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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Large-Scale Production of Graphene Nanoribbons from Electrospun Polymers.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 11-20-2014
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Graphene nanoribbons (GNRs) are promising building blocks for high-performance electronics due to their high electron mobility and dimensionality-induced bandgap. Despite many past efforts, direct synthesis of GNRs with controlled dimensions and scalability remains challenging. Here we report the scalable synthesis of GNRs using electrospun polymer nanofibers templates. Palladium-incorporated poly-(4-vinylphenol) nanofibers were prepared by electrospinning with controlled diameter and orientation. Highly graphitized GNRs as narrow as 10 nm were then synthesized from these templates by chemical vapor deposition. A transport gap can be observed in 30-nm-wide GNRs, enabling them to function as field-effect transistors at room temperature. Our results represent the first success on the scalable synthesis of highly graphitized GNRs from polymer templates. Furthermore, the generality of this method allows various polymers to be explored, which will lead to understanding of growth mechanism and rational control over crystallinity, feature size and bandgap to enable a new pathway for graphene electronics.
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Tandem Synthesis of 3-Halo-5-Substituted Isoxazoles from 1-Copper(I) Alkynes and Dihaloformaldoximes.
Org. Lett.
PUBLISHED: 11-15-2014
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A tandem synthesis of 3-halo-5-substituted isoxazoles has been developed from 1-copper(I) alkynes and dihaloformaldoximes under base-free conditions. Thus, 1,3-dipolar cycloaddition and all its drawbacks can now be avoided completely.
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Risk scoring for prediction of acute cardiac complications from imbalanced clinical data.
IEEE J Biomed Health Inform
PUBLISHED: 11-07-2014
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Fast and accurate risk stratification is essential in the emergency department (ED) as it allows clinicians to identify chest pain patients who are at high risk of cardiac complications and require intensive monitoring and early intervention. In this paper, we present a novel intelligent scoring system using heart rate variability, 12-lead electrocardiogram (ECG), and vital signs where a hybrid sampling-based ensemble learning strategy is proposed to handle data imbalance. The experiments were conducted on a dataset consisting of 564 chest pain patients recruited at the ED of a tertiary hospital. The proposed ensemble-based scoring system was compared with established scoring methods such as the modified early warning score and the thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score, and showed its effectiveness in predicting acute cardiac complications within 72 h in terms of the receiver operation characteristic analysis.
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Compliance with severe sepsis bundles and its effect on patient outcomes of severe community-acquired pneumonia in a limited resources country.
Arch Med Sci
PUBLISHED: 10-23-2014
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Validation of compliance with severe sepsis bundles is still needed. The purpose of this study was to determine compliance and its outcomes in severe community-acquired pneumonia (CAP) patients in a limited resources country.
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Upregulation of immunomodulatory molecules by Matrine treatment in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis.
Exp. Mol. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 09-29-2014
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Immunological dysfunction is a primary characteristic of multiple sclerosis (MS) and its animal model, experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). Matrine (MAT), a quinolizidine alkaloid derived from the herb Radix Sophorae Flave, has been shown to ameliorate the clinical signs of EAE by suppressing the production of proinflammatory cytokines IFN-?, TNF-? and IL-17, as well as adhesive molecules. However, whether MAT is simply immunosuppressive or an immunomodulatory reagent has not been studied. In the present study we focused on possible immunomodulatory mechanisms underlying the effects of MAT in EAE. Our results showed that administration of MAT significantly increased serum production of Th2 cytokines IL-4 and IL-5, and regulatory T cell (Treg) related cytokines IL-10, TGF-?1, as well as expression of Foxp3, a Treg transcription factor, in the spinal cord. In addition, MAT treatment significantly upregulated CNS expression of Nrf2 and HO-1, which play important roles in inhibiting oxidative stress and CNS inflammation. Together, our findings identify MAT as, not only immunosuppressive, but also a potent immunomodulatory natural product for the treatment of EAE and which has potential as a novel therapeutic option for MS.
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Degradation of ethyl mercaptan and its major intermediate diethyl disulfide by Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 09-12-2014
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A Pseudomonas sp. strain WL2 that is able to efficiently metabolize ethyl mercaptan (EM) into diethyl disulfide (DEDS) through enzymatic oxidation was isolated from the activated sludge of a pharmaceutical wastewater plant. One hundred percent removal of 113.5 mg L(-1) EM and 110.3 mg L(-1) DEDS were obtained within 14 and 32 h, respectively. A putative EM degradation pathway that involved the catabolism via DEDS was proposed, which indicated DEDS were further mineralized into carbon dioxide (CO2), bacterial cells, and sulfate (SO4 (2-)) through the transformation of element sulfur and ethyl aldehyde. Degradation kinetics for EM and DEDS with different initial concentrations by strain WL2 were evaluated using Haldane-Andrews model with maximum specific degradation rates of 3.13 and 1.33 g g(-1) h(-1), respectively, and maximum degradation rate constants of 0.522 and 0.175 h(-1) using pseudo-first-order kinetic model were obtained. Results obtained that aerobic degradation of EM by strain WL2 was more efficient than those from previous studies. Substrate range studies of strain WL2 demonstrated its ability to degrade several mercaptans, disulfides, aldehydes, and methanol. All the results obtained highlight the potential of strain WL2 for the use in the biodegradation of volatile organic sulfur compounds (VOSCs).
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Selective metal deposition at graphene line defects by atomic layer deposition.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 09-02-2014
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One-dimensional defects in graphene have a strong influence on its physical properties, such as electrical charge transport and mechanical strength. With enhanced chemical reactivity, such defects may also allow us to selectively functionalize the material and systematically tune the properties of graphene. Here we demonstrate the selective deposition of metal at chemical vapour deposited graphene's line defects, notably grain boundaries, by atomic layer deposition. Atomic layer deposition allows us to deposit Pt predominantly on graphene's grain boundaries, folds and cracks due to the enhanced chemical reactivity of these line defects, which is directly confirmed by transmission electron microscopy imaging. The selective functionalization of graphene defect sites, together with the nanowire morphology of deposited Pt, yields a superior platform for sensing applications. Using Pt-graphene hybrid structures, we demonstrate high-performance hydrogen gas sensors at room temperature and show its advantages over other evaporative Pt deposition methods, in which Pt decorates the graphene surface non-selectively.
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Spirometric reference values for healthy Han children aged 5-15 years in Guangzhou, southern China.
Pediatr. Pulmonol.
PUBLISHED: 08-28-2014
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Reliable interpretation of spirometry rests on appropriate reference values, but there are few published reference values for healthy children in China.
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Prediction of adverse cardiac events in emergency department patients with chest pain using machine learning for variable selection.
BMC Med Inform Decis Mak
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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The key aim of triage in chest pain patients is to identify those with high risk of adverse cardiac events as they require intensive monitoring and early intervention. In this study, we aim to discover the most relevant variables for risk prediction of major adverse cardiac events (MACE) using clinical signs and heart rate variability.
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Current advances of integrated processes combining chemical absorption and biological reduction for NO x removal from flue gas.
Appl. Microbiol. Biotechnol.
