Obesity and diabetes are closely associated with hyperactivation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis. In this study, the diet-induced obese C57BL/6 mouse was used to test the hypothesis that chronically elevated metabolic parameters associated with the development of obesity such as cholesterol and glucose can aggravate basal HPA axis activity. Because the lipocalin-type prostaglandin D(2) synthase (L-PGDS) knockout (KO) mouse is a model of accelerated insulin resistance, glucose intolerance, and obesity, it was further hypothesized that HPA activity would be greater in this model. Starting at 8 weeks of age, the L-PGDS KO and C57BL/6 mice were maintained on a low-fat or high-fat diet. After 20 or 37 weeks, fasting metabolic parameters and basal HPA axis hormones were measured and compared between genotypes. Correlation analyses were performed to identify associations between obesity-related chronic metabolic changes and changes in the basal activity of the HPA axis. Our results have identified strong positive correlations between total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, glucose, and HPA axis hormones that increase with age in the C57BL/6 mice. These data confirm that obesity-related elevations in cholesterol and glucose can heighten basal HPA activity. Additionally, the L-PGDS KO mice show early elevations in HPA activity with no age-related changes relative to the C57BL/6 mice.
In mammals, the Prostaglandin D(2) (PGD(2) ) signaling pathway is involved in male gonadal development, regulating Sox9 gene expression and SOX9 protein subcellular localization through lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-Pgds) activity. Nevertheless, because L-Pgds is downstream of Sox9, its expression cannot explain the initial nuclear translocation of the SOX9 protein. Here, we show that another source of PGD(2) , hematopoietic-Pgds (H-Pgds) enzyme is expressed in somatic and germ cells of the embryonic gonad of both sexes, as early as embryonic day (E) 10.5, before the onset of L-Pgds expression. Inhibition of H-Pgds activity by the specific HQL-79 inhibitor leads to impaired nuclear translocation of SOX9 protein in E11.5 Sertoli cells. Furthermore, analysis of H-Pgds(-/-) male embryonic gonads confirms abnormal subcellular localization of SOX9 protein at the E11.5 early stage of mouse testicular differentiation suggesting a role for H-Pgds-produced PGD(2) in the initial nuclear translocation of SOX9.
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) is a multifunctional protein that produces prostaglandin D(2) and binds and transports various lipophilic substances after secretion into various body fluids as beta-trace. L-PGDS has been proposed to be a useful diagnostic marker for renal injury associated with diabetes or hypertension, because the urinary and plasma concentrations are increased in patients with these diseases. However, it remains unclear whether urinary L-PGDS is synthesized de novo in the kidney or taken up from the blood circulation. In crude extracts of monkey kidney and human urine, we found L-PGDS with its original N-terminal sequence starting from Ala23 after the signal sequence, and also its N-terminal-truncated products starting from Gln31 and Phe34. In situ hybridization and immunohistochemical staining with monoclonal antibody 5C11, which recognized the amino-terminal Ala23-Val28 loop of L-PGDS, revealed that both the mRNA and the intact form of L-PGDS were localized in the cells of Henles loop and the glomeruli of the kidney, indicating that L-PGDS is synthesized de novo in these tissues. However, truncated forms of L-PGDS were found in the lysosomes of tubular cells, as visualized by immunostaining with 10A5, another monoclonal antibody, which recognized the three-turn alpha-helix between Arg156 and Thr173. These results suggest that L-PGDS is taken up by tubular cells and actively degraded within their lysosomes to produce the N-terminal-truncated form.
THE SLEEP SEQUENCE: i) non-REM sleep, ii) REM sleep, and iii) wakefulness, is stable and widely preserved in mammals, but the underlying mechanisms are unknown. It has been shown that this sequence is disrupted by sudden REM sleep onset during active wakefulness (i.e., narcolepsy) in orexin-deficient mutant animals. Phospholipase C (PLC) mediates the signaling of numerous metabotropic receptors, including orexin receptors. Among the several PLC subtypes, the beta4 subtype is uniquely localized in the geniculate nucleus of thalamus which is hypothesized to have a critical role in the transition and maintenance of sleep stages. In fact, we have reported irregular theta wave frequency during REM sleep in PLC-beta4-deficient mutant (PLC-beta4-/-) mice. Daily behavioral phenotypes and metabotropic receptors involved have not been analyzed in detail in PLC-beta4-/- mice, however.
