JoVE Visualize What is visualize?
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Advanced Search
Stop Reading. Start Watching.
Regular Search
Find video protocols related to scientific articles indexed in Pubmed.
Risk of preterm delivery with increasing depth of excision for cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in England: nested case-control study.
BMJ
PUBLISHED: 11-05-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To determine the association between depth of excision of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia and risk of preterm birth.
Related JoVE Video
The histomorphology of Lynch syndrome-associated ovarian carcinomas: toward a subtype-specific screening strategy.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Women with Lynch syndrome (LS) are at increased risk for the development of epithelial ovarian cancer (OC). Analogous to previous studies on BRCA1/2 mutation carriers, there is evidence to suggest a histotype-specific association in LS-associated OCs (LS-OC). Whereas the diagnosis of high-grade serous carcinoma is an indication for BRCA1/2 germline testing, in contrast, there are no screening guidelines in place for triaging OC patients for LS testing based on histotype. We performed a centralized pathology review of tumor subtype on 20 germline mutation-confirmed LS-OCs, on the basis of morphologic assessment of hematoxylin and eosin-stained slides, with confirmation by immunohistochemistry when necessary. Results from mismatch-repair immunohistochemistry (MMR-IHC) and microsatellite instability (MSI) phenotype status were documented, and detailed pedigrees were analyzed to determine whether previously proposed clinical criteria would have selected these patients for genetic testing. Review of pathology revealed all LS-OCs to be either pure endometrioid carcinoma (14 cases), mixed carcinoma with an endometrioid component (4 cases), or clear cell carcinoma (2 cases). No high-grade or low-grade serous carcinomas or mucinous carcinomas of intestinal type were identified. Tumor-infiltrating lymphocytes were prominent (?40 per 10 high-powered fields) in 2 cases only. With the exception of 1 case, all tumors tested for MMR-IHC or MSI had an MMR-deficient phenotype. Within this cohort, 50%, 55%, 65%, and 85% of patients would have been selected for genetic workup by Amsterdam II, revised Bethesda Guidelines, SGO 10% to 25%, and SGO 5% to 10% criteria, respectively, with <60% of index or sentinel cases detected by any of these schemas. To further support a subtype-driven screening strategy, MMR-IHC reflex testing was performed on all consecutive non-serous OCs diagnosed at 1 academic hospital over a 2-year period; MMR deficiency was identified in 10/48 (21%) cases, all with endometrioid or clear cell histology. We conclude that there is a strong association between endometrioid and clear cell ovarian carcinomas and hereditary predisposition due to MMR gene mutation. These findings have implications for the role of tumor subtype in screening patients with OC for further genetic testing and support reflex MMR-IHC and/or MSI testing for newly diagnosed cases of endometrioid or clear cell ovarian carcinoma.
Related JoVE Video
Expanding the Morphologic Spectrum of Differentiated VIN (dVIN) Through Detailed Mapping of Cases With p53 Loss.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 07-16-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The pathogenesis of vulvar squamous cell carcinoma follows 1 of 2 distinct pathways. A precursor lesion in the human papilloma virus-independent pathway, differentiated vulvar intraepithelial neoplasia (dVIN), was only recently characterized in detail and is infrequently diagnosed without an associated component of invasive carcinoma. Aberrant p53 immunostaining is frequently seen in dVIN, and in approximately 25% to 30% of cases it manifests as a complete loss or a p53-null pattern. The abrupt transition between p53 loss and basal p53 expression in lesional versus nonlesional epithelium allows clear demarcation between neoplastic and non-neoplastic epithelium. For this study, 14 specimens from 10 patients were identified from the pathology archives of 2 teaching hospitals on the basis of: (1) a diagnosis of dVIN, with or without invasive carcinoma; and (2) p53-null immunostaining pattern in lesional cells. Ten specimens had associated invasive carcinoma. All sections from each specimen that showed the specimen resection margin were stained for p53 and reviewed together with all hematoxylin and eosin sections. Detailed morphologic assessment of the p53-null epithelium was made and compared with the adjacent benign squamous epithelium. The status of the resection margins based on the original pathologic assessment was compared with that assessed with p53 immunohistochemistry. One specimen showed p53 loss in the invasive carcinoma but patchy basal positivity in the region originally diagnosed as dVIN, supporting interpretation as a benign hyperplastic focus, rather than dVIN. In the remaining 13 specimens the areas originally diagnosed as dVIN, as well as the associated invasive carcinoma (if present), were p53-null. In 8 of these specimens, on the basis of the presence of p53-null immunostaining and subtle morphologic abnormalities, dVIN was more extensive than originally recognized. The spectrum of morphologic changes in p53-null regions that were in continuity with areas originally recognized as dVIN were subtle and typically consisted of an abrupt change in maturation of the squamous epithelium (loss of keratohyaline granules and parakeratosis), tinctorial alterations in the keratinocytes, with cells containing more abundant eosinophilic cytoplasm, and minimal basal nuclear atypia. Margin status changed from negative to positive in 4 of 13 specimens and from focally to more extensively positive in an additional 3 specimens. In summary, the clonal in situ component of non-human papilloma virus vulvar squamous cell carcinoma can be characterized by very subtle morphologic abnormalities that may be misinterpreted as benign change. This results in underestimation of the extent of dVIN, and, as a result, resection margin involvement may be significantly underestimated. dVIN can also be overdiagnosed in areas of reactive change. Better tools for diagnosis of dVIN are needed; until such tools are developed the limitations in the current diagnosis of dVIN should be recognized.