PUBLISHED: 08-23-2014
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Anthropogenic nitrogen oxides (NO x ) emitted from the fossil-fuel-fired power plants cause adverse environmental issues such as acid rain, urban ozone smoke, and photochemical smog. A novel chemical absorption-biological reduction (CABR) integrated process under development is regarded as a promising alternative to the conventional selective catalytic reduction processes for NO x removal from the flue gas because it is economic and environmentally friendly. CABR process employs ferrous ethylenediaminetetraacetate [Fe(II)EDTA] as a solvent to absorb the NO x following microbial denitrification of NO x to harmless nitrogen gas. Meanwhile, the absorbent Fe(II)EDTA is biologically regenerated to sustain the adequate NO x removal. Compared with conventional denitrification process, CABR not only enhances the mass transfer of NO from gas to liquid phase but also minimize the impact of oxygen on the microorganisms. This review provides the current advances of the development of the CABR process for NO x removal from the flue gas.
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Prevalence of Congenital Heart Defects Associated with Down Syndrome in Korea.
J. Korean Med. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 08-06-2014
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Congenital heart defect (CHD) is common in infants with Down syndrome (DS), which is the principle cause of mortality. However, there is no data available for the frequency and types of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. We investigated the frequency of CHD in infants with DS in Korea. After the survey on birth defects was conducted throughout the country, the prevalence of CHD in DS in 2005-2006 was calculated. This study was conducted based on the medical insurance claims database of the National Health Insurance Corporation. The number of total births in Korea was 888,263 in 2005-2006; of them, 25,975 cases of birth defects were identified. The prevalence of DS was 4.4 per 10,000 total births, accounting for 1.5% of all birth defects. Of the 394 infants with DS, 224 (56.9%) had a CHD. Atrial septal defect was the most common defect accounting for 30.5% of DS followed by ventricular septal defect (19.3%), patent duct arteriosus (17.5%), and atrioventricular septal defect (9.4%). Our study will be helpful to demonstrate the current status of DS and to identify the distribution of CHD in infants with DS in Korea.
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Pulsed magnetic field accelerate proliferation and migration of cardiac microvascular endothelial cells.
Bioelectromagnetics
PUBLISHED: 07-17-2014
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Heart failure is a disease with multifactorial causes. Recently it was established that reduction in vascular density promoted the progression from adaptive cardiac hypertrophy to heart failure, therefore, therapeutic angiogenesis may be a promising method for treating heart failure. Cardiac microvascular endothelial cells (CMECs) play a major role in cardiac angiogenesis. In the present study, we investigated the direct and indirect effect of pulsed magnetic field (PMF) on the proliferation and migration of CMECs. CMECs were isolated from adult Sprague-Dawley (SD) rat hearts. We found PMF with a frequency of 15?Hz and an intensity of 1.8?mT accelerated the proliferation and migration of CMECs and cardiac myocytes (CMs). Moreover, CMECs treated with PMF released 1.5-fold higher vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and 2-fold higher fibroblast growth factor-2 (FGF-2) when compared with PMF-free cells. In addition, CMs treated with PMF released twofold higher FGF-2 compared with PMF-free cells, but there was no change in VEGF levels. Those results suggested PMF has both a direct autocrine mitogenic and an indirect paracrine effect on CMECs proliferation and migration, and the effect of PMF on intercellular communication between CMECs and CMs was partially dependent on FGF-2, but independent on VEGF. Bioelectromagnetics. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Prediction of DNase I hypersensitive sites by using pseudo nucleotide compositions.
ScientificWorldJournal
PUBLISHED: 07-11-2014
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DNase I hypersensitive sites (DHS) associated with a wide variety of regulatory DNA elements. Knowledge about the locations of DHS is helpful for deciphering the function of noncoding genomic regions. With the acceleration of genome sequences in the postgenomic age, it is highly desired to develop cost-effective computational methods to identify DHS. In the present work, a support vector machine based model was proposed to identify DHS by using the pseudo dinucleotide composition. In the jackknife test, the proposed model obtained an accuracy of 83%, which is competitive with that of the existing method. This result suggests that the proposed model may become a useful tool for DHS identifications.
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Conditional deletion of Mecp2 in parvalbumin-expressing GABAergic cells results in the absence of critical period plasticity.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 07-07-2014
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Mutations in the X-linked gene encoding the transcriptional modulator methyl-CpG-binding protein 2 (MeCP2) impair postnatal development of the brain. Here we use neuronal-type specific gene deletion in mice to show that conditional Mecp2 deletion in GABAergic parvalbumin-expressing (PV) cells (PV-Mecp2(-/y)) does not cause most Rett-syndrome-like behaviours, but completely abolishes experience-dependent critical period plasticity of primary visual cortex (V1) that develops normal visual functions. However, selective loss of Mecp2 in GABAergic somatostatin-expressing cells or glutamatergic pyramidal cells does not affect the critical period plasticity. MeCP2-deficient PV cells exhibit high intrinsic excitability, selectively reduced efficacy of recurrent excitatory synapses in V1 layer 4 circuits, and decreased evoked visual responses in vivo. Enhancing cortical gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) inhibition with diazepam infusion can restore critical period plasticity in both young and adult PV-Mecp2(-/y) mice. Thus, MeCP2 expression in inhibitory PV cells during the critical period is essential for local circuit functions underlying experience-dependent cortical plasticity.
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Primary desmoplastic small round cell tumor of the duodenum.
Eur. J. Med. Res.
PUBLISHED: 06-25-2014
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The desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is an extremely rare tumor that mainly affects adolescents and mostly involves the abdominal and pelvic peritoneum. A 14-year-old girl presented with intermittent epigastric pain; abdominal computed tomography and upper gastrointestinal barium X-ray revealed an 8 cm?×?10 cm space-occupying mass in the duodenal region. The patient underwent pancreaticoduodenectomy and the final pathologic diagnosis was DSRCT. Although multi-agent systemic chemotherapy was given, the patient died of metastasis 8 months later. Early diagnosis and surgical treatment with adjuvant chemotherapy seems to be the best treatment choice for this disease.
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Large-area, transparent, and flexible infrared photodetector fabricated using P-N junctions formed by N-doping chemical vapor deposition grown graphene.
Nano Lett.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2014
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Graphene is a highly promising material for high speed, broadband, and multicolor photodetection. Because of its lack of bandgap, individually gated P- and N-regions are needed to fabricate photodetectors. Here we report a technique for making a large-area photodetector on the basis of controllable fabrication of graphene P-N junctions. Our selectively doped chemical vapor deposition (CVD) graphene photodetector showed a ?5% modulation of conductance under global IR irradiation. By comparing devices of various geometries, we identify that both the homogeneous and the P-N junction regions contribute competitively to the photoresponse. Furthermore, we demonstrate that our two-terminal graphene photodetector can be fabricated on both transparent and flexible substrates without the need for complex fabrication processes used in electrically gated three-terminal devices. This represents the first demonstration of a fully transparent and flexible graphene-based IR photodetector that exhibits both good photoresponsivity and high bending capability. This simple approach should facilitate the development of next generation high-performance IR photodetectors.
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Hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of organic contaminants in wastewater-irrigated soil.
Environ Sci Pollut Res Int
PUBLISHED: 06-10-2014
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The objective of this study is to investigate the hepatotoxicity and nephrotoxicity of organic contaminants in wastewater-irrigated soil using in vivo and in vitro experiments on mice and rat. Soil samples were collected from a wastewater-irrigated area and groundwater-irrigated area, i.e. clean water-irrigated area as control group. The organic contaminants were extracted using an ultrasonic oscillator. In vivo experiment was performed by contamination of hepatocytes of rat using the organic extract, and comet assay was used to analyse the DNA damage of hepatocytes. For in vitro experiment, mice were first gavaged with extracts, and then the indicators for kidney functions, liver functions and oxidative damage of tissues were investigated. The result shows, for in vitro experiments, compared with clean water-irrigated area groups, the average DNA tailing length for the wastewater-irrigated area group is larger, and for the wastewater-irrigated area groups with extract concentration 0.6 g/ml and 0.9 g/ml, the tailing rate increases significantly (P?