Activation by the Y-encoded testis determining factor SRY and maintenance of expression of the Sox9 gene encoding the central transcription factor of Sertoli cell differentiation are key events in the mammalian sexual differentiation program. In the mouse XY gonad, SOX9 upregulates Fgf9, which initiates a Sox9/Fgf9 feedforward loop, and Sox9 expression is stimulated by the prostaglandin D2 (PGD2) producing lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS, or PTDGS) enzyme, which accelerates commitment to the male pathway. In an attempt to decipher the genetic relationships between Sox9 and the L-Pgds/PGD2 pathway during mouse testicular organogenesis, we found that ablation of Sox9 at the onset or during the time window of expression in embryonic Sertoli cells abolished L-Pgds transcription. By contrast, L-Pgds(-/-) XY embryonic gonads displayed a reduced level of Sox9 transcript and aberrant SOX9 protein subcellular localization. In this study, we demonstrated genetically that the L-Pgds/PGD2 pathway acts as a second amplification loop of Sox9 expression. Moreover, examination of Fgf9(-/-) and L-Pgds(-/-) XY embryonic gonads demonstrated that the two Sox9 gene activity amplifying pathways work independently. These data suggest that, once activated and maintained by SOX9, production of testicular L-PGDS leads to the accumulation of PGD2, which in turn activates Sox9 transcription and nuclear translocation of SOX9. This mechanism participates together with FGF9 as an amplification system of Sox9 gene expression and activity during mammalian testicular organogenesis.
Lipocalin-type prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS), which was originally identified as an enzyme responsible for PGD2 biosynthesis in the brain, is highly expressed in the myocardium, including in cardiomyocytes. However, the factors that control expression of the gene encoding L-PGDS and the pathophysiologic role of L-PGDS in cardiomyocytes are poorly understood. In the present study, we demonstrate that glucocorticoids, which act as repressors of prostaglandin biosynthesis in most cell types, upregulated the expression of L-PGDS together with cytosolic calcium-dependent phospholipase A2 and COX2 via the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) in rat cardiomyocytes. Accordingly, PGD2 was the most prominently induced prostaglandin in vivo in mouse hearts and in vitro in cultured rat cardiomyocytes after exposure to GR-selective agonists. In isolated Langendorff-perfused mouse hearts, dexamethasone alleviated ischemia/reperfusion injury. This cardioprotective effect was completely abrogated by either pharmacologic inhibition of COX2 or disruption of the gene encoding L-PGDS. In in vivo ischemia/reperfusion experiments, dexamethasone reduced infarct size in wild-type mice. This cardioprotective effect of dexamethasone was markedly reduced in L-PGDS-deficient mice. In cultured rat cardiomyocytes, PGD2 protected against cell death induced by anoxia/reoxygenation via the D-type prostanoid receptor and the ERK1/2-mediated pathway. Taken together, these results suggest what we believe to be a novel interaction between glucocorticoid-GR signaling and the cardiomyocyte survival pathway mediated by the arachidonic acid cascade.
We have recently found that prostaglandin (PG) D(2) stimulates food intake via DP(1) receptor. Here we show that complement C5a stimulates food intake by activating the orexigenic PGD(2) system. C5a (30-100 pmol/mouse), after intracerebroventricular administration, stimulated food intake in non-food-deprived mice. The orexigenic activity of C5a was blocked by co-administration of a DP(1) receptor antagonist, BWA868C. Central administration of C5a elevated the hypothalamic mRNA expression of COX-2 but not COX-1, and the food intake stimulation of C5a was inhibited by pretreatment with a COX-2 inhibitor, celecoxib, suggesting that C5a activates COX-2 upstream of the PGD(2)-DP(1) system. The orexigenic activity of C5a was also inhibited by an antagonist for neuropeptide Y (NPY) Y(1) receptor, which was activated downstream of the PGD(2)-DP(1) system. These results suggest that C5a stimulates food intake via a PGD(2)- and NPY-dependent mechanism. C5a is the first example of orexigenic peptides acting through the PGD(2)-NPY system in the central nervous system.