Related JoVE Video
Assignment of primary site in high-grade serous tubal, ovarian and peritoneal carcinoma: a proposal.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-20-2014
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The revised FIGO 2013 staging for carcinomas of the ovary, fallopian tube and peritoneum has introduced a single system for tumours originating at these sites. The system requires pathologists to assign a primary site (ovary, tube or peritoneum), but does not provide guidance to aid this assignment. This is particularly problematic in cases of advanced-stage (stage II or greater) high-grade serous carcinoma (HGSC), where there is commonly involvement of two or more sites by tumour, and practice among pathologists in determining where a tumour has arisen varies widely. This has significant implications for recording of tumour incidence and mortality, data collection by cancer registries, and entry into clinical trials. We propose guidelines for assigning the primary site of HGSC based on careful macroscopic and histological assessment. The use of these guidelines, in conjunction with the new FIGO staging system, is intended to act as an impetus to promote debate and provide a uniform and consistent approach in assigning primary tumour site which will facilitate comparison of data between centres.
Related JoVE Video
Adult granulosa cell tumour-like areas occurring in ovarian epithelial neoplasms: report of a case series with investigation of FOXL2 mutation status.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 08-20-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To look for FOXL2 mutation in rare ovarian epithelial lesions showing stromal components with morphological features of adult granulosa cell tumour (AGCT).
Related JoVE Video
Ovarian cellular fibromas lack FOXL2 mutations: a useful diagnostic adjunct in the distinction from diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor.
Am. J. Surg. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 06-19-2013
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ovarian cellular fibromas are uncommon neoplasms, which may result in considerable diagnostic confusion with diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor. This is an important distinction, as the former usually exhibits benign behavior, whereas the latter is a low-grade malignant neoplasm capable of recurrence and metastasis. FOXL2 mutation (402C?G) has been demonstrated in >95% of ovarian adult granulosa cell tumors, only rarely in other ovarian sex cord-stromal neoplasms, and never in ovarian fibromas. In this study, we evaluated a series of ovarian cellular fibromas or mitotically active cellular fibromas (n=22), 3 with minor sex cord elements, for FOXL2 mutation. These were mostly received in consultation, often with a differential diagnosis of diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor. Immunohistochemically, 10 of 10 cases tested exhibited nuclear staining with FOXL2. FOXL2 (402C?G) mutation was not demonstrated in any of the 22 cellular or mitotically active cellular fibromas. Three additional neoplasms composed of cellular nodules of epithelioid cells in a background fibrous stroma, raising the possibility of adult granulosa cell tumor with a prominent fibrothecomatous component, were also tested; 2 of these were mutation negative, and 1 contained a FOXL2 mutation. FOXL2 mutation analysis is a useful adjunct in distinguishing between diffuse adult granulosa cell tumor (mutation present) and cellular fibroma (mutation absent). Mutation testing should be considered in problematic cases, as this will provide prognostic information for the patient.
Related JoVE Video
Pathology of primary and metastatic mucinous ovarian neoplasms.