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New clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat locus spacer pair typing method based on the newly incorporated spacer for Salmonella enterica.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 06-04-2014
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A clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) typing method has recently been developed and used for typing and subtyping of Salmonella spp., but it is complicated and labor intensive because it has to analyze all spacers in two CRISPR loci. Here, we developed a more convenient and efficient method, namely, CRISPR locus spacer pair typing (CLSPT), which only needs to analyze the two newly incorporated spacers adjoining the leader array in the two CRISPR loci. We analyzed a CRISPR array of 82 strains belonging to 21 Salmonella serovars isolated from humans in different areas of China by using this new method. We also retrieved the newly incorporated spacers in each CRISPR locus of 537 Salmonella isolates which have definite serotypes in the Pasteur Institute's CRISPR Database to evaluate this method. Our findings showed that this new CLSPT method presents a high level of consistency (kappa = 0.9872, Matthew's correlation coefficient = 0.9712) with the results of traditional serotyping, and thus, it can also be used to predict serotypes of Salmonella spp. Moreover, this new method has a considerable discriminatory power (discriminatory index [DI] = 0.8145), comparable to those of multilocus sequence typing (DI = 0.8088) and conventional CRISPR typing (DI = 0.8684). Because CLSPT only costs about $5 to $10 per isolate, it is a much cheaper and more attractive method for subtyping of Salmonella isolates. In conclusion, this new method will provide considerable advantages over other molecular subtyping methods, and it may become a valuable epidemiologic tool for the surveillance of Salmonella infections.
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Interleukin-17 induces CC chemokine receptor 6 expression and cell migration in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-21-2014
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The CC chemokine receptor 6 (CCR6) and its ligand CCL20 are involved in human colorectal cancer (CRC) carcinogenesis and can promote the progression of CRC. In addition, interleukin-17 (IL-17), produced by a T cell subset named "Th17," has been identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and has emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. However, the relevance of IL-17 in the development and progression of CRC still remains to be explored. This study aimed to investigate the effect of IL-17 on the cell migration of CRC cells. Human CRC HCT-116 cells were used to study the effect of IL-17 on CCR6 expression and cell migration in CRC cells. IL-17 treatment induced migration of HCT-116 cells across the Boyden chamber membrane and increased the expression level of the CCR6. Inhibition of CCR6 by small interfering RNA (siRNA) and neutralizing antibody inhibited IL-17-induced cell migration. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we demonstrated that the activation of ERK and p38 pathways are critical for IL-17-induced CCR6 expression and cell migration. Promoter activity and transcription factor ELISA assays showed that IL-17 increased NF-?B-DNA binding activity in HCT-116 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B activation by specific inhibitors and siRNA blocked the IL-17-induced CCR6 expression. Our findings support the hypothesis that CCR6 up-regulation stimulated by IL-17 may play an active role in CRC cell migration. J. Cell. Physiol. © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.
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Emergence and prevalence of non-H2S-producing Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg isolates belonging to novel sequence type 1751 in China.
J. Clin. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 05-14-2014
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Salmonella enterica serovar Senftenberg is a common nontyphoidal Salmonella serotype which causes human Salmonella infections worldwide. In this study, 182 S. Senftenberg isolates, including 17 atypical non-hydrogen sulfide (H2S)-producing isolates, were detected in China from 2005 to 2011. The microbiological and genetic characteristics of the non-H2S-producing and selected H2S-producing isolates were determined by using pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE), multilocus sequence typing (MLST), and clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeat (CRISPR) analysis. The phs operons were amplified and sequenced. The 17 non-H2S-producing and 36 H2S-producing isolates belonged to 7 sequence types (STs), including 3 new STs, ST1751, ST1757, and ST1758. Fourteen of the 17 non-H2S-producing isolates belonged to ST1751 and had very similar PFGE patterns. All 17 non-H2S-producing isolates had a nonsense mutation at position 1621 of phsA. H2S-producing and non-H2S-producing S. Senftenberg isolates were isolated from the same stool sample from three patients; isolates from the same patients displayed the same antimicrobial susceptibility, ST, and PFGE pattern but could be discriminated based on CRISPR spacers. Non-H2S-producing S. Senftenberg isolates belonging to ST1751 have been prevalent in Shanghai, China. It is possible that these emerging organisms will disseminate further, because they are difficult to detect. Thus, we should strengthen the surveillance for the spread of this atypical S. Senftenberg variant.
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Timing Matters: HIV Testing Rates in the Emergency Department.
Nurs Res Pract
PUBLISHED: 05-04-2014
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Study Objectives. In response to the 2010 New York State HIV testing law, we sought to understand the contextual factors that influence HIV testing rates in the emergency department (ED). Methods. We analyzed electronic health record logs from 97,655 patients seen in three EDs in New York City. We used logistic regression to assess whether time of day, day of the week, and season significantly affected HIV testing rates. Results. During our study period, 97,655 patients were evaluated and offered an HIV test. Of these, 7,763 (7.9%) agreed to be tested. Patients arriving between 6?a.m. and 7:59?p.m. were significantly (P < 0.001) more likely to be tested for HIV, followed by patients arriving between 8:00?p.m. and 9:59?p.m. (P < 0.01) and followed by patients arriving between 5-5:59?a.m. and 10-10:59?p.m. (P < 0.05) compared to patients arriving at midnight. Seasonal variation was also observed, where patients seen in July, August, and September (P < 0.001) were more likely to agree to be tested for HIV compared to patients seen in January, while patients seen in April and May (P < 0.001) were less likely to agree to be tested for HIV. Conclusion. Time of day and season affect HIV testing rates in the ED, along with other factors such as patient acuity and completion of other blood work during the ED visit. These findings provide useful information for improving the implementation of an HIV testing program in the ED.
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Sesamin enhances cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages.
Molecules
PUBLISHED: 04-14-2014
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Foam cells formation as a result of the uncontrolled cytophagy of modified cholesterol by macrophages plays a key role in the occurrence and development of atherosclerosis. Sesamin is an active constituent of Sesamum indicum which has been shown to possess multiple pharmacological activities. In this work, we investigated the effects of sesamin on foam cell formation and cholesterol efflux in RAW264.7 macrophages. Sesamin dose-dependently inhibited the enhanced cholesterol accumulation elicited by oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (oxLDL) in RAW264.7 cells. Treatment with sesamin (10 ?M) significantly enhanced cholesterol efflux mediated by high-density lipoprotein (HDL). Realtime quantitative PCR and luciferase assays showed that sesamin significantly increased the mRNA levels of PPAR?, LXR?, and ABCG1, and increased the transcriptional activity of PPAR?. The stimulating effect of sesamin on cholesterol efflux was substantially inhibited by the co-treatment with GW9662, a potent inhibitor of PPAR?. These results suggest that sesamin is a new inhibitor of foam cell formation that may stimulate cholesterol efflux through upregulation of the PPAR?-LXR?-ABCG1 pathway.
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ADAM10 regulates proliferation, invasion, and chemoresistance of bladder cancer cells.
Tumour Biol.
