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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Effects of simulated interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequalities in educational achievement.
Child Dev
PUBLISHED: 10-18-2014
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Randomized controlled trial evidence shows that interventions before age 5 can improve skills necessary for educational success; the effect of these interventions on socioeconomic inequalities is unknown. Using trial effect estimates, and marginal structural models with data from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 11,764, imputed), simulated effects of plausible interventions to improve school entry academic skills on socioeconomic inequality in educational achievement at age 16 were examined. Progressive universal interventions (i.e., more intense intervention for those with greater need) to improve school entry academic skills could raise population levels of educational achievement by 5% and reduce absolute socioeconomic inequality in poor educational achievement by 15%.
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Time spent in different types of childcare and children's development at school entry: an Australian longitudinal study.
Arch. Dis. Child.
PUBLISHED: 09-11-2014
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To investigate whether the total amount of time in childcare through the first 3?years of life was associated with children's receptive vocabulary, externalising and internalising problem behaviours at age 4-5?years, and whether this association varied for different types of childcare.
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Rural populations have equal surgical and survival outcomes in metastatic colorectal cancer.
Aust J Rural Health
PUBLISHED: 07-09-2014
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Previous Australian studies have suggested poorer survival of patients with colorectal cancer in remote areas. To date no studies have assessed the geographic disparity in patients with metastatic disease. This retrospective cohort study looks at geographic differences in the surgical care and survival of patients with metastatic colorectal disease. The paper utilises data from the South Australian Clinical Registry for Metastatic Colorectal Cancer (SACRMCC).
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Quality of childcare influences children's attentiveness and emotional regulation at school entry.
J. Pediatr.
PUBLISHED: 04-28-2014
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To examine the association between domain-specific qualities of formal childcare at age 2-3 years and children's task attentiveness and emotional regulation at age 4-5 and 6-7 years.
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Can screening 4-5 year olds accurately identify children who will have teacher-reported mental health problems when children are aged 6-7 years?
Aust N Z J Psychiatry
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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Objective:To assess the screening accuracy of information obtained from parents of 4-5-year-old children for the purpose of identifying the children who have teacher-reported mental health problems when they are aged 6-7 years.Method:The study used data from the Longitudinal Study of Australian Children (LSAC) obtained when children were aged 4-5 years and 6-7 years. The level of childrens mental health problems was assessed using the Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire (SDQ) completed by parents when children were aged 4-5 years and by teachers when children were aged 6-7 years (n=2163). When children were aged 4-5 years, parenting skills were assessed using three questionnaires developed for the parent-completed LSAC questionnaire and maternal mental health was assessed using the Kessler Psychological Distress Scale (K6).Results:When the level of parent-reported childhood mental health problems at 4-5 years old was used to identify children with teacher-reported mental health problems (i.e. a score in the "abnormal" range of the teacher-reported SDQ Total Difficulties Scale) when the children were aged 6-7 years, sensitivity was 26.8%, positive predictive value was 22.8%, and specificity was 92.9%. The addition of further information about the characteristics of children and their parents made only a small improvement to screening accuracy.Conclusions:Targeted interventions for preschool children may have the potential to play an important role in reducing the prevalence of mental health problems during the early school years. However, current capacity to accurately identify preschoolers who will experience teacher-reported mental health problems during the early school years is limited.
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Diet quality of U.K. infants is associated with dietary, adiposity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes measured at 7-8 years of age.
J. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 08-14-2013
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Whereas the influence of pregnancy diet and milk feeding on childrens health and development is well characterized, the role of early food intake and eating behaviors is largely unexplored. This study aimed to determine whether the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines was associated with dietary, obesity, cardiovascular, and cognitive outcomes at 7-8 y of age. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age to calculate a Complementary Feeding Utility Index score. Regression analysis was used to explore associations between the index score and dietary patterns derived via principal component analysis (n = 4326), body-mass index (BMI) (n = 4801), waist circumference (n = 4798), blood pressure (n = 4685), and lipids (n = 3232) measured at age 7 y; and intelligence quotient (IQ) measured at age 8 y (n = 4429) after adjustment for covariates. The index score was negatively associated with a "processed" dietary pattern (? = -0.16; 95% CI: -0.20, -0.13; P < 0.001) but positively associated with a "health conscious" dietary pattern [? = 0.18 (95% CI: 0.14, 0.21); P < 0.001]. A higher index score was also positively associated with total, verbal, and performance IQ scores at 8 y of age [? = 1.92 (95%CI: 1.38, 2.47); P < 0.001 for total IQ). The index score was weakly associated with waist circumference [? = -0.15 (95%CI: -0.31, -0.002); P = 0.046] and diastolic blood pressure [? = -0.24 (95%CI: -0.47, -0.01); P = 0.043] at 7 y of age but was not associated with BMI or other cardiovascular risk factors. These findings suggest that adherence to current complementary feeding guidelines may have implications for some, but not all, health and development outcomes in childhood.
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Diet spanning infancy and toddlerhood is associated with child blood pressure at age 7.5 y.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
PUBLISHED: 05-01-2013
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Diet in the first 2 y of life may be a pivotal period regarding effects on future blood pressure (BP). However, data on early-life diet and BP in childhood are sparse.
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Do dietary trajectories between infancy and toddlerhood influence IQ in childhood and adolescence? Results from a prospective birth cohort study.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 02-08-2013
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We examined whether trajectories of dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months of age are associated with intelligence quotient (IQ) in childhood and adolescence.
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Changes in Socioeconomic Inequality in Indonesian Childrens Cognitive Function from 2000 to 2007: A Decomposition Analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Measuring social inequalities in health is common; however, research examining inequalities in child cognitive function is more limited. We investigated household expenditure-related inequality in childrens cognitive function in Indonesia in 2000 and 2007, the contributors to inequality in both time periods, and changes in the contributors to cognitive function inequalities between the periods.
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A preference based measure of complementary feeding quality: application to the avon longitudinal study of parents and children.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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This paper presents the development of the Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI), a composite index aimed to measure adherence to infant feeding guidelines. Through an axiomatic characterization this paper shows the advantages in using the CFUI are the following: it avoids the use of arbitrary cut-offs, and by converting observed diet preferences into utilities, summing the score is meaningful. In addition, as the CFUI is designed to be scored continuously, it allows the transition from intake of beneficial foods (in low quantities) and intake of detrimental foods (in high quantities) to be more subtle. The paper first describes the rationale being the development of the CFUI and then elaborates on the methodology used to develop the CFUI, including the process of selecting the components. The methodology is applied to data collected from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children to show the advantages of the CFUI over traditional diet index approaches. Unlike traditional approaches, the distribution of the CFUI does not peak towards mean value but distributes evenly towards the tails of the distribution.
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Comparison of scoring systems for invasive pests using ROC analysis and Monte Carlo simulations.
Risk Anal.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2010
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Different international plant protection organisations advocate different schemes for conducting pest risk assessments. Most of these schemes use structured questionnaire in which experts are asked to score several items using an ordinal scale. The scores are then combined using a range of procedures, such as simple arithmetic mean, weighted averages, multiplication of scores, and cumulative sums. The most useful schemes will correctly identify harmful pests and identify ones that are not. As the quality of a pest risk assessment can depend on the characteristics of the scoring system used by the risk assessors (i.e., on the number of points of the scale and on the method used for combining the component scores), it is important to assess and compare the performance of different scoring systems. In this article, we proposed a new method for assessing scoring systems. Its principle is to simulate virtual data using a stochastic model and, then, to estimate sensitivity and specificity values from these data for different scoring systems. The interest of our approach was illustrated in a case study where several scoring systems were compared. Data for this analysis were generated using a probabilistic model describing the pest introduction process. The generated data were then used to simulate the outcome of scoring systems and to assess the accuracy of the decisions about positive and negative introduction. The results showed that ordinal scales with at most 5 or 6 points were sufficient and that the multiplication-based scoring systems performed better than their sum-based counterparts. The proposed method could be used in the future to assess a great diversity of scoring systems.
