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Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Garlic (Allium sativum) Stimulates Lipopolysaccharide-induced Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha Production from J774A.1 Murine Macrophages.
Phytother Res
PUBLISHED: 05-06-2014
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Garlic (Allium sativum) is known to have many beneficial attributes such as antimicrobial, antiatherosclerotic, antitumorigenetic, and immunomodulatory properties. In the present study, we investigated the effects of an aqueous garlic extract on macrophage cytokine production by challenging the macrophage J774A.1 cell line with the garlic extract in the absence or presence of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) under different conditions. The effect of allicin, the major component of crushed garlic, was also investigated. Using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and reverse transcriptase-quantitative polymerase chain reaction, it was found that garlic and synthetic allicin greatly stimulated tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-?) production in macrophages treated with LPS. The TNF-? secretion levels peaked earlier and were sustained for a longer time in cells treated with garlic and LPS compared with cells treated with LPS alone. Garlic acted in a time-dependent manner. We suggest that garlic, at least partially via its allicin component, acts downstream from LPS to stimulate macrophage TNF-? secretion. © 2014 The Authors. Phytotherapy Research published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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Effect of Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans infection.
PLoS ONE
PUBLISHED: 01-01-2014
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Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol (?9-THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana, is known to suppress the immune responses to bacterial, viral and protozoan infections, but its effects on fungal infections have not been studied. Therefore, we investigated the effects of chronic ?9-THC treatment on mouse resistance to systemic Candida albicans (C. albicans) infection. To determine the outcome of chronic ?9-THC treatment on primary, acute systemic candidiasis, c57BL/6 mice were given vehicle or ?9-THC (16 mg/kg) in vehicle on days 1-4, 8-11 and 15-18. On day 19, mice were infected with 5×10(5) C. albicans. We also determined the effect of chronic ?9-THC (4-64 mg/kg) treatment on mice infected with a non-lethal dose of 7.5×10(4) C. albicans on day 2, followed by a higher challenge with 5×10(5) C. albicans on day 19. Mouse resistance to the infection was assessed by survival and tissue fungal load. Serum cytokine levels were determine to evaluate the immune responses. In the acute infection, chronic ?9-THC treatment had no effect on mouse survival or tissue fungal load when compared to vehicle treated mice. However, ?9-THC significantly suppressed IL-12p70 and IL-12p40 as well as marginally suppressed IL-17 versus vehicle treated mice. In comparison, when mice were given a secondary yeast infection, ?9-THC significantly decreased survival, increased tissue fungal burden and suppressed serum IFN-? and IL-12p40 levels compared to vehicle treated mice. The data showed that chronic ?9-THC treatment decreased the efficacy of the memory immune response to candida infection, which correlated with a decrease in IFN-? that was only observed after the secondary candida challenge.
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What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.