J. Clin. Pathol.
PUBLISHED: 11-10-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Recent years have seen a dramatic change in the pathological approach to ovarian mucinous neoplasms. A substantial proportion of tumours previously considered to be ovarian primaries actually represent secondary ovarian involvement by tumours elsewhere in the body. Two major categories of tumour have completely disappeared from the diagnostic spectrum: ovarian borderline mucinous tumour associated with pseudomyxoma peritonei, and widely disseminated mucinous carcinomas. The emergent picture of true ovarian primary carcinoma of pure mucinous morphology is that this is a rare malignancy that is low grade and low stage at presentation in the vast majority of cases, with a very low likelihood of aggressive clinical behaviour. A large volume of literature has appeared concerning the pathological distinction of primary from metastatic ovarian mucinous neoplasms in view of the dramatically different prognosis and treacherously similar morphology. Clinicopathological parameters useful in the distinction of primary from metastatic mucinous ovarian carcinomas are reviewed. Major features favouring metastases are bilaterality, size <10 cm, surface involvement, extensive intra-abdominal spread and an extensive infiltrative pattern with desmoplasia. Two morphological patterns essentially exclude ovarian origin: colloid and signet ring carcinomas. Features favouring primary ovarian origin are unilaterality, large size >12 cm, smooth external surface and association with other ovarian pathology. An admixture of benign, borderline and malignant patterns in the same tumour favour primary origin, but can be misleading as a maturation pattern in metastases can result in the same appearance.
Related JoVE Video
Is differentiated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia the precursor lesion of human papillomavirus-negative vulval squamous cell carcinoma?
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 09-28-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Vulval squamous cell carcinoma appears to arise via 2 distinct pathways. A significant minority are associated with oncogenic human papillomavirus (HPV) infection and undifferentiated vulval intraepithelial neoplasia (VIN). However, the majority arises in the absence of HPV, on a background of chronic inflammation. Until recently, it was assumed that lichen sclerosus was the underlying inflammatory condition in the majority of HPV-negative cancers. This pathway of carcinogenesis has been less well studied than the HPV pathway. Emerging evidence implicates differentiated VIN (DVIN), rather than lichen sclerosus, as the most likely precursor lesion in HPV-negative vulval squamous cell carcinoma. Here we discuss the clinical and molecular evidence that implicates DVIN as a lesion with a high malignant potential. This lesion is probably underdiagnosed and may be undertreated. Better recognition of DVIN by gynecologists and pathologists may therefore offer an opportunity to prevent some vulval cancers.
Related JoVE Video
Interleukin-6 as a therapeutic target in human ovarian cancer.
Clin. Cancer Res.
PUBLISHED: 07-27-2011
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
We investigated whether inhibition of interleukin 6 (IL-6) has therapeutic activity in ovarian cancer via abrogation of a tumor-promoting cytokine network.
Related JoVE Video
Sensitivity of transvaginal ultrasound screening for endometrial cancer in postmenopausal women: a case-control study within the UKCTOCS cohort.
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 12-10-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The increase in the worldwide incidence of endometrial cancer relates to rising obesity, falling fertility, and the ageing of the population. Transvaginal ultrasound (TVS) is a possible screening test, but there have been no large-scale studies. We report the performance of TVS screening in a large cohort.
Related JoVE Video
Perforation of a malignant ovarian tumor into the recto-sigmoid colon.
Acta Obstet Gynecol Scand
PUBLISHED: 08-24-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ovarian cancer often presents at an advanced stage, but tends to be an intra-peritoneal disease that respects peritoneal planes. Thus, colo-rectal perforation of the tumor is an extremely rare presentation. The surgical treatment of malignant colo-ovarian fistula should include complete cyto-reduction at the same time as the treatment of the fistula. However, prognosis remains poor, because of the advanced stage of neoplasia. We report the case of a patient with an ovarian malignant tumor perforating into the recto-sigmoid colon. CT scan was the cornerstone of the radiological diagnosis. We managed to perform a complete cyto-reduction, including an en-bloc resection of the uterus, the mass, adnexa and recto-sigmoid with removal of the associated pelvic abscess.
Related JoVE Video
Synchronous tumours of the female genital tract.
Histopathology
PUBLISHED: 05-13-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
About 1-2% of women with gynaecological cancers are found to have two or more simultaneous independent primary malignancies. Low stage multiple primaries must be distinguished from metastasis from one to other site for correct management. Synchronous tumours in the ovary and endometrium are the commonest combination. Most of these can be accurately categorised by standard histological criteria. Molecular testing has been advocated for valuable adjunctive information in ambiguous cases but must be interpreted with clinicopathological correlation: loss of heterozygosity, pTEN or beta-catenin gene mutational analysis, microsatellite instability and most recently gene expression profiling have all been used. The pattern of beta-catenin immunohistochemical expression has been reported to be of value. A very low percentage of women with synchronous primaries in the uterus and ovary are HNPCC patients and testing for mismatch repair gene mutations is unnecessary in all cases, even if young; the diagnosis of HNPCC should be based on standard criteria. Women with endometrial cancer under 50 are more likely than older patients to have a synchronous ovarian cancer. Rarer combinations of synchronous tumours are less well studied but may also represent a mixture of unusual patterns of metastasis and multifocal origin; these are discussed briefly.