PUBLISHED: 04-08-2014
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A disintegrin and metalloprotease 10 (ADAM10) is upregulated in several cancers and associates with malignant cancer progression. However, its expression pattern in bladder cancer remains unexplored. In the present study, we examined ADAM10 expression in 105 bladder cancer specimens using immunohistochemistry. We found ADAM10 overexpression in 51 of 105 (48.5 %) bladder cancer specimens. ADAM10 overexpression associated with advanced tumor stage (p?=?0.001) and tumor grade (p?=?0.018). To explore its biological functions in bladder cancer cells, small interfering RNA (siRNA) knockdown was performed in 5,637 and T24 cell lines. Cell Counting Kit-8 (CCK8) assay and Matrigel invasion assay showed that ADAM10 depletion decreased cell proliferation, migration, and invasion. In addition, ADAM10 knockdown increased the level of cisplatin-induced apoptosis. In conclusion, ADAM10 is overexpressed in bladder cancer and regulates malignant cell growth and invasion, which makes it a candidate therapeutic target.
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Activation of neutral-sphingomyelinase, MAPKs, and p75 NTR-mediating caffeic acid phenethyl ester-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-25-2014
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Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE), a component of propolis, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory, anti-bacterial, anti-viral, and anti-tumor activities. Previously, our laboratory demonstrated the in vitro and in vivo bioactivity of CAPE and addressed the role of p53 and the p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathway in regulating CAPE-induced apoptosis in C6 glioma cells.
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Differential expression of genes and proteins associated with wool follicle cycling.
Mol. Biol. Rep.
PUBLISHED: 03-24-2014
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Sheep are valuable resources for the wool industry. Wool growth of Aohan fine wool sheep has cycled during different seasons in 1 year. Therefore, identifying genes that control wool growth cycling might lead to ways for improving the quality and yield of fine wool. In this study, we employed Agilent sheep gene expression microarray and proteomic technology to compare the gene expression patterns of the body side skins at August and December time points in Aohan fine wool sheep (a Chinese indigenous breed). Microarray study revealed that 2,223 transcripts were differentially expressed, including 1,162 up-regulated and 1,061 down-regulated transcripts, comparing body side skin at the August time point to the December one (A/D) in Aohan fine wool sheep. Then seven differentially expressed genes were selected to validated the reliability of the gene chip data. The majority of the genes possibly related to follicle development and wool growth could be assigned into the categories including regulation of receptor binding, extracellular region, protein binding and extracellular space. Proteomic study revealed that 84 protein spots showed significant differences in expression levels. Of the 84, 63 protein spots were upregulated and 21 were downregulated in A/D. Finally, 55 protein points were determined through MALDI-TOF/MS analyses. Furthermore, the regulation mechanism of hair follicle might resemble that of fetation.
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Tumor suppressor candidate gene, NDRG2 is frequently inactivated in human glioblastoma multiforme.
Mol Med Rep
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2014
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N?myc downstream regulated gene 2 (NDRG2) is highly expressed in numerous normal tissues, while it is marginally expressed or undetectable in various tumors, including lung and colon cancer. In order to investigate the expression of NDRG2 in human glioma and its downstream regulatory mechanisms, quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), immunohistochemistry and western blot analyses were used to assess NDRG2 mRNA and protein expression in different grades of human glioma and adjacent normal tissues. The methylation status of the NDRG2 promoter region was also determined using bisulfite sequencing. NDRG2 mRNA expression was observed to be significantly lower in glioma tissues than in adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). Furthermore, a significant negative correlation was found between the glioma tumor grade and NDRG2 expression (P<0.05), at the mRNA and protein levels. Moreover, the methylation rate of the NDRG2 promoter region was 46.3% in the glioma tissues compared with 18.2% in the adjacent normal tissues (P<0.05). These findings show that NDRG2 expression is downregulated in human glioma and that the level of NDRG2 expression negatively correlates with the glioma grade. Furthermore, these findings indicate that NDRG2 downregulation may be due to aberrant methylation of the NDRG2 promoter region and subsequent transcriptional inactivation.
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Resistin-induced stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression through Toll-like receptor 4 and activation of p38 MAPK/ NF?B signaling pathway in gastric cancer cells.
J. Biomed. Sci.
PUBLISHED: 03-04-2014
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Stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) (CXC chemokine ligand-12)/CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4) is involved in the carcinogenesis of human gastric cancer, where it stimulates angiogenesis and favors metastasis of tumor cells to distant organs. In addition, resistin is suggested to be an important link between obesity and the development of gastric cancer. Resistin has identified as an important player in inflammatory responses, and emerged as a mediator in inflammation-associated cancer. A limited number of studies have investigated the association of resistin and SDF-1 with gastric cancer. Herein, we investigated the molecular mechanisms by which resistin influences the expression of SDF-1 in gastric carcinoma cells.
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Cellular mechanism underlying hydrogen sulfide induced mouse tracheal smooth muscle relaxation: role of BKCa.
Eur. J. Pharmacol.
PUBLISHED: 02-09-2014
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Recent studies have suggested that hydrogen sulfide (H2S), an important endogenous signaling gaseous molecule, participates in relaxation of smooth muscle. Nevertheless, the mechanism of this relaxation effect on respiratory system is still unclear. The present study aims to investigate the physiological function as well as cellular mechanism of H2S in tracheal smooth muscle. Application of the H2S donor, sodium hydrosulphide (NaHS) and the precursor of H2S, l-cysteine (l-Cys) induced mouse tracheal smooth muscle (TSM) relaxation in an epithelium-independent manner. The relaxation of TSM induced by NaHS was abrogated by iberiotoxin (IbTX), the large conductance calcium activated potassium channel (BKCa) blocker. In primary cultured mouse TSM cells, NaHS remarkably increased potassium outward currents in whole-cell patch clamp, hyperpolarized TSM cells and inhibited the calcium influx. All of these effects were significantly blocked by IbTX. Consistent with the results in vitro, administration of NaHS in vivo also reduced airway hyperresponsiveness in Ovalbumin (OVA)-challenged asthmatic mice. Our present study indicates that NaHS can induce mouse TSM relaxation by activating BKCa. These observations reveal the physiological function of H2S in airway, which provides a promising pharmacological target for the treatment of asthma and other respiratory diseases associated with over-contraction of TSM.
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Twice daily N-acetylcysteine 600 mg for exacerbations of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (PANTHEON): a randomised, double-blind placebo-controlled trial.
Lancet Respir Med
PUBLISHED: 01-30-2014
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Increased oxidative stress and inflammation has a role in the pathogenesis of chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Drugs with antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, such as N-acetylcysteine, might provide a useful therapeutic approach for COPD. We aimed to assess whether N-acetylcysteine could reduce the rate of exacerbations in patients with COPD.
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Electrical Stimulation Influences Satellite Cell Differentiation Following Sciatic Nerve Crush Injury in Rats.
Muscle Nerve
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2014
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Electrical stimulation is often used to prevent muscle atrophy and preserve contractile function, but its effects on the satellite cell population after nerve injury are not well understood.
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Alterations of chemical composition, construction cost and payback time in needles of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) trees grown under pollution.
J. Plant Res.
PUBLISHED: 01-12-2014
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Previous studies show that Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.) stands grown at the industrially-polluted site have experienced unprecedented growth decline, but the causal mechanisms are poorly understood. In this study, to understand the mechanisms of growth decline of Mason pine strands under pollution stresses, we determined the reactive oxygen species levels and chemical composition of the current-year (C) and one-year-old (C + 1) needles, and calculated the needle construction costs (CCmass) of Masson pine trees grown at an industrially-polluted site and an unpolluted remote site. Pine trees grown at the polluted site had significantly higher levels of hydroxyl radical and superoxide anion in their needles than those grown at the unpolluted site, and the former trees eventually exhibited needle early senescence. The contents of lipids, soluble phenolics and lignins in C and C + 1 needles were significantly higher at the polluted site than at the unpolluted site, but the total amounts of non-construction carbohydrates were lower in non-polluted needles than in polluted needles. Elevated levels of the reactive oxygen species and early senescence in polluted needles together led to significant increases in CCmass and a longer payback time. We infer that the lengthened payback time and needle early senescence under pollution stress may reduce the Masson pine tree growth and consequently accelerate tree decline.