This study was designed to determine whether lipocalin type-prostaglandin D synthase (l-pgds) deficiency contributes to atherogenesis using gene knockout (KO) mice. A high-fat diet was given to 8-week-old C57BL/6 (wild type; WT), l-pgds KO (LKO), apolipoprotein E (apo E) KO (AKO) and l-pgds/apo E double KO (DKO) mice. The l-pgds deficient mice showed significantly increased body weight, which was accompanied by increased size of subcutaneous and visceral fat tissues. Fat deposition in the aortic wall induced by the high-fat diet was significantly increased in LKO mice compared with WT mice, although there was no significant difference between AKO and DKO mice. In LKO mice, atherosclerotic plaque in the aortic root was also increased and, furthermore, macrophage cellularity and the expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were significant increased. In conclusion, l-pgds deficiency induces obesity and facilitates atherosclerosis, probably through the regulation of inflammatory responses.
In this study, we define a new role for lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) in the control of metabolic fuel utilization by brown adipose tissue (BAT). We demonstrate that L-PGDS expression in BAT is positively correlated with BAT activity, upregulated by peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor ? coactivator 1? or 1? and repressed by receptor-interacting protein 140. Under cold-acclimated conditions, mice lacking L-PGDS had elevated reliance on carbohydrate to provide fuel for thermogenesis and had increased expression of genes regulating glycolysis and de novo lipogenesis in BAT. These transcriptional differences were associated with increased lipid content in BAT and a BAT lipid composition enriched with de novo synthesized lipids. Consistent with the concept that lack of L-PGDS increases glucose utilization, mice lacking L-PGDS had improved glucose tolerance after high-fat feeding. The improved glucose tolerance appeared to be independent of changes in insulin sensitivity, as insulin levels during the glucose tolerance test and insulin, leptin, and adiponectin levels were unchanged. Moreover, L-PGDS knockout mice exhibited increased expression of genes involved in thermogenesis and increased norepinephrine-stimulated glucose uptake to BAT, suggesting that sympathetically mediated changes in glucose uptake may have improved glucose tolerance. Taken together, these results suggest that L-PGDS plays an important role in the regulation of glucose utilization in vivo.
Mice lacking Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated Receptor ?2 (PPAR?2) have unexpectedly normal glucose tolerance and mild insulin resistance. Mice lacking PPAR?2 were found to have elevated levels of Lipocalin prostaglandin D synthase (L-PGDS) expression in BAT and subcutaneous white adipose tissue (WAT). To determine if induction of L-PGDS was compensating for a lack of PPAR?2, we crossed L-PGDS KO mice to PPAR?2 KO mice to generate Double Knock Out mice (DKO). Using DKO mice we demonstrated a requirement of L-PGDS for maintenance of subcutaneous WAT (scWAT) function. In scWAT, DKO mice had reduced expression of thermogenic genes, the de novo lipogenic program and the lipases ATGL and HSL. Despite the reduction in markers of lipolysis in scWAT, DKO mice had a normal metabolic rate and elevated serum FFA levels compared to L-PGDS KO alone. Analysis of intra-abdominal white adipose tissue (epididymal WAT) showed elevated expression of mRNA and protein markers of lipolysis in DKO mice, suggesting that DKO mice may become more reliant on intra-abdominal WAT to supply lipid for oxidation. This switch in depot utilisation from subcutaneous to epididymal white adipose tissue was associated with a worsening of whole organism metabolic function, with DKO mice being glucose intolerant, and having elevated serum triglyceride levels compared to any other genotype. Overall, L-PGDS and PPAR?2 coordinate to regulate carbohydrate and lipid metabolism.
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