Abstract Background: Telemedicine has enhanced care for children with illness in Rochester, NY, since May 2001, enabling 13,568 acute illness visits through December 2013. Prior findings included high parent satisfaction with childcare- and school-based telemedicine ("school telemedicine") and potential to replace 85% of office visits for illness. Urban neighborhood telemedicine ("neighborhood telemedicine") was designed to offer convenient care for illness episodes that school telemedicine often cannot serve because illness arises when children are at home or symptoms preclude attendance. This study was designed to characterize health problems prompting neighborhood telemedicine use and to assess parent perceptions of its value. Materials and Methods: A parent satisfaction instrument was developed with input from parents and providers. Neighborhood telemedicine was initiated in January 2009 and totaled 1,362 visits through November 2013. During a 29-month survey period through January 2012, 3,871 acute illness telemedicine visits were completed, 908 (23.5%) of them via neighborhood telemedicine. Instruments were completed for 392 (43.2%) of the 908 visits. Results: Neighborhood telemedicine comprised 27% of all telemedicine visits during the year of peak neighborhood activity. Almost all survey respondents were satisfied or highly satisfied with neighborhood visits (97.6%) and endorsed greater convenience than alternatives (94.5%). Conclusions: Family preferences and the high value placed on neighborhood telemedicine suggest such service is important, especially in health systems driven by patient values. Service provided by neighborhood telemedicine holds potential to meet a large demand for care of acute childhood illness. Financing reform to support patient-centered care (e.g., bundled payments) should encompass sustainable business models for this service.
Accessing timely acute medical care is a challenge for older adults. This article describes an innovative healthcare model that uses high-intensity telemedicine services to provide rapid acute care for older adults without requiring them to leave their senior living community (SLC) residences. This program, based in a primary care geriatrics practice that cares for SLC residents, is designed to offer acute care through telemedicine for complaints that are felt to need attention before the next available outpatient visit but not to require emergency department (ED) resources. This option gives residents access to care in their residence. Measures used to evaluate the program include successful completion of telemedicine visits, satisfaction of residents and caregivers with telemedicine care, and site of care that would have been recommended had telemedicine been unavailable. During the first 2 years of the programs operation, 281 of 301 requested telemedicine visits were completed successfully. Twelve residents were sent to an ED for care after the telemedicine visit. Ninety-four percent of residents reported being satisfied or very satisfied with telemedicine care. Had telemedicine not been available, residents would have been sent to an ED (48.1%) or urgent care center (27.0%) or been scheduled for an outpatient visit (24.4%). The project demonstrated that high-intensity telemedicine services for acute illnesses are feasible and acceptable and can provide definitive care without requiring ED or urgent care use. Continuation of the program will require evaluation demonstrating equal or better resident-level outcomes and the development of sustainable business models.
Autoantibody production and immune complex deposition within the kidney promote renal disease in patients with lupus nephritis. Thus, therapeutics that inhibit these pathways may be efficacious in the treatment of systemic lupus erythematosus. Brutons tyrosine kinase (BTK) is a critical signaling component of both BCR and FcR signaling. We sought to assess the efficacy of inhibiting BTK in the development of lupus-like disease, and in this article describe (R)-5-amino-1-(1-cyanopiperidin-3-yl)-3-(4-[2,4-difluorophenoxy]phenyl)-1H-pyrazole-4-carboxamide (PF-06250112), a novel highly selective and potent BTK inhibitor. We demonstrate in vitro that PF-06250112 inhibits both BCR-mediated signaling and proliferation, as well as FcR-mediated activation. To assess the therapeutic impact of BTK inhibition, we treated aged NZBxW_F1 mice with PF-06250112 and demonstrate that PF-06250112 significantly limits the spontaneous accumulation of splenic germinal center B cells and plasma cells. Correspondingly, anti-dsDNA and autoantibody levels were reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, administration of PF-06250112 prevented the development of proteinuria and improved glomerular pathology scores in all treatment groups. Strikingly, this therapeutic effect could occur with only a modest reduction observed in anti-dsDNA titers, implying a critical role for BTK signaling in disease pathogenesis beyond inhibition of autoantibody production. We subsequently demonstrate that PF-06250112 prevents proteinuria in an FcR-dependent, Ab-mediated model of glomerulonephritis. Importantly, these results highlight that BTK inhibition potently limits the development of glomerulonephritis by impacting both cell- and effector molecule-mediated pathways. These data provide support for evaluating the efficacy of BTK inhibition in systemic lupus erythematosus patients.
Acute illness challenges all families with young children. The Health-e-Access Telemedicine Network in Rochester, NY, has enabled >7,000 telemedicine visits since 2001 among children in childcare or elementary schools, predominantly from Rochesters inner city. Large reductions in illness-related absence and emergency department use among Health-e-Access participants have occurred.
Health-e-Access, a telemedicine service providing care for acute illnesses in children, has delivered >6500 telemedicine visits from 10 primary care practices in Rochester, New York, by using telemedicine access at 22 child care and school sites. The goal was to assess the hypotheses that children served by Health-e-Access received health care more often for acute illnesses but had fewer emergency department (ED) visits and lower health care expenditures than did children without access through this service.
Mast cell and basophil activation contributes to inflammation, bronchoconstriction, and airway hyperresponsiveness in asthma. Because IL-33 expression is inflammation inducible, we investigated IL-33-mediated effects in concert with both IgE-mediated and IgE-independent stimulation.
Mast cell-fibroblast interactions may contribute to fibrosis in asthma and other disease states. Fibroblast contraction is known to be stimulated by coculture with the human mast cell line, HMC-1, or by mast cell-derived agents. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) can also mediate contraction, but the MMP-dependence of mast cell-induced fibroblast contractility is not established, and the consequences of mast cell activation within the coculture system have not been fully explored. We demonstrate that activation of primary human mast cells (pHMC) with IgE receptor cross-linking, or activation of HMC-1 with C5a, enhanced contractility of human lung fibroblasts in a three-dimensional collagen lattice system. This enhanced contractility was inhibited by the pan-MMP antagonist, batimastat, and was transferrable in the conditioned medium of activated mast cells. Exogenously added MMPs promoted gel contraction by mediating the proteolytic activation of latent transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta). Consistent with this, fibroblast contraction induced by mast cell activation was enhanced by addition of excess latent TGF-beta to the cultures. Batimastat inhibited this response, suggesting that MMPs capable of activating latent TGF-beta were released following mast cell activation in coculture with fibroblasts. Collagen production was also stimulated by activated mast cells in an MMP-dependent manner. MMP-2 and MMP-3 content of the gels increased in the presence of activated mast cells, and inhibition of these enzymes blocked the contractile response. These findings demonstrate the MMP dependence of mast cell-induced fibroblast contraction and collagen production.
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