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Leukotriene D4 inhalation challenge for predicting short-term efficacy of montelukast: a pilot study.
Clin Respir J
PUBLISHED: 01-04-2014
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The convenient measure to predict efficacy of leukotriene receptor antagonist is lacking.
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Differential Regulation of Human Aortic Smooth Muscle Cell Proliferation by Monocyte-Derived Macrophages from Diabetic Patients.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Macrophage accumulation in the arterial wall and smooth muscle cell (SMC) proliferation are features of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM) and its vascular complications. However, the effects of diabetic monocyte-derived macrophages on vascular SMC proliferation are not clearly understood. In the present study, we investigated the pro-proliferative effect of macrophages isolated from DM patients on vascular SMCs. Macrophage-conditioned media (MCM) were prepared from macrophages isolated from DM patients. DM-MCM treatment induced HASMC proliferation, decreased p21Cip1 and p27Kip1 expressions, and increased microRNA (miR)-17-5p and miR-221 expressions. Inhibition of either miR-17-5p or miR-221 inhibited DM-MCM-induced cell proliferation. Inhibition of miR-17-5p abolished DM-MCM-induced p21Cip1 down-regulation; and inhibition of miR-221 attenuated the DM-MCM-induced p27Kip1 down-regulation. Furthermore, blocking assays demonstrated that PDGF-CC in DM-MCM is the major mediators of cell proliferation in SMCs. In conclusion, our present data support the hypothesis that SMC proliferation stimulated by macrophages may play critical roles in vascular complications in DM patients and suggest a new mechanism by which arterial disease is accelerated in diabetes.
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Characterization of Lung Function Impairment in Adults with Bronchiectasis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Characteristics of lung function impairment in bronchiectasis is not fully understood.
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Association between Polymorphisms of the IKZF3 Gene and Systemic Lupus Erythematosus in a Chinese Han Population.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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It has been reported that IKAROS family of zinc finger 3 (IKZF3)-deficient mice spontaneously develop human systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE)-like phenotypes and produce anti-dsDNA Ab leading to immune complex-mediated glomerulonephritis. Polymorphism of the IKZF3 gene corresponds with the susceptibility to several immune-related diseases. Our intention was to establish an association between polymorphisms in the IKZF3 gene and SLE in the Chinese Han population.
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The "gate keeper" role of Trp222 determines the enantiopreference of diketoreductase toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanone.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Trp222 of diketoreductase (DKR), an enzyme responsible for reducing a variety of ketones to chiral alcohols, is located at the hydrophobic dimeric interface of the C-terminus. Single substitutions at DKR Trp222 with either canonical (Val, Leu, Met, Phe and Tyr) or unnatural amino acids (UAAs) (4-cyano-L-phenylalanine, 4-methoxy-L-phenylalanine, 4-phenyl-L-phenyalanine, O-tert-butyl-L-tyrosine) inverts the enantiotope preference of the enzyme toward 2-chloro-1-phenylethanone with close side chain correlation. Analyses of enzyme activity, substrate affinity and ternary structure of the mutants revealed that substitution at Trp222 causes a notable change in the overall enzyme structure, and specifically in the entrance tunnel to the active center. The size of residue 222 in DKR is vital to its enantiotope preference. Trp222 serves as a "gate keeper" to control the direction of substrate entry into the active center. Consequently, opposite substrate-binding orientations produce respective alcohol enantiomers.
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Macrolide therapy in adults and children with non-cystic fibrosis bronchiectasis: a systematic review and meta-analysis.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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A systematic review and meta-analysis was conducted to evaluate the efficacy and safety of macrolide therapy in adults and children with bronchiectasis.
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An improved approximation algorithm for scaffold filling to maximize the common adjacencies.
IEEE/ACM Trans Comput Biol Bioinform
PUBLISHED: 12-17-2013
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Scaffold filling is a new combinatorial optimization problem in genome sequencing. The one-sided scaffold filling problem can be described as given an incomplete genome $(I)$ and a complete (reference) genome $(G)$, fill the missing genes into $(I)$ such that the number of common (string) adjacencies between the resulting genome $(I^{prime })$ and $(G)$ is maximized. This problem is NP-complete for genome with duplicated genes and the best known approximation factor is 1.33, which uses a greedy strategy. In this paper, we prove a better lower bound of the optimal solution, and devise a new algorithm by exploiting the maximum matching method and a local improvement technique, which improves the approximation factor to 1.25. For genome with gene repetitions, this is the only known NP-complete problem which admits an approximation with a small constant factor (less than 1.5).
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Predictors of Long-Term Adherence to Continuous Positive Airway Pressure Therapy in Patients with Obstructive Sleep Apnea and Cardiovascular Disease in the SAVE Study.
Sleep
PUBLISHED: 12-03-2013
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To determine the clinical variables that best predict long- term continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) adherence among patients with cardiovascular disease who have obstructive sleep apnea (OSA).
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[Genetic damage in peripheral blood lymphocyte of 1,3-butadiene workers].
Wei Sheng Yan Jiu
PUBLISHED: 11-14-2013
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To investigate the DNA and chromosome damage in peripheral blood lymphocyte of workers occupationally exposed to 1,3-butadiene (BD).
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Evaluation of the efficacy and safety of tiotropium bromide (5 µg) inhaled via Respimat in Chinese patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Chin. Med. J.
PUBLISHED: 10-12-2013
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A pharmacokinetic study in an Asian population showed that tiotropium 5 µg via Respimat leads to the same plasma levels compared to 18 µg via HandiHaler. The objective of the trial was to compare the efficacy and safety of longterm treatment (1 year) with tiotropium bromide (5 µg) via Respimat® with placebo in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD).
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Tandem reaction of 1-copper(I) alkynes for the synthesis of 1,4,5-trisubstituted 5-chloro-1,2,3-triazoles.
J. Org. Chem.
PUBLISHED: 09-27-2013
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A novel tandem reaction of 1-copper(I) alkynes with azides (cycloaddition) and then NCS (electrophilic substitution) was developed as an efficient method for the synthesis of 1,4,5-trisubstituted 5-chloro-1,2,3-triazoles. The method offers a rare example that a tandem reaction of an organometallic substrate does not involve in the reactivity of the metal-carbon bond in the first step.
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Comparison of in vitro antiviral activity of tea polyphenols against influenza A and B viruses and structure-activity relationship analysis.
Fitoterapia
PUBLISHED: 09-17-2013
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Influenza poses a particular risk of severe outcomes in the elderly, the very young and those with underlying diseases. Tea polyphenols are the natural phenolic compounds in teas, and principally consist of catechins, proanthocyanidins, flavonols, and theaflavins, which antiviral activities have been reported recently. This study is to gain a further insight into potential of various tea polyphenols for inhibiting influenza virus infection. Five tea polyphenols exhibited inhibitory activity against influenza A virus in the trend of theaflavin>procyanidin B-2>procyanidin B-2 digallate>(-)-epigallocatechin(EGC)>(-)-epigallocatechingallate(EGCG) with IC50 values in the range of 16.2-56.5?g/ml. Six of the tested compounds showed anti-influenza B virus activity in the order of kaempferol>EGCG>procyanidin B-2>(-)-EGC~methylated EGC>theaflavin with IC50 values in the range of 9.0-49.7?g/ml. Based on these results, the structure-activity relationship (SAR) was explained as follows. First, the dimeric molecules, such as theaflavin and procyanidin B-2, generally displayed more potent antiviral activity against both influenza A and B viruses than the catechin monomers. Second, the kaempferol for inhibition of influenza B virus indicated that the more planar flavonol structure with only one C-4 phenolic hydroxyl group in the B ring is necessary for the anti-influenza B virus activity. A similar SAR can be drawn from the assays of another enveloped RNA virus, such as respiratory syncytial virus. These results are expected to provide guides for rational design of antiviral drugs based on polyphenols.
