacity (IC(50) value 8.89 ?g/mL) and reducing power (1.87). Similarly, this 80% methanol leaves extract also showed superior antimicrobial activity. HPLC analysis of the 80% methanol extracts for individual phenolics revealed the presence of gallic, protocatechuic and salicylic acid in leaves; gallic, protocatechuic, salicylic, trans-cinnamic and chlorogenic acid in flowers, and gallic acid in bark as the main (amount > 1.50 mg/100 g DW) phenolic acids. Besides, small amounts ( < 1.50 mg/100 g DW) of some other phenolic acids such as sorbic, sinapic, p-coumaric, m-coumaric, ferulic, caffeic, 3-hydroxybenzoic, 4-hydroxycinnamic and 4-hydroxybenzoic acids were also detected. The extracts of the tested parts of Gold Mohar, especially, the leaves, might be valuable for functional food and therapeutic applications.
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Anti-diabetic potential of ursolic acid stearoyl glucoside: a new triterpenic gycosidic ester from Lantana camara.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 06-27-2011
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A new stearoyl glucoside of ursolic acid, urs-12-en-3?-ol-28-oic acid 3?-D-glucopyranosyl-4-octadecanoate and other compounds were isolated from the leaves of Lantana camara L. The structure of this new glycoside was elucidated and established by standard spectroscopic methods. In streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats it showed significant reduction in blood glucose level.
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Hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization and gene expression of alkane degradation genes by endophytic Enterobacter ludwigii strains.
Environ. Pollut.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2011
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The genus Enterobacter comprises a range of beneficial plant-associated bacteria showing plant growth promotion. Enterobacter ludwigii belongs to the Enterobacter cloacae complex and has been reported to include human pathogens but also plant-associated strains with plant beneficial capacities. To assess the role of Enterobacter endophytes in hydrocarbon degradation, plant colonization, abundance and expression of CYP153 genes in different plant compartments, three plant species (Italian ryegrass, birdsfoot trefoil and alfalfa) were grown in sterile soil spiked with 1% diesel and inoculated with three endophytic E. ludwigii strains. Results showed that all strains were capable of hydrocarbon degradation and efficiently colonized the rhizosphere and plant interior. Two strains, ISI10-3 and BRI10-9, showed highest degradation rates of diesel fuel up to 68% and performed best in combination with Italian ryegrass and alfalfa. All strains expressed the CYP153 gene in all plant compartments, indicating an active role in degradation of diesel in association with plants.
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Analysis of interleukin-10 gene polymorphisms and hepatitis C susceptibility in Pakistan.
J Infect Dev Ctries
PUBLISHED: 01-19-2011
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Hepatitis C virus (HCV) commonly causes a chronic infection but few of patients are able to clear the virus naturally. Interleukin-10 (IL-10) is an anti-inflammatory cytokine that can suppress the immune response against HCV. Interindividual variations in IL-10 production are genetically contributed by polymorphisms within the IL-10 promoter region. This study aimed to investigate the association of the IL-10 gene promoter -1082 G/A, -819 C/T, and -592 C/A polymorphisms with HCV infection susceptibility in Pakistani individuals.
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STAT subtype specificity and ischemic preconditioning in mice: is STAT-3 enough?
Am. J. Physiol. Heart Circ. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2010
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The role of other STAT subtypes in conferring ischemic tolerance is unclear. We hypothesized that in STAT-3 deletion alternative STAT subtypes would protect myocardial function against ischemia-reperfusion injury. Wild-type (WT) male C57BL/6 mice or mice with cardiomyocyte STAT-3 knockout (KO) underwent baseline echocardiography. Langendorff-perfused hearts underwent ischemic preconditioning (IPC) or no IPC before ischemia-reperfusion. Following ex vivo perfusion, hearts were analyzed for STAT-5 and -6 phosphorylation by Western blot analysis of nuclear fractions. Echocardiography and postequilibration cardiac performance revealed no differences in cardiac function between WT and KO hearts. Phosphorylated STAT-5 and -6 expression was similar in WT and KO hearts before perfusion. Contractile function in WT and KO hearts was significantly impaired following ischemia-reperfusion in the absence of IPC. In WT hearts, IPC significantly improved the recovery of the maximum first derivative of developed pressure (+dP/dtmax) compared with that in hearts without IPC. IPC more effectively improved end-reperfusion dP/dtmax in WT hearts compared with KO hearts. Preconditioned and nonpreconditioned KO hearts exhibited increased phosphorylated STAT-5 and -6 expression compared with WT hearts. The increased subtype activation did not improve the efficacy of IPC in KO hearts. In conclusion, baseline cardiac performance is preserved in hearts with cardiac-restricted STAT-3 deletion. STAT-3 deletion attenuates preconditioning and is not associated with a compensatory upregulation of STAT-5 and -6 subtypes. The activation of STAT-5 and -6 in KO hearts following ischemic challenge does not provide functional compensation for the loss of STAT-3. JAK-STAT signaling via STAT-3 is essential for effective IPC.