Related JoVE Video
Performance of anal cytology in a clinical setting when measured against histology and high-resolution anoscopy findings.
AIDS
PUBLISHED: 01-09-2010
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
The success of cervical cytology in screening for cervical neoplasia has led to the concept of anal cytology screening for anal neoplasia. Our objective is to study the performance of anal cytology as a screening tool.
Related JoVE Video
Clinical value of immunohistochemically detected lymphatic and vascular invasions in clinically staged endometrioid endometrial cancer.
Int. J. Gynecol. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 10-13-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
A novel technique to differentiate lymphatic from vascular invasion and to assess the clinicopathological significance in patients with early endometrial cancer.
Related JoVE Video
Sensitivity and specificity of multimodal and ultrasound screening for ovarian cancer, and stage distribution of detected cancers: results of the prevalence screen of the UK Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS).
Lancet Oncol.
PUBLISHED: 03-11-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Ovarian cancer has a high case-fatality ratio, with most women not diagnosed until the disease is in its advanced stages. The United Kingdom Collaborative Trial of Ovarian Cancer Screening (UKCTOCS) is a randomised controlled trial designed to assess the effect of screening on mortality. This report summarises the outcome of the prevalence (initial) screen in UKCTOCS.
Related JoVE Video
The clonal evolution of metastases from primary serous epithelial ovarian cancers.
Int. J. Cancer
PUBLISHED: 01-07-2009
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
Several models of evolution from primary cancers to metastases have been proposed; but the most widely accepted is the clonal evolution model proposed for colorectal cancer in which tumors develop by a process of linear clonal evolution driven by the accumulation of somatic genetic alterations. Various other models of cancer progression and metastasis have been proposed, including parallel evolution and the same gene model. The aim of this study was to investigate the evolution of metastases from primary cancer in 22 patients diagnosed with high-grade serous epithelial ovarian cancer. We established somatic genetic profiles based on the pattern of loss of heterozygosity, in several different regions of tumor tissue within the primary tumor and metastatic deposits from each case. Maximum parsimony tree analysis was used to examine the evolutionary relationship between the primary and metastatic samples for each patient. In addition, we investigated the extent of genetic heterogeneity within and between metastatic tumors compared with primary ovarian tumors. Our data suggest that most, if not all, metastases are clonally related to the primary tumors. However, the data oppose a single model of linear-clonal evolution whereby a late stage clone within the primary tumor acquires additional genetic changes that enable metastatic progression. Instead, the data support a model in which primary ovarian cancers have a common clonal origin, but become polyclonal, with different clones at both early and late stages of genetic divergence acquiring the ability to progress to metastasis.
Related JoVE Video
Results of annual screening in phase I of the United Kingdom familial ovarian cancer screening study highlight the need for strict adherence to screening schedule.
J. Clin. Oncol.
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To establish the performance characteristics of annual transvaginal ultrasound and serum CA125 screening for women at high risk of ovarian/fallopian tube cancer (OC/FTC) and to investigate the impact of delayed screening interval and surgical intervention.
Related JoVE Video
The MRI features of histologically proven ovarian cystadenofibromas-an assessment of the morphological and enhancement patterns.
Eur Radiol
Show Abstract
Hide Abstract
To assess the morphological and enhancement features of histologically proven cystadenofibromas (CAFs) on magnetic resonance imaging (MRI).
Related JoVE Video

What is Visualize?

JoVE Visualize is a tool created to match the last 5 years of PubMed publications to methods in JoVE's video library.

How does it work?

We use abstracts found on PubMed and match them to JoVE videos to create a list of 10 to 30 related methods videos.

Video X seems to be unrelated to Abstract Y...

In developing our video relationships, we compare around 5 million PubMed articles to our library of over 4,500 methods videos. In some cases the language used in the PubMed abstracts makes matching that content to a JoVE video difficult. In other cases, there happens not to be any content in our video library that is relevant to the topic of a given abstract. In these cases, our algorithms are trying their best to display videos with relevant content, which can sometimes result in matched videos with only a slight relation.