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Jurisdictional, socioeconomic and gender inequalities in child health and development: analysis of a national census of 5-year-olds in Australia.
BMJ Open
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Early child development may have important consequences for inequalities in health and well-being. This paper explores population level patterns of child development across Australian jurisdictions, considering socioeconomic and demographic characteristics.
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Dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months of age are associated with IQ at 8 years of age.
Eur. J. Epidemiol.
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Diet supplies the nutrients needed for the development of neural tissues that occurs over the first 2 years of life. Our aim was to examine associations between dietary patterns at 6, 15 and 24 months and intelligence quotient (IQ) scores at 8 years. Participants were enrolled in an observational birth cohort (ALSPAC study, n = 7,097). Dietary data was collected by questionnaire and patterns were extracted at each time using principal component analysis. IQ was measured using the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children at 8 years. Associations between dietary patterns and IQ were examined in regression analyses adjusted for potential confounding and by propensity score matching, with data imputation for missing values. At all ages, higher scores on a Discretionary pattern (characterized by biscuits, chocolate, sweets, soda, crisps) were associated with 1-2 point lower IQ. A Breastfeeding pattern at 6 months and Home-made contemporary patterns at 15 and 24 months (herbs, legumes, cheese, raw fruit and vegetables) were associated with 1-to-2 point higher IQ. A Home-made traditional pattern (meat, cooked vegetables, desserts) at 6 months was positively associated with higher IQ scores, but there was no association with similar patterns at 15 or 24 months. Negative associations were found with patterns characterized by Ready-prepared baby foods at 6 and 15 months and positive associations with a Ready-to-eat foods pattern at 24 months. Propensity score analyses were consistent with regression analyses. This study suggests that dietary patterns from 6 to 24 months may have a small but persistent effect on IQ at 8 years.
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An index measuring adherence to complementary feeding guidelines has convergent validity as a measure of infant diet quality.
J. Nutr.
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The complementary feeding period is an important stage of child development. The study aim was to develop an index reflecting the degree of adherence to complementary feeding guidelines, evaluate its convergent validity, and explore associations with socio-demographic factors and dietary pattern scores in childhood. Data were analyzed from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (n = 6065) using parent-completed dietary questionnaires at 6 mo of age, socio-demographic information, and dietary patterns derived by principal component analysis at age 3 y. The Complementary Feeding Utility Index (CFUI) consists of 14 components: breastfeeding duration, feeding to appetite, timing of introduction to solids, exposure to iron-rich cereals, fruit and vegetable intake, exposure to high-fat/-salt/-sugar foods including sugary drinks, food texture, and meal/snack frequency. Regression analyses were undertaken to investigate associations between index scores, socio-demographic factors, food and nutrient intakes, and dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. Milk and food intake at 6 mo and nutrient intake at 8 mo of age varied across quintiles of index score in largely the expected directions. Associations were found among index score, maternal age, education, social class, maternal smoking history, and prepregnancy BMI. After adjustment for socio-demographic factors, the index score was associated with "processed" [? = -0.234 (95% CI = -0.260, -0.209)] and "healthy" [? = 0.185 (95% CI = 0.155, 0.215)] dietary pattern scores at age 3 y. The CFUI is able to discriminate across food intake, nutrient intake, and socio-demographic factors and is associated with later dietary patterns.
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Characterization of transition diets spanning infancy and toddlerhood: a novel, multiple-time-point application of principal components analysis.
Am. J. Clin. Nutr.
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The portrayal of diet over time is a natural progression from the characterization of diet at single time points. The transition dietary period, a dynamic period of rapid dietary change spanning infancy and toddlerhood when children shift from a milk-based to a food-based diet, has not been characterized.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.