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Soil type affects plant colonization, activity and catabolic gene expression of inoculated bacterial strains during phytoremediation of diesel.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 11-03-2010
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The combined use of plants and associated microorganisms has great potential for cleaning up soils contaminated with petroleum hydrocarbons. Apart from environmental conditions the physicochemical properties of the soil are the main factors influencing the survival and activity of an inoculated strain as well as the growth of plants. This study examined the effect of different soil types (sandy, loamy sand and loam) on the survival, gene abundance and catabolic gene expression of two inoculated strains (Pseudomonas sp. strain ITRI53 and Pantoea sp. strain BTRH79) in the rhizosphere and shoot interior of Italian ryegrass vegetated in diesel contaminated soils. High colonization, gene abundance and expression in loamy soils were observed. By contrast, low colonization, gene abundance and absence of gene expression in sandy soil were found. The highest levels of genes expression and hydrocarbon degradation were seen in loamy soil that had been inoculated with BTRH79 and were significantly higher compared to those in other soils. A positive correlation was observed between gene expression and hydrocarbon degradation indicating that catabolic gene expression is necessary for contaminant degradation. These results suggest that soil type influences the bacterial colonization and microbial activities and subsequently the efficiency of contaminant degradation.
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Synthesis and application of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene immobilized material for the removal of azo dyes.
J. Hazard. Mater.
PUBLISHED: 09-14-2010
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The present study describes synthesis of a new resin through immobilization of p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene onto silica and its application for the removal of azo dyes from aqueous media as well as from textile effluents. The newly synthesized material 4 is characterized by FT-IR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope (SEM) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA). Reactive Black-5 (RB-5) and Reactive Red-45 (RR-45) azo dyes were used as sorbate. Batch wise sorption experiments were conducted to optimize various experimental parameters such as the effect of sorbent dosage, electrolyte, pH, dye concentration, and contact time. The optimized pH for the effective removal of RB-5 and RR-45 dyes was 9 and 3, respectively. The increase in material 4 dosage increased the percent sorption. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm models were applied to experimental data and Langmuir isotherm model found to be best fit. The results revealed that material 4 was potentially more effective sorbent for the sorption of selected azo dyes as compared to pure silica and p-tert-butylcalix[8]arene. The field studies also supported the effectiveness of material 4, which could be useful for the removal of both the dyes and also for the normalization of pH, TDS, conductivity and salinity near to the drinking water.
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Autosomal dominant syndrome of camptodactyly, clinodactyly, syndactyly, and bifid toes.
Am. J. Med. Genet. A
PUBLISHED: 08-05-2010
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We report on a 25-year follow-up of a Pakistani kindred with a unique combination of camptodactyly and clinodactyly of 5th fingers, mesoaxial camptodactyly of toes, and ulnar deviation of 3rd fingers. The less common anomalies in the affected subjects include syndactyly involving all digits, and bifid toes. This condition is grossly bilateral, symmetrical, and affects upper and lower limbs of the 26 affected subjects in the kindred. The comparable number of affected male and female subjects (chi(2) = 0.154, P < 0.1), disease allele transmission by mother and father, and the malformation segregation in four consecutive generations are strongly suggestive of autosomal dominant inheritance. Differential diagnosis considered syndactyly types II, III, and V. Only type II syndactyly manifests noticeable phenotypic overlap with the clinical presentation in this family; however, the typical type II syndactyly changes are absent. To the best of our knowledge, this autosomal dominant limb phenotype has not been reported previously.
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Increased serum free tryptophan in patients with diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome.
Nutr Res
PUBLISHED: 07-26-2010
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Irregularities of serotonin function in irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) may be due to changes in the metabolism of the serotonin precursor l-tryptophan. Dietary alteration of tryptophan intake may impact upon the mood and bowel symptoms of IBS. We hypothesized that diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (d-IBS) patients would exhibit an increase in plasma tryptophan due to alterations in tryptophan metabolism. We also hypothesized that a diet low in tryptophan would reverse this change and reduce symptoms. Thirteen patients with d-IBS had fasting serum free and total tryptophan, large neutral amino acids, and 6 kynurenine metabolites measured before and after 2 weeks of a strict dairy-free diet. Baseline tryptophan parameters were compared with an age- and sex-matched control group. Changes in the specific tryptophan parameters before and after dairy-free diet were correlated with symptoms of IBS and mood. Compared with the control group, d-IBS patients at baseline exhibited significantly higher free serum tryptophan (10.5 ± 4.35 vs 4.75 ± 2.43 ?mol/L [means ± standard deviation], P = .006) and significantly lower tryptophan dioxygenase and total tryptophan oxidation as measured by the kynurenine to free tryptophan and total kynurenines to free tryptophan ratios (23.37 ± 10.12 vs 55.33 ± 16.02, P < .001 and 49.34 ± 17.84 vs 258.46 ± 98.67, P < .001, respectively). Dairy-free diet did not modulate metabolites of the kynurenine pathway or symptoms. Tryptophan metabolism along the kynurenine pathway is inhibited in d-IBS, and a dairy-free diet does not alter this. Our findings are consistent with possible enhanced serotonin activity in d-IBS.
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Patient satisfaction of depot medroxyprogesterone acetate (dmpa-sc) injection as contraceptive.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-29-2010
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To determine Patient Satisfaction of DMPA-SC (104 mg/0.65 mL) injected subcutaneously once every 3 months.
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Effects of variation of MRI parameters on signal homogeneity: a qualitative analysis for ferrous benzoic xylenon orange gel.
J Pak Med Assoc
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2010
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This study focuses on the diverse effects of MRI parameters on image quality using widely available imaging pulse sequences.
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Oral misoprostol for induction of labour.
J Coll Physicians Surg Pak
PUBLISHED: 04-10-2010
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To determine the effect of oral Misoprostol in labour induction with respect to ease of administration and induction-to-delivery time interval.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.