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NOx removal in chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated system: process rate and rate-limiting step.
Bioresour. Technol.
PUBLISHED: 07-28-2013
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Biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA is considered as the key step that limits the removal efficiency of the chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated system. In this study, the process rates of each reaction step under typical conditions (T=50°C, C FeII(EDTA)=1-5 mmol/L, CNO=0-500 ppm, CO2=1-10%, pH=7) were determined. Relevant kinetic constants including rate constants of absorption part and Michaelis-Menten kinetic constants of regeneration part were also obtained. On this basis, the theoretical process rates of each reaction step were predicted and compared in a steady state. The results confirmed that the removal rate of NO in this system is limited by the biological reduction of Fe(III)EDTA. Moreover, it indicated that increasing the concentration of total iron appropriately could enhance the bioreduction of Fe(III)EDTA.
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Visualization of peripheral pulmonary artery red thrombi utilizing optical coherence tomography.
Korean J Radiol
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
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Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a new imaging technique capable of obtaining high-resolution intravascular images and has been used in interventional cardiology. However, an application of OCT in pulmonary arteries had seldom been documented. In this case, OCT imaging is performed in peripheral pulmonary arteries and shows mural red thrombi. Subsequently, the red thrombi are aspirated and confirmed by a histological examination. These findings suggest that OCT may be a useful tool to depict peripheral pulmonary artery thrombi.
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Respiratory syncytial virus induces leukotriene C4 synthase expression in bronchial epithelial cells.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 06-17-2013
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Respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) results in acute wheezing in infants and is frequently associated with recurrent wheezing. Although RSV-induced wheezing clinically resembles that of asthma, corticosteroids are not equivalently effective in RSV-associated wheezing. The study sought to determine the mechanisms of RSV-induced wheezing by establishing an in vitro model of RSV-infected human bronchial epithelial cells (16-HBEC).
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Direct growth of aligned graphitic nanoribbons from a DNA template by chemical vapour deposition.
Nat Commun
PUBLISHED: 05-12-2013
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Graphene, laterally confined within narrow ribbons, exhibits a bandgap and is envisioned as a next-generation material for high-performance electronics. To take advantage of this phenomenon, there is a critical need to develop methodologies that result in graphene ribbons <10 nm in width. Here we report the use of metal salts infused within stretched DNA as catalysts to grow nanoscopic graphitic nanoribbons. The nanoribbons are termed graphitic as they have been determined to consist of regions of sp(2) and sp(3) character. The nanoscopic graphitic nanoribbons are micrometres in length, <10 nm in width, and take on the shape of the DNA template. The DNA strand is converted to a graphitic nanoribbon by utilizing chemical vapour deposition conditions. Depending on the growth conditions, metallic or semiconducting graphitic nanoribbons are formed. Improvements in the growth method have potential to lead to bottom-up synthesis of pristine single-layer graphene nanoribbons.
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Shear stress modulates macrophage-induced urokinase plasminogen activator expression in human chondrocytes.
Arthritis Res. Ther.
PUBLISHED: 04-16-2013
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INTRODUCTION: Synovial macrophages, which can release proinflammatory factors, are responsible for the upregulation of cartilage-breakdown proteases and play critical roles in cartilage degradation during the progression of osteoarthritis (OA). In addition, shear stress exerts multifunctional effects on chondrocytes by inducing the synthesis of catabolic or anabolic genes. However, the interplay of macrophages, chondrocytes, and shear stress during the regulation of cartilage function remains poorly understood. We investigated the mechanisms underlying the modulation of human chondrocyte urokinase plasminogen activator (uPA) expression by macrophages and shear stress. METHODS: Human chondrocytes were stimulated by peripheral blood-macrophage- conditioned medium (PB-MCM), or exposure of chondrocytes cultured in PB-MCM to different levels of shear stress (2 to 20 dyn/cm2). Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze uPA gene expression. Inhibitors and small interfering RNA were used to investigate the mechanism for the effects of PB-MCM and shear stress in chondrocytes. RESULTS: Stimulation of human chondrocytes with PB-MCM was found to induce uPA expression. We demonstrated that activation of the JNK and Akt pathways and NF-?B are critical for PB-MCM-induced uPA expression. Blocking assays by using IL-1ra further demonstrated that IL-1? in PB-MCM is the major mediator of uPA expression in chondrocytes. PB-MCM-treated chondrocytes subjected to a lower level of shear stress showed inhibition of MCM-induced JNK and Akt phosphorylation, NF-?B activation, and uPA expression. The PB-MCM-induced uPA expression was suppressed by AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) agonist. The inhibitor or siRNA for AMPK abolished the shear-mediated inhibition of uPA expression. CONCLUSIONS: These data support the hypothesis that uPA upregulation stimulated by macrophages may play an active role in the onset of OA and in the shear-stress protection against this induction.
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Use of twitch mouth pressure to assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.
Respir Physiol Neurobiol
PUBLISHED: 04-09-2013
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This study was undertaken to determine whether twitch mouth pressure (TwPmo) can reliably assess diaphragm strength in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) using fully automatic trigger techniques. Fifteen patients with COPD were recruited. TwPmo, twitch oesophageal pressure (TwPes) and twitch transdiaphragmtic pressure (TwPdi) were generated by phrenic nerve stimulation and were measured using an inspiratory flow trigger (40 ml/s, Experiment 1) using an inspiratory pressure trigger (-5 cmH2O, Experiment 2) and using no trigger at functional residual capacity (Experiment 3). The correlation between TwPmo and TwPes was as follows: r=0.832; P<0.0001 (Experiment 1), r=0.900; P<0.0001 (Experiment 2); there was no significant correlation in Experiment 3. A Bland-Altman plot of the difference between TwPmo and TwPes showed the limits of agreement in Experiment (1) bias (range) 0.18 cmH2O (-2.05 to 2.41) and Experiment (2) bias (range) 0.32 cmH2O (-1.69 to 2.32). Measuring TwPmo using a fully automatic technique is a simple and convenient method for assessing diaphragm strength.
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Association between awareness of harmful effects of smoking and smoking cessation advice provided by hospital chest physicians in Guangzhou, China: a multi-institutional cross-sectional survey.
Respirology
PUBLISHED: 04-05-2013
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It is unknown which factors are associated with smoking cessation interventions initiated by hospital chest physicians in China. We examined physicians awareness of negative effects of smoking on smoking cessation advice given.
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Visfatin induces stromal cell-derived factor-1 expression by ?1 integrin signaling in colorectal cancer cells.
J. Cell. Physiol.
PUBLISHED: 04-04-2013
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Obesity has been shown to be associated with the risk of colorectal cancer (CRC). Adipokines produced by the adipose tissue are linked to some malignancies, including CRC. Visfatin is an adipokine shown to be a biomarker of CRC malignant potential. In addition, the stromal cell-derived factor-1 (SDF-1) has been reported to play a role in CRC progression. Although the relationship between visfatin and CRC has been established, the underlying mechanism has not been clarified. We investigated the molecular mechanism governing the interaction between visfatin stimulation and SDF-1 expression in human CRC cell lines. We found that visfatin stimulation led to an increase in the expression and secretion of SDF-1 in CRC DLD-1 and SW48 cells. Experiments involving specific inhibitors and small interfering RNA demonstrated that the activation of ERK and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) pathways are critical for visfatin-induced SDF-1 expression. Analysis of transcription factor binding using ELISA and luciferase reporter assays revealed that visfatin increased NF-?B- and AP-1-DNA-binding activities in DLD-1 cells. Inhibition of NF-?B and AP-1 activation blocked the visfatin-induced expression and activity of the SDF-1 promoter. The effect of visfatin on DLD-1 signaling and SDF-1 expression was mediated by ?1 integrin. In summary, these findings provide novel insights pertaining to the pathophysiological role of visfatin in CRC.
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The tree shrew provides a useful alternative model for the study of influenza H1N1 virus.
Virol. J.
PUBLISHED: 04-02-2013
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The influenza pandemics have resulted in significant morbidity and mortality worldwide. Animal models are useful in the study of influenza virus pathogenesis. Because of various limitations in current laboratory animal models, it is essential to develop new alternative animal models for influenza virus research aimed at understanding the viral and host factors that contribute to virus infection in human.
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Regulation of ICAM-1 expression in gingival fibroblasts infected with high-glucose-treated P.?gingivalis.
Cell. Microbiol.
PUBLISHED: 03-21-2013
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Porphyromonas gingivalis is a major pathogen in the initiation and progression of periodontal disease, which is recognized as a common complication of diabetes. ICAM-1 expression by human gingival fibroblasts (HGFs) is crucial for regulating local inflammatory responses in inflamed periodontal tissues. However, the effect of P.?gingivalis in a high-glucose situation in regulating HGF function is not understood. The P.?gingivalis strain CCUG25226 was used to study the mechanisms underlying the modulation of HGF ICAM-1 expression by invasion of high-glucose-treated P.?gingivalis (HGPg). A high-glucose condition upregulated fimA?mRNA expression in P.?gingivalis and increased its invasion ability in HGFs. HGF invasion with HGPg induced increases in the expression of ICAM-1. By using specific inhibitors and short hairpin RNA (shRNA), we have demonstrated that the activation of p38 MAPK and Akt pathways is critical for HGPg-induced ICAM-1 expression. Luciferase reporters and chromatin immunoprecipitation assays suggest that HGPg invasion increases NF-?B- and Sp1-DNA-binding activities in HGFs. Inhibition of NF-?B and Sp1 activations blocked the HGPg-induced ICAM-1 promoter activity and expression. The effect of HGPg on HGF signalling and ICAM-1 expression is mediated by CXC chemokine receptor 4 (CXCR4). Our findings identify the molecular pathways underlying HGPg-dependent ICAM-1 expression in HGFs, providing insight into the effect of P.?gingivalis invasion in HGFs.
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Prevalence of sensitization to weed pollens of Humulus scandens, Artemisia vulgaris, and Ambrosia artemisiifolia in northern China.
J Zhejiang Univ Sci B
PUBLISHED: 03-07-2013
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Objective: Weed pollens are common sources of allergens worldwide. The prevalence of weed pollen sensitization is not yet fully known in China. The purpose of this study was to investigate the prevalence of sensitization to weed allergens from Artemisia, Ambrosia, and Humulus in northern China. Methods: A total of 1144 subjects (aged from 5 to 68 years) visiting our clinic from June to October 2011 underwent intradermal testing using a panel of 25 allergen sources. Subjects with positive skin responses to any pollen were further tested for their serum concentrations of IgE antibodies against Artemisia vulgaris, Ambrosia artemisiifolia, and Humulus scandens, and against the purified allergens, Art v 1 and Amb a 1. Results: Of 1144 subjects, 170 had positive intradermal reactions to pollen and 144 donated serum for IgE testing. The prevalence of positive intradermal responses to pollens of Artemisia sieversiana, Artemisia annua, A. artemisiifolia, and H. scandens was 11.0%, 10.2%, 3.7%, and 6.6%, respectively. Among the intradermal positive subjects, the prevalence of specific IgE antigens to A. vulgaris was 58.3%, to A. artemisiifolia 14.7%, and to H. scandens 41.0%. The prevalence of specific IgE antigens to the allergen Art v 1 was 46.9%, and to Amb a 1 was 11.2%. The correlation between the presence of IgE antibodies specific to A. vulgaris and to the Art v 1 antigen was very high. Subjects with A. artemisiifolia specific IgE also had A. vulgaris specific IgE, but with relatively high levels of A. vulgaris IgE antibodies. There were no correlations between the presence of IgE antibodies to H. scandens and A. vulgaris or to H. scandens and A. artemisiifolia. Conclusions: The intradermal prevalence of weed pollen sensitization among allergic subjects in northern China is about 13.5%. Correlations of specific IgE antibodies suggest that pollen allergens from Artemisia and Humulus are independent sources for primary sensitization.
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Canna indica L. attenuates high-glucose- and lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammatory mediators in monocyte/macrophage.
J Ethnopharmacol
PUBLISHED: 02-28-2013
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Canna indica L. (CI) has been widely used as a folklore medicine in tropical and subtropical areas with beneficial effects in numerous diseases, including infection, rheumatism, hepatitis, and it has also been identified as an antioxidant.
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Epidemic plasmid carrying bla(CTX-M-15) in Klebsiella penumoniae in China.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-29-2013
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To investigate the local epidemiology of Klebsiella penumoniae carrying bla(CTX-M-15) in southern China and to characterize the genetic environment of bla(CTX-M-15).
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Responsiveness to leukotriene D4 and methacholine for predicting efficacy of montelukast in asthma.
J Thorac Dis
PUBLISHED: 01-17-2013
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A lower responsiveness to leukotriene D4 (LTD4) or higher LTD4/[methacholine (MCh)] potency ratio might suggest preferable outcomes of short-term montelukast monotherapy in terms of airway inflammation and lung function in asthmatic patients.
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Comparison among nasopharyngeal swab, nasal wash, and oropharyngeal swab for respiratory virus detection in adults with acute pharyngitis.
BMC Infect. Dis.
PUBLISHED: 01-13-2013
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Acute pharyngitis is frequently seen in primary care. Acute viral pharyngitis may be easily misdiagnosed as acute bacterial pharyngitis. Laboratory-confirmed diagnosis of respiratory viruses is recommended. The purpose of this study was to compare the sensitivities among oropharyngeal swab (OPS), nasopharyngeal swab (NPS), and nasal wash (NW) in adults with acute pharyngitis.
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Glycopeptide minimum inhibitory concentration creep among meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus from 2006-2011 in China.
Int. J. Antimicrob. Agents
PUBLISHED: 01-06-2013
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Vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) creep has recently been demonstrated by many countries but is rarely reported in China. In this study, a total of 1411 meticillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) isolates were collected from six hospitals in China during the period 2006-2011 and the MICs of vancomycin, teicoplanin and linezolid were determined by broth microdilution according to Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute (CLSI) guidelines. MIC50 and MIC90 values (MICs required to inhibit the growth of 50% and 90% of organisms, respectively) as well as geometric mean (GM) MICs were calculated for all isolates in each year, and MIC creep for the drugs was evaluated. All of the MRSA isolates were susceptible to vancomycin and linezolid. Overall, the vancomycin GM MIC of MRSA isolates was 0.906, 0.952, 0.956, 0.947, 1.013 and 1.040 mg/L, with a significantly increasing trend over the years (P<0.001). Percentages of MRSA isolates with a vancomycin MIC above 1 ?g/mL (2 ?g/mL?MIC>1 ?g/mL) were 26.0%, 23.5%, 21.6%, 27.8%, 30.6% and 42.8% from 2006-2011, respectively, and increased over time (P<0.005). The teicoplanin GM MIC increased rapidly from 0.749 mg/L in 2008 to 0.973 mg/L in 2011, and ca. 5% of isolates were resistant to teicoplanin in the period according to European Committee on Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing (EUCAST) criteria. MIC shifts were not found for linezolid (P>0.05). In conclusion, a tendency towards decreasing susceptibility to glycopeptides in MRSA has emerged in China.
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Effects of Bone Marrow-Derived Mesenchymal Stem Cells on the Axonal Outgrowth through Activation of PI3K/AKT Signaling in Primary Cortical Neurons Followed Oxygen-Glucose Deprivation Injury.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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Transplantation with bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs) improves the survival of neurons and axonal outgrowth after stroke remains undetermined. Here, we investigated whether PI3K/AKT signaling pathway is involved in these therapeutic effects of BMSCs.
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MicroRNA expression profile of mouse lung infected with 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2013
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MicroRNAs have been implicated in the regulation of gene expression of various biological processes in a post-transcriptional manner under physiological and pathological conditions including host responses to viral infections. The 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus is an emerging reassortant strain of swine, human and bird influenza virus that can cause mild to severe illness and even death. To further understand the molecular pathogenesis of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus, we profiled cellular microRNAs of lungs from BALB/c mice infected with wild-type 2009 pandemic influenza virus A/Beijing/501/2009 (H1N1) (hereafter referred to as BJ501) and mouse-adapted influenza virus A/Puerto Rico/8/1934 (H1N1) (hereafter referred to as PR8) for comparison. Microarray analysis showed both the influenza virus BJ501 and PR8 infection induced strain- and temporal-specific microRNA expression patterns and that their infection caused a group of common and distinct differentially expressed microRNAs. Characteristically, more differentially expressed microRNAs were aroused on day 5 post infection than on day 2 and more up-regulated differentially expressed microRNAs were provoked than the down-regulated for both strains of influenza virus. Finally, 47 differentially expressed microRNAs were obtained for the infection of both strains of H1N1 influenza virus with 29 for influenza virus BJ501 and 43 for PR8. Among them, 15 microRNAs had no reported function, while 32 including miR-155 and miR-233 are known to play important roles in cancer, immunity and antiviral activity. Pathway enrichment analyses of the predicted targets revealed that the transforming growth factor-? (TGF-?) signaling pathway was the key cellular pathway associated with the differentially expressed miRNAs during influenza virus PR8 or BJ501 infection. To our knowledge, this is the first report of microRNA expression profiles of the 2009 pandemic H1N1 influenza virus in a mouse model, and our findings might offer novel therapy targets for influenza virus infection.
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Frequency shifts in plate crystal resonators induced by electric, magnetic, or mechanical fields in surface films.
IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control
PUBLISHED: 12-01-2011
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We study frequency shifts in plate crystal resonators with surface films. The films are multiphysical, including the effects of inertia, stiffness, intrinsic stress, piezoelectric coupling, and piezomagnetic coupling. Mindlins two-dimensional equations for a crystal plate with two elastic surface films are generalized to include the multiphysical effects of the films. They are used to study thickness-shear vibrations of a rotated Y-cut quartz plate with initial fields resulting from the mechanical, electric, and magnetic fields in the surface films. Frequency shifts caused by the initial fields are calculated and examined. Results show that plate crystal resonators with multiphysical surface films may be used for electric/magnetic field sensing.
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The productivity and cost-efficiency of models for involving nurse practitioners in primary care: a perspective from queueing analysis.
Health Serv Res
PUBLISHED: 11-08-2011
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To develop simple stylized models for evaluating the productivity and cost-efficiencies of different practice models to involve nurse practitioners (NPs) in primary care, and in particular to generate insights on what affects the performance of these models and how.
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Development of gold nanoparticle-based rapid detection kit for melamine in milk products.
J. Agric. Food Chem.
PUBLISHED: 10-25-2011
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A reliable and sensitive kit for the rapid detection of melamine (Mel) was developed. The kit is based on gold nanoparticle (Au NP) probe and includes a standard colorimetric card. The Au NPs were prepared by sodium borohydride reduction and characterized by transmission electron microscopy, which revealed particle sizes of approximately 5 nm. The performance of the kit in terms of aggregation kinetics, cross-reactivity, anti-interference, and sample pretreatment was investigated. The standard colorimetric card was then fabricated by chromatic aberration of a series of standard Mel-spiked milk reacts with the 5 nm Au NPs. The working range of the kit is 1-120 mg/L, and its performance is visibly more rapid and reliable by comparison with the standard colorimetric card. As low as 1 mg/L of Mel levels in milk can be determined, with the assay taking only about 10 min, including sample pretreatment. The kit can be stored for a year at room temperature. Samples were also detected by the kit, yielding results close to those obtained by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Thus, the kit is applicable to qualitative and semiquantitative field detection, as well as naked-eye screening without the aid of any instrumentation.
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Wrinkle engineering: a new approach to massive graphene nanoribbon arrays.
J. Am. Chem. Soc.
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2011
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Wrinkles are often formed on CVD-graphene in an uncontrollable way. By designing the surface morphology of growth substrate together with a suitable transfer technique, we are able to engineer the dimension, density, and orientation of wrinkles on transferred CVD-graphene. Such kind of wrinkle engineering is employed to fabricate highly aligned graphene nanoribbon (GNR) arrays by self-masked plasma-etching. Strictly consistent with the designed wrinkles, the density of GNR arrays varied from ?0.5 to 5 GNRs/?m, and over 88% GNRs are less than 10 nm in width. Electrical transport measurements of these GNR-based FETs exhibit an on/off ratio of ?30, suggesting an opened bandgap. Our wrinkle engineering approach allows very easily for a massive production of GNR arrays with bandgap-required widths, which opens a practical pathway for large-scale integrated graphene devices.
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Characterization and optimization of Fe(II)Cit-No reduction by Pseudomonas sp.
Environ Technol
PUBLISHED: 10-02-2011
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Biological reduction of nitric oxide (NO), chelated by ferrous L (L: chelate reagent), to N2 is one of the core processes in a chemical absorption-biological reduction integrated technique for nitrogen oxide (NOx) removal from flue gases. In this study, a newly isolated strain, Pseudomonas sp., was used to reduce NO chelated by Fe(II)Cit (Cit: citrate) as Fe(II)Cit-NO, and some factors were investigated. The results showed that, at the NO concentration of 670 mg/m3, 65.9% of NO was totally reduced within 25 h under anaerobic conditions, and the optimal conditions for the bioreduction of NO were found. The strain of Pseudomonas sp. could efficiently use glucose as the carbon source for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction. Though each complex could be reduced by its own dedicated bacterial strain, Fe(III)Cit could also be reduced by the strain of Pseudomonas sp. The nitrite ion, NO2-, could inhibit cell growth and thus affect the Fe(III) reduction process. These findings provide some useful data for Fe(II)Cit-NO reduction, scrubber solution regeneration and NOx removal process design.